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Disinfection

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Disinfection
Disinfection
The purpose of disinfection is to prevent the mechanical spread of disease agents from one
location to another by people, equipment or supplies. Before leaving a site, adequately dispose of
non-reusable materials, and disinfect clothes and boots and all equipment to the extent possible.
Care should be taken to decontaminate all objects that have come in contact with potentially
infectious materials, e.g., necropsy instruments, clothing, cages, egg crates, restraint or capture
equipment, vehicles, boots, etc.
The avian influenza virus is easier to destroy than many viruses since it is very sensitive to
detergents which destroy the fat-containing outer layer of the virus. This layer is needed to enter
cells of animals and therefore destroys the infectivity. However, since the virus survives well in
water and simple washing may help the virus enter areas where it can be picked up by other birds,
any washing to remove contamination should always be with detergents (soapy water) or specific
disinfectants.
The biggest danger is the transport of sick birds although bird droppings from diseased birds is also
a source of virus since it virus thrives in moist, dirty conditions. It is essential to thoroughly
disinfect items (such as cages, shoes and clothes) that have been in contact with droppings before
working with poultry or entering a place where poultry are kept.
The table below provides guidance for veterinary officers and others coming into direct with poultry
on the selection and application of decontamination procedures – remember that adaptation to
specific country circumstances will always be necessary.
Disposal and disinfection of contaminated material
Item
Disposal / disinfectant material
Procedures*
*Note: Gloves and eye protection should be worn at all times when disposing or disinfecting, irrespective of the type of procedure being used.
Always wash hands thoroughly afterwards
Dead bird
Carcass
Physical disposal
Burn or bury deep enough to avoid being dug up by dogs, cats or
Animal housing
Equipment
Cages
Soaps and detergents
Leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Sodium hypochlorite (liquid)
Dilute to final 2-3% available chlorine, and leave in contact for 10-30
minutes
Calcium hypochlorite (solid or powder)
Dilute to 2-3% available chlorine (30 g/litre solid or 20 g/litre
powder) and leave in contact for 10-30 minutes
Virkon® (excellent disinfectant)
Dilute to 2% (20 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Follow manufacturer’s instructions
Virocid® (good for non-porous surfaces)
Dilute 1:400 and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Follow manufacturer’s instructions
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) (recommended for use in presence of
organic material – do not use with aluminium or similar alloys)
Dilute to 2% (20 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Sodium carbonate (anhydrous)
Dilute to 4% (40 g/litre) from powder and leave in contact for at
least 10 minutes
Sodium carbonate (washing soda) (recommended for use in presence of
organic materials)
Dilute (100 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 30 minutes
scavenging animals
Feed
Physical disposal
Droppings
Manure
Effluent
Physical disposal
Burn or bury deep enough to avoid being dug up by dogs, cats or
scavenging animals
Burn or bury deep enough to avoid being dug up by dogs, cats or
scavenging animals
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) (recommended for use in presence of
organic material – do not use with aluminium or similar alloys)
Dilute to 2% (20 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Sodium carbonate (anhydrous)
Dilute to 4% (40 g/litre) from powder and leave in contact for at
least 10 minutes
Sodium carbonate (washing soda) (recommended for use in presence of
organic materials)
Dilute (100 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 30 minutes
Hydrochloric acid
Dilute to 2% (20 ml/litre)
Corrosive – use only when alternatives are not available
Citric acid (safe for clothes and body decontamination)
Dilute to 0.2% (2 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 30 minutes
Water tanks
Physical disposal
Drain to pasture if possible, avoiding run-off or spill-over into oth
Ponds
Physical disposal
Drain to pasture if possible, avoiding run-off or spill-over into oth
Electrical equipment
Formaldehyde gas (special generation required)
Toxic, use only if other disinfectant procedures cannot be used
Best used by trained personnel only
farms or land
farms or land
Leave in contact for 15-24 hours
Machinery
Vehicles
Aircraft
Houses
Furniture
Soaps and detergents
Leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) (recommended for use in presence of
organic material – do not use with aluminium or similar alloys)
Dilute to 2% (20 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Sodium carbonate (anhydrous)
Dilute to 4% (40 g/litre) from powder and leave in contact for at
least 10 minutes
Sodium carbonate (washing soda) (recommended for use in presence of
organic materials)
Dilute (100 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 30 minutes
Soaps and detergents
Leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Virkon® (excellent disinfectant)
Dilute to 2% (20 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Follow manufacturer’s instructions
Virocid® (good for non-porous surfaces)
Dilute 1:400 and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Follow manufacturer’s instructions
Soaps and detergents
Leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Sodium hypochlorite (liquid)
Dilute to final 2-3% available chlorine, and leave in contact for 10-30
minutes – USE GLOVES
Calcium hypochlorite (solid or powder)
Dilute to 2-3% available chlorine (30 g/litre solid or 20 g/litre
powder) and leave in contact for 10-30 minutes
Virkon® (excellent disinfectant)
Dilute to 2% (20 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Follow manufacturer’s instructions
Virocid® (good for non-porous surfaces)
Dilute 1:400 and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Follow manufacturer’s instructions
Clothing
Humans
(hands, face and
other exposed skin)
Soaps and detergents
Leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Sodium hypochlorite (liquid)
Dilute to final 2-3% available chlorine, and leave in contact for 10-30
minutes – USE GLOVES
Calcium hypochlorite (solid or powder)
Dilute to 2-3% available chlorine (30 g/litre solid or 20 g/litre
powder) and leave in contact for 10-30 minutes
Virkon® (excellent disinfectant)
Dilute to 2% (20 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Follow manufacturer’s instructions
Virocid® (good for non-porous surfaces)
Dilute 1:400 and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Follow manufacturer’s instructions
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) (recommended for use in presence of
organic material – do not use with aluminium or similar alloys)
Dilute to 2% (20 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
Sodium carbonate (anhydrous)
Dilute to 4% (40 g/litre) from powder and leave in contact for at
least 10 minutes
Sodium carbonate (washing soda) (recommended for use in presence of
organic materials)
Dilute (100 g/litre) and leave in contact for at least 30 minutes
Soaps and detergents
Leave in contact for at least 10 minutes
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