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Rule KRSBI 2014 beta - Simlitabmas
Buku$Panduan$KRSBI$2014$versi$beta$31$Oktober$2013
!
KONTES ROBOT SEPAK BOLA INDONESIA (KRSBI)
2014
RoboSoccer(Humanoid(
League(Kid(Size
(
(
I.((((PENDAHULUAN((
Kontes Robot Sepak Bola Indonesia (KRSBI) 2014 adalah penyelenggaraan
KRSBI tahun kedua setelah KRSBI lahir di tahun 2013 menggantikan nama Kontes
Robot Cerdas Indonesia (KRCI) Robo$Soccer$Humanoid$League$(RSHL) tahun 2012
yang diselenggarakan sejak tahun 2009 dengan nama awal KRCI Expert Battle.
KRSBI merupakan kontes robot sepak bola nasional yang sekaligus menjadi ajang
kualifikasi nasional untuk mewakili Indonesia dalam RoboCup yang merupakan
kompetisi robot sepakbola resmi tingkat dunia di bawah organisasi RoboCup
(http://www.robocup.org), seperti organisasi FIFA dalam kejuaraan dunia sepakbola
manusia.
Kontes robot nasional divisi sepak bola ini adalah salah satu program kreatifitas
mahasiswa yang sangat strategis yang ke depannya didesain untuk dapat menjadi
unggulan obyek penelitian dan edukasi rekayasa robotika tingkat dunia dengan kiblat
langsung kepada komunitas yang sama di seluruh dunia. Divisi ini lahir di tahun 2009
dengan tema awal mirip robot pemadam api namun berhadap-hadapan untuk berebut
memadamkan api.
Pada tahun 2010, yaitu tahun ke-2 nama divisinya disederhanakan menjadi
KRCI Divisi Battle$ dengan tingkat kesulitan yang lebih tinggi, yaitu pengenalan
obyek. Temanya menghendaki robot memiliki kemampuan pengenalan citra (image)
melalui kamera karena obyek yang diperebutkan adalah bola-bola berwarna tertentu
yang diletakkan di tempat-tempat tertentu. Hal ini sebagai persiapan untuk secara
total divisi ini berafiliasi ke RoboCup divisi Kid Size Humanoid League Robo Soccer.
Melihat kemajuan teknik seluruh tim peserta nasional di tahun 2010 yang
meningkat pesat maka tahun 2011 dianggap sebagai saat yang tepat untuk mengusung
tema kontes robot sepakbola seperti di RoboCup meskipun topik yang diambil pada
tahun itu adalah kelas challenge$dengan obyek bola lebih dari satu. Dengan tema ini
robot harus dapat mengenali bola menggunakan kamera dan goal$ atau gawangnya
sendiri agar tidak salah memasukkan bola. Baru pada tahun 2012 tema utama seperti
yang digelar di RoboCup diterapkan penuh, yaitu dua tim dengan maksimal masingmasing 3 robot saling berhadapan seperti pada permainan sepakbola yang
sesungguhnya.
Dari hasil evaluasi penyelenggaraan kontes selama empat tahun pada divisi ini
dan diselaraskan dengan arahan Kemendikbud agar kualitasnya dapat makin
mendunia maka sejak tahun 2012 divisi ini disepakati oleh Dewan Juri Nasional
Buku$Panduan$KRSBI$2014$versi$beta$31$Oktober$2013
!
kontes robot di Indonesia untuk dikembangkan tingkat kesulitannya dengan
mengadopsi tema utama dalam divisi Humanoid$ league Robo Soccer di kontes
internasional RoboCup yang diselenggarakan berturut-turut pada tahun 2011 di Turki,
2012 di Mexico dan 2013 digelar di Eindhoven Belanda.
Pada tahun 2012 Indonesia mengirim wakilnya ke RoboCup 2012 di Mexico
dan berhasil menempatkan timnya - EROS dari PENS yang menjadi juara nasional
tahun 2011 - hingga babak 16 besar dan berada di urutan ke-12. Tahun 2013 dengan
tim yg sama- EROS, setelah menjuarai tingkat nasional tahun 2012, berhasil
meningkatkan prestasinya ke 8-besar dan menduduki peringkat ke-5 dunia. Di tahun
2014 RoboCup akan digelar di Brazil persis setelah final Piala Dunia 2014 sepak bola
selesai. RoboCup 2014 ini akan menjadi momentum yang sangat penting karena
sepak bola manusia dan sepak bola robot yang sama-sama tingkat dunia akan digelar
di negara yang sama, Brazil.
Sesuai dengan namanya: humanoid$ league, maka dalam divisi ini peserta
diharuskan membuat robot humanoid, robot mirip manusia dengan tinggi antara 30
hingga 60 cm yang dapat bermain sepakbola seperti pada pertandingan sepakbola
yang sangat populer di masyarakat. Hal ini sesuai dengan arahan kebijakan
pemerintah melalui Direktorat Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (Dit
Litabmas) Sub Direktorat Kreatifitas dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (KPM) DIKTI KEMDIKBUD - untuk makin banyak mengirim pemenang dan hasil-hasil
kontes robot di tingkat nasional ke tingkat internasional. Tujuannya adalah agar
mahasiswa Indonesia makin terpacu untuk berkarya dan berprestasi di tingkat dunia
melalui ajang kreatifitas kontes robot.
Harapan lebih jauh ke depan, sesuai dengan cita-cita organisasi ROBOCUP
(http://www.robocup2013.org), yaitu bahwa pada tahun 2050 atau 36 tahun lagi
organisasi ini mampu mencetak tim sepakbola robot yang mampu melawan tim juara
dunia sepakbola, maka mahasiswa Indonesia peminat robotika sudah seyogyanya
turut andil aktif sebagai peneliti, bukan hanya menjadi penonton. Dampak positif
secara nasional mahasiswa dapat makin terpacu untuk berkreasi mengikuti
perkembangan dunia robotika yang secara tidak langsung juga akan meningkatkan
pemahaman dan penguasaan iptek dan aplikasi robotika dalam dunia industri masa
depan.
II. TEMA((
Tema KRSBI 2014 adalah:
“LIGA SEPAKBOLA ROBOT HUMANOID”
(
III.((((RULE(OF(THE(GAME((
Aturan main dalam KRSBI tahun 2014 divisi KidSize Humanoid League ini
diadopsi sepenuhnya dari RoboCup$Soccer$Humanoid$League$Rules$and$Setup$yang
digunakan dalam RoboCup 2013 divisi Humanoid League tipe KidSize di Mexico.
Robot dalam divisi KidSize ini berukuran antara 30 hingga 60 cm. Secara umum
setiap pertandingan antara dua tim yang berhadap-hadapan dilaksanakan dalam waktu
(2 x 5) menit atau (2 x 10) menit dengan masa istirahat di paruh pertandingan selama
Buku$Panduan$KRSBI$2014$versi$beta$31$Oktober$2013
!
maksimal 5 menit. Setiap tim terdiri dari maksimal 5 (lima) robot humanoid yang
salah satunya harus diprogram sebagai penjaga gawang dengan satu hingga empat
lainnya sebagai pemain penyerang atau bertahan. Dalam pertandingan minimal 1
(satu) dan maksimal 5 (lima) robot boleh diturunkan untuk bermain. Peraturan
selengkapnya seperti pada RoboCup$Soccer$Humanoid$League$Rules$and$Setup$2013
dapat dilihat di Lampiran.
Perbedaan tingkat kesulitan bila dibanding dengan Rule KRSBI 2013 adalah
bahwa dalam KRSBI 2014 ini warna kedua gawang adalah sama, yaitu KUNING dari
yang sebelumnya kuning dan biru muda. Hal ini mengingat bahwa pada rule
RoboCup HL KidSize tahun 2013 warna gawang kedua gawang adalah kuning.
Dengan demikian orientasi arah hadap suatu tim robot tidak lagi berdasarkan warna
gawang lawan tapi posisi penjaga gawang atau pemain lawan yang menggunakan
warna seragam berbeda. Peningkatan tingkat kesulitan ini diambil oleh organisasi
RoboCup mengingat dalam permainan sepakbola sesungguhnya warna gawang adalah
sama.
Untuk luas dan bentuk lapangannya tidak ada perubahan yaitu seperti pada tahun
2013. (Lihat di lampiran).
!
!
3.1(Tim(Robot((
Tim Robot harus berasal dari Perguruan Tinggi yang terdiri dari 4 (empat)
mahasiswa aktif, termasuk mahasiswa program pascasarjana, dan 1 (satu) dosen
pembimbing.
3.2(Spesifikasi(Robot(
Robot yang dipertandingkan harus memenuhi spesifikasi tipe robot KidSize
seperti yang tercantum dalam RoboCup$ Soccer$ Humanoid$ League$ Rules$ and$ Setup$
2013 (lihat di Lampiran).
3.3(Lapangan(Pertandingan(
Lihat di RoboCup$Soccer$Humanoid$League$Rules$and$Setup$2012 di Lampiran.
3.4(Sistem(Pertandingan(dan(Penilaian((
Pertandingan dan penilaian dilaksanakan sepenuhnya mengacu pada RoboCup$
Soccer$Humanoid$League$Rules$and$Setup$2012 untuk kelas KidSize.
IV.((((INFORMASI(TAMBAHAN(dan(FAQ((FREQUENTLY*ASK*QUESTIONS)((
Informasi Tambahan dan kolom FAQ akan diberikan sesuai dengan kebutuhan
hingga menuju hari pertandingan.
Buku$Panduan$KRSBI$2014$versi$beta$31$Oktober$2013
!
V.(((((PENDAFTARAN(PESERTA(
Tiap Perguruan Tinggi dapat melakukan pendaftaran untuk ikut serta dengan
pertamakali mengirimkan proposal ke alamat:
Panitia(Pusat(KRSBI(2014(
Direktorat(Penelitian(dan(Pengabdian(kepada(Masyarakat((Dit(Litabmas)(
Gedung(Direktorat(Jenderal(Pendidikan(Tinggi((DIKTI)(Lantai(4.(
Kementerian(Pendidikan(dan(Kebudayaan(Nasional((KEMDIKBUDNAS)(Jl.(
Jend.(Sudirman(Pintu(I,(SenayanTJakarta,(10002.(
Proposal berisi setidak-tidaknya:
5.1.
Identitas!tim!yang!terdiri!dari!satu!pembimbing!(dosen)!dan!tiga!anggota!
tim!(mahasiswa!aktif)!disertai!dengan!lembar!pengesahan!dari!pejabat!di!
perguruan!tinggi.!
5.2.
Bentuk!rekaan!robot!yang!akan!dibuat!disertai!penjelasan!tentang!sistem!
prosesor,!sensor!dan!aktuator!yang!akan!digunakan.
5.3.
Penjelasan!secara!singkat!tentang!strategi!yang!akan!digunakan!dalam!
pertandingan.
(
VI.(((((BIAYA(PEMBUATAN(ROBOT,(TRANSPORTASI(DAN(AKOMODASI(
PESERTA((
6.1. Untuk pertandingan tingkat regional panitia hanya akan menanggung biaya
akomodasi selama berada di lokasi pertandingan. Biaya pembuatan robot dan
transportasi adalah tanggungjawab masing-masing tim.
6.2. Untuk pertandingan tingkat nasional, peserta akan mendapat bantuan biaya untuk
pembuatan robot sebesar Rp.6.000.000,00 per tim, akomodasi dan transportasi
dari/ke daerah asal ke/dari tempat pertandingan.
VII.(((SIMPOSIUM(KRSBI(2014((ISRSC(2014)(
(
Seperti! pada! KRSBI! 2013,! untuk menjadikan forum yang lebih ilmiah dari
KRSBI 2014 ini, dengan merujuk pada divisi Humanoid League RoboCup, maka pada
tahun 2014 akan diadakan simposium atau seminar yang wajib diikuti oleh para
peserta tingkat nasional KRSBI 2014 dengan nama 2nd ISRSC 2014.
Berikut adalah informasi dan tanggal-tanggal penting Simposium KRSBI 2014:
•
Nama simposium: the 2nd Indonesian$ Symposium$ on$ Robot$ Soccer$
Competition$(2nd ISRSC 2014)
•
Peserta/pemakalah wajib: tim peserta yang lolos ke tingkat nasional (dengan
mengangkat tema robot dari tim yg bersangkutan)
Buku$Panduan$KRSBI$2014$versi$beta$31$Oktober$2013
!
•
Peserta/pemakalah reguler: kelompok peneliti (mahasiswa, dosen, praktisi)
•
Pembicara kunci: (akan ditentukan kemudian)
•
Topik simposium: all$ related$ issues$ on$ robot$ soccer$ competition,$ robotic$
systems$and$technology.
•
Format makalah: double$ columns, Times-New Roman, 10pt, maksimum 5
halaman, ditulis dalam bahasa Indonesia atau Inggris. Penulisan dalam bahasa
Inggris adalah sangat disarankan untuk persiapan jika jadi wakil ke RoboCup
2015.
•
Batas akhir pengiriman full$paper: 15 Mei 2014
•
Pemberitahuan makalah yg lolos cetak ke proceeding: 22 Mei 2014
•
Batas akhir pengiriman camera$ready$full$paper: 29 Mei 2014.
•
Hari simposium: Kamis, 19 Juni 2014.
•
Kontribusi Peserta (Biaya Pendaftaran): akan ditentukan kemudian.
•
Tempat simposium: venue$ kontes robot nasional 2014 (akan diumumkan
kemudian)
•
Program$Chairman: Dr. Endra Pitowarno dan Prof. Dr. Bambang Riyanto.
•
Alamat kontak dan pengiriman makalah: [email protected]
(
(
VIII.((((JADWAL(DAN(TEMPAT(KONTES(
Jadwal Lengkap KRSBI 2014 adalah sebagai berikut:
•
Pengumuman awal Rule$of$Game: 12 Nopember 2013.
•
Pengiriman Proposal: Proposal harus sudah sampai di Gedung DIKTI (lihat V)
paling lambat pada 7 Januari 2014 pk.16:00 WIB.
•
Pengumuman Tahap I (proposal): 20 Januari 2014.
•
Pengiriman Laporan Kemajuan berupa video dan slide$Power$Point$tim robot:
paling lambat 6 Maret 2014 (alamat sama dengan V).
•
Pengumuman Tahap II (peserta tingkat regional): 17 Maret 2014.
•
Jadwal kontes tingkat regional dan nasional: akan diumumkan kemudian.
IX.(((((PENYELENGGARA((
Direktorat Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (Dit Litabmas)
Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan TInggi (DIKTI)
Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Nasional (KEMDIKBUDNAS) Jl.
Jend. Sudirman Pintu I, Senayan-Jakarta, 10002.
TEL. 021-5700049, 5731251, 5731956 (hunting) ext. 1855. FAX. 021-5732468.
Buku$Panduan$KRSBI$2014$versi$beta$31$Oktober$2013
!
X.((((((ALAMAT(KONTAK(
(
Dr.(Ir.(Endra(Pitowarno,(M.Eng, Tel: 031-5947280 ext. 4179, HP:
0812.3030.162, Email: [email protected]
Ertanto(Budi(K,(Dit Litabmas - DIKTI, ETmail: [email protected]
Mailing List: [email protected]
$
(
(
Buku$Panduan$KRSBI$2014$versi$beta$31$Oktober$2013
!
LAMPIRAN(A(
(
(
(
(
(
(
RoboCup!Soccer
Humanoid!League
Rules!and!Setup
For!the!2014!Competition!in!!
!
João Pessoa, Brazil!!
!
Louis!Vuitton!Cup!!
!
RoboCup Soccer
Humanoid League
Rules and Setup
For the 2013 Competition in Eindhoven
Louis Vuitton Cup
Final version of May 28, 2013
Rule changes from 2012 to 2013 are either marked in magenta text color
(for additions) or by crossed out text (for deletions).
RoboCup Humanoid League Mailing List (to be used for rule discussion and questions):
https://lists.cc.gatech.edu/mailman/listinfo/robocup-humanoid
RoboCup Humanoid League Home Page: http://www.tzi.de/humanoid/
RoboCup Humanoid League Wiki: http://wiki.robocup.org/wiki/Humanoid League
CONTENTS
i
Contents
Table of Contents
i
Preamble
ii
1 The
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1
1
2
2
2
2
Field of Play
Playing Surface .
Goals . . . . . .
Landmark Poles
Lighting . . . .
People Area . .
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2 The Ball
5
3 The
3.1
3.2
3.3
Number of Players
Incapable Players . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporal Absence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
5
5
5
4 The
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
Design of the Robots
Robot Height . . . . . . . .
Weight Restrictions . . . .
Size Restrictions . . . . . .
Sensors . . . . . . . . . . .
Communication and Control
Colors and Markers . . . . .
Safety . . . . . . . . . . .
Robustness . . . . . . . . .
Handling . . . . . . . . . .
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6
6
7
7
7
9
9
10
10
10
5 The Referee
11
6 The Assistant Referees
12
7 The Duration of the Match
13
7.1 Periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.2 Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8 The
8.1
8.2
8.3
Start and Restart of
Preliminaries . . . . .
Kick-o↵ . . . . . . . .
Dropped Ball . . . . .
Play
14
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9 The Ball In and Out of Play
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
16
CONTENTS
ii
10 The Method of Scoring
16
11 O↵side
16
12 Fouls and Misconduct
12.1 Ball Manipulation . .
12.2 Physical Contact . . .
12.3 Attack and Defense .
12.4 Indirect Free Kick . .
12.5 Yellow and Red Cards
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17
17
17
18
18
20
13 Free Kicks
21
14 The Penalty Kick
22
15 The Throw-In
24
16 The Goal Kick
24
17 The Corner Kick
24
18 The Dribble and Kick Competition (AdultSize)
25
19 The
19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
Technical Challenge
Part A: Throw-In Challenge . . . . . . . . .
Part B: Obstacle Avoidance and Dribbling .
Part C (KidSize and TeenSize): Double Pass
Part C (AdultSize): The Footrace . . . . . .
Part D: High-Kick Challenge . . . . . . . . .
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26
26
28
29
30
31
20 The
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
Competitions and Trophies
Setup and Inspections . . . .
Referee Duty . . . . . . . . .
Competitions . . . . . . . . .
Best Humanoid . . . . . . . .
Trophies . . . . . . . . . . .
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32
32
32
32
33
34
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A The Trend in Rule Evolution for the Next Years
35
B Human Reference Data
37
Acknowledgements
38
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
CONTENTS
iii
Preamble
These rules are intended to ensure a fair competition in the RoboCup Soccer Humanoid
League. They want to encourage creativity and technical development.
The rules are oriented towards the FIFA Laws of the Game. However, they still deviate
in many points from the FIFA laws, but it is intended to decrease these deviations in
the future, in order to work towards the long-term goal of playing with humanoid robots
against human soccer teams.
Among the research challenges that are specific to the Humanoid League is maintaining
the dynamic stability of the bipedal robots while they are walking, running, kicking, and
performing other tasks. Another example is the coordination of perception (with a
human-like limited field of view) and locomotion. The humanoid soccer robots must also
be robust enough to deal with challenges from other players.
Size Classes
As it is not feasible to have humanoid robots of very di↵erent sizes play against each
other, the competitions are held in three size classes: KidSize, TeenSize and AdultSize.
See Section 4 for the definition of these classes.
Male and Female
References to the male gender in the rule book in respect of referees, assistant referees,
players and officials are for simplification and apply to both males and females.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
1 The Field of Play
1
1 The Field of Play
The competitions take place on a rectangular field, which contains two goals, and field
lines, and two landmark poles , as shown in Fig. 1.
Figure 1: Humanoid robot soccer field (not to scale).
Table 1: Dimensions of the rectangular field of soccer play (in cm).
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
K
Field length
Field width
Goal depth
Goal width
Goal area length
Goal area width
Penalty mark distance
Center circle diameter
Border strip width (min.)
Distance of pole to field
KidSize
600
400
50
150
60
220
180
120
TeenSize & AdultSize
900
600
60
260
100
450
210
150
70
40
1.1 Playing Surface
The field consists of a flat and even ground which is covered with green carpet. The
white lines are 5 cm wide. Line segments of 10 cm length are used to denote penalty mark
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
1 The Field of Play
2
and the kick-o↵ position (center mark). The longer outer field lines are called touch lines,
whereas the shorter outer field lines are called goal lines. The field is surrounded by a
border strip, which is also covered with green carpet. The world outside the border strip
is undefined.
1.2 Goals
A goal is placed in the middle of each goal line. One of the goals has Both of the goals
have a colored yellow frame. The other goal frame is colored blue. Nets in grey or
black color are attached to the goals and the ground behind the goal, provided that they
are properly supported and do not interfere with the goalkeeper. The mesh size for this
net is suggested to be less than 4 cm in order to keep the risk of entanglement low. The
upper side of the goal should not be covered by a net in order to allow for easy access
to the robots from above. The goals for the KidSize field have a crossbar at a height of
80 cm. The height of the net is the same and it is open from the top (see Fig. 2). The
TeenSize and AdultSize goals have a crossbar at height of 180 cm and the height of the
net is 120 cm. The goal posts and crossbars are cylindrical and have a diameter of 10 cm
(see Fig. 2).
1.3 Landmark Poles
The two landmark poles are placed at each of the two intersection points between the
touch line and the center line (see Fig. 1). The landmark poles have a diameter of 10 cm.
They consist of three segments of 15 cm height, placed above each other. The lowest
and the highest segments are colored in the same color as the goal at its left side (see
Fig. 3).
1.4 Lighting
The lighting conditions depend on the actual competition site. Lighting temperature
may di↵er significantly from previous years, as only ceiling lights are used. The field
is illuminated presuming a sufficient bright and constant lighting on the field (i.e. no
daylight).
1.5 People Area
Around the field of play (Figure 1) a field zone is defined on site in which only the
referee (Section 5), the assistant referees (Section 6) and the two robot handlers are
allowed to stay during the game. All persons in the field zone must be clothed in black
or dark-grey below the waist including the feet not show colors below their waist that
are the same as or similar to any of the defined colors on the field. The field zone must
give sufficient space to the referees and robot handlers for passing behind the landmark
poles and the goals. All other people (including other team members, organizational
sta↵, representatives of the press and the media etc.) must stay outside the field zone.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
1 The Field of Play
3
Goalposts and crossbar made from 3
yellow (blue) cylinders with a diameter
of 10cm (approx. 4 inches). The net:
• has a height of 80cm
• is of grey or black color
• is properly supported, in a way
to minimize interference with the
goal keeper
Yellow (blue) goalposts and crossbar
made from cylinders with a diameter of
10cm (approx. 4 inches). The crossbar
is in 180cm height. The net:
• has a height of 120cm
• is of grey or black color
• is properly supported, in a way
to minimize interference with the
goal keeper
Figure 2: KidSize (top) and Teen-/AdultSize (middle) goals; bird’s eye view of goal
layout (bottom).
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
1 The Field of Play
4
Figure 3: Humanoid soccer fields with goals to scale for KidSize (top) and Teen/AdultSize
(bottom).
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
3 The Number of Players
5
2 The Ball
Each size class uses its own ball:
1. KidSize: Standard size orange tennis ball,
2. TeenSize: FIFA size 3 ball, at least 50% orange,
3. AdultSize: FIFA size 5 ball, at least 50% orange.
3 The Number of Players
A match is played by two teams, each consisting of not more than three players in
KidSize and not more than two players in TeenSize, one of whom must be designated as
goalkeeper. A match may not start if either team consists of less than one player.
3.1 Incapable Players
Players not capable of play (e.g. players not able to walk on two legs, players not able
to stand, or players with obvious malfunctions) are not permitted to participate in the
game. They must be removed from the field. It is up to the referee to judge whether a
player is capable of play. The referee may ask the team leader of a player suspected to
be incapable of play to demonstrate playing ability at any time. A field player that is not
able to get back into a stable standing or walking posture from a fall within 20 seconds
will be removed from the field for 30 seconds removal penalty and has to reenter the
field according to 5.9.
3.2 Substitutions
Up to two players per game can be substituted by other players of the same team. The
referee must be informed prior to the substitution. A substitute only enters the field after
the player being replaced left the field and after receiving a signal from the referee. Any
of the other players may change places with the goalkeeper, provided that the referee is
informed before the change is made and that the change is made during a stoppage of
the match. Exchanging a field player with a goalie does not count as substitution.
3.3 Temporal Absence
Servicing robots on the playing field is not permitted. A robot may be taken out of
the field for service, after receiving permission from the referee. Taking out a robot for
service does not count as a substitution. A serviced robot may not come into play again
before 30 s elapsed after it was taken out. It has to enter the field according to 5.9.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
4 The Design of the Robots
6
4 The Design of the Robots
Robots participating in the Humanoid League competitions must have a human-like body
plan, as shown in Fig. 4. They must consist of two legs, two arms, and one head, which
are attached to a trunk. The robots must be able to stand upright on their feet and
to walk on their legs. The only allowed modes of locomotion are bipedal walking and
running.
All actions of the robots must be kinematically equivalent to humanoid motions.
Figure 4: Example of a humanoid robot body plan (left) and standing upright pose
(right).
4.1 Robot Height
4.1.1. The height H of a robot is determined as follows:
H = min {Htop , 2.2 · Hcom } ,
(1)
where Htop denotes the height of the robot when standing upright (with fully extended
knees, cf. Fig. 4 right) and Hcom denotes the height of the robot’s center of mass,
measured in upright posture.
4.1.2. Based on H, the following size restrictions apply:
• 30cm  H  60cm to play in the KidSize class,
• 90cm  H  120cm to play in the TeenSize class.
• 130cm  H  160cm to play in the AdultSize class.
A robot larger than 160cm may be allowed to play in the AdultSize class, provided
that:
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
4 The Design of the Robots
7
– H < 180cm and
– the robot fits at all times into a vertical cylinder of diameter 130cm.
4.2 Weight Restrictions
The maximum weight for robots allowed to play in the TeenSize class is 20 kg.
4.3 Size Restrictions
All robots participating in the Humanoid League must comply with the following restrictions:
1. Each foot must fit into a rectangle of area H 2 /30.
2. Considering the rectangle enclosing the convex hull of the foot, the ratio between
the longest side of the rectangle and the shortest one, shall not exceed 2.5
3. The robot must fit into a cylinder of diameter 0.55 · H.
4. The sum of the lengths of the two arms and the width of the torso at the shoulder
must be less than 1.2 · H. The length of an arm is defined as the sum of the
maximum length of any link that forms part of the arm. Both arms must be the
same length.
5. The robot does not possess a configuration where it is extended longer than 1.5·H.
6. The length of the legs Hleg , including the feet, satisfies 0.35 · H  Hleg  0.7 · H.
7. The height of the head Hhead , including the neck, satisfies 0.05 · H  Hhead 
0.25 · H. Hhead is defined as the vertical distance from the axis of the first arm
joint at the shoulder to the top of the head.
8. The leg length is measured while the robot is standing up straight. The length is
measured from the first rotating joint where its axis lies in the plane parallel to the
standing ground to the tip of the foot.
4.4 Sensors
Teams participating in the Humanoid League competitions are encouraged to equip their
robots with sensors that have an equivalent in human senses. These sensors must be
placed at a position roughly equivalent to the location of the human’s biological sensors.
In particular,
1. The only active external sensor allowed is sound (“human-like” with respect to
volume and frequency) with one loudspeaker on the robot. The loudspeaker may
be placed in the head, neck or trunk of the robot. Any other active sensor (emitting
light, sound, or electromagnetic waves into the environment in order to measure
reflections) is not allowed.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
4 The Design of the Robots
8
2. External1 sensors, such as cameras and up to two microphones, may not be placed
in the legs or arms or the torso of the robots. They must be placed in the robot’s
head and above any neck joint.
3. The field of view of the robots is limited at any time to 180 degrees. This means
that the maximum angle between any two points in the overlap of the field of
view of all cameras mounted on the robot must be less than 180 degrees. Also
the pan-tilt motion of the head and the cameras mounted on the robot’s head is
restricted to be more human like not only with respect to the field of view but
also to the range of motion of the neck joints. Therefore, the mechanism to pan
the camera is limited to 270 degree pan which means ± 135 degrees from the
position looking straight ahead. The mechanism to tilt the camera is limited to ±
90 degrees (measured from the horizontal line). Furthermore, if positioned at the
center mark the robot may not be able to see both goals in any tilt angle and in
any standing or walking posture of the robot.
Figure 5: Illustration of field of view.
“Field of view” refers to the field of view of all cameras together and of how much
of the soccer field all cameras together can view at most at one time. By how
much the soccer field can be viewed by the robot at most one time is defined by
a half sphere with its center axis pointing in the forward direction with respect to
the robot’s frontal plane as shown in Figure 5.
4. The number of cameras is limited to a stereo vision setup (i.e., max. 2 cameras
with a large overlap) only. Monocular vision is also allowed.
5. Touch sensors, force sensors, and temperature sensors may be placed at any position on the robot.
1
External sensors are sensors that measure external state (e.g. sound, light). Correspondingly internal
sensors measure internal states of the robot (e.g. temperature, posture, pitch, etc).
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
4 The Design of the Robots
9
6. Sensors inside the robot may measure all quantities of interest, including (but not
limited to) voltages, currents, forces, movements, accelerations, magnetic field and
rotational speeds. They can be at any position inside the robot.
4.5 Communication and Control
4.5.1. Robots participating in the Humanoid League competitions must act autonomously while a competition is running. No external power supply, teleoperation,
remote control, or remote brain of any kind is allowed.
4.5.2. Robots may communicate only via the wireless network provided by the organizers
which must support the referee box. The total bandwidth of the robots belonging to
one team may not exceed 1 Mbit/s. The robots must not rely on availability or quality
of the wireless network. They must be able to play if the network is not available or of
low quality. Only robots are allowed to communicate by WLAN. Any other computers
of team members are only allowed to communicate by tethered LAN. No other wireless
communication is allowed onsite. All other wireless hardware must be deactivated. A
team may be disqualified if one of the team members violates this rule.
4.5.3. Robots in play of a team may communicate with each other at any time during a
game. Any kind of transmission from an external computer or an out of play robot to the
playing robots is prohibited. This implies that any monitoring is only done by receiving
UDP communication from the robots using an external computer connected by tethered
LAN to the official wireless router. Sending any transmission from an external computer
to the robots has to take place during a timeout or using a direct cable between the
computer and the robot during maintenance of the robot.
During the game an official game controller/referee box will be used. It uses UDP to
broadcast information to the robots like elapsed time, current score, game state (ready,
set, playing, finished) and the robot-specific penalized state. The source code is open.2
To encourage teams to use the referee box, 15 seconds advantage is given to teams using
the referee box in any stoppage of the game (cf. Section 8).
4.5.4. No humans are allowed on the field while the ball is in play. Robot handlers must
receive permission from the referee prior to entering the field. Each team may designate
only one person as robot handler. The robot handler of a team may not touch a robot of
another team in order to avoid any (unintentional or intentional) damage to that robot.
4.6 Colors and Markers
4.6.1. Robots participating in the Humanoid League competitions must be mostly black
or of dark grey color (i.e. RAL 7011 Iron Grey or darker) and non reflective. Robots
may also be colored in aluminimum-like silver, grey or white but then their feet must be
colored black. Any color used for the field (green, yellow, blue ) or the ball (orange) or
2
The
source
code
of
the
game
controller/referee
box
is
available
http://sourceforge.net/projects/robocupgc/, see also http://www.tzi.de/humanoid.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
from
4 The Design of the Robots
10
the opponent team’s team markers must be avoided. Arms, legs and bodies of the robot
must be of solid shape appearance.
4.6.2. The robots must be marked with team markers. These markers are colored
magenta for one team and cyan for the other team. Robot legs and arms must be
covered by team markers. From each side of the robot, at least one team marker must
be visible on both an arm and a leg. The marker must be at least 5cm in height and as
wide as the leg or arm of the robot as seen from that side. If both teams cannot agree,
which team color to use, a coin will be flipped 15 minutes prior to the game to assign
the team colors.
4.6.3. The robots of each team must be uniquely identifiable. They must be marked
with numbers or names. The goal keeper robot must be marked uniquely that it can be
easily distinguished from the other robots of a team by the referees.
4.7 Safety
4.7.1. Robots participating in the Humanoid League competitions must not pose any
danger to humans, other robots, or the field of play. This specificially includes constructions that are objectively able to cause said dangers, for example poles sticking out of
the robot. Anyone is allowed to take every action necessary to prevent urgent harm.
4.7.2. The robots must be constructed in a way that o↵enses described in Section 12 are
avoided. Robots violating the safety requirements of 4.7.1 will be excluded by the referee
from the ongoing game. They may be excluded by the league organization committee
from the remainder of the tournament.
4.8 Robustness
Robots participating in the Humanoid League competitions must be constructed in a
robust way. They must maintain structural integrity during contact with the field, the
ball, or other players. Their sensing systems must be able to tolerate significant levels
of noise and disturbance caused by other players, the referees, robot handlers, and the
audience.
4.9 Handling
Robots are encouraged to feature a handle attached in the neck area for vertical lifting.
They should tolerate this without causing harm to themselves or the person holding the
handle.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
5 The Referee
11
5 The Referee
5.1. Each match is controlled by a referee who has full authority to enforce these rules
in connection with the match to which he has been appointed.
5.2. The referee ensures that the field and the ball are in proper condition. He ensures
that the robot players meet the requirements of Section 4.
5.3. The referee acts as timekeeper and keeps a record of the match. He stops, suspends
or terminates the match, at his discretion, for any infringements of the rules or
because of outside interference of any kind.
5.4. The referee allows play to continue when the team against which an o↵ense has
been committed will benefit from such an advantage and penalizes the original
o↵ense if the anticipated advantage does not ensue at that time.
5.5. He punishes the more serious o↵ense when a player commits more than one o↵ense
at the same time and takes disciplinary action against players guilty of cautionable
and sending-o↵ o↵enses. He is not obliged to take this action immediately but
must do so when the ball next goes out of play.
5.6. The referee takes action against team officials who fail to conduct themselves in
a responsible manner and may, at his discretion, expel them from the field of play
and its immediate surrounds. He ensures that no unauthorized persons enter the
field of play.
5.7. The referee acts on the advice of assistant referees regarding incidents which he
has not seen. Some referee duties, like time keeping and keeping a record of the
match, may be delegated to one of the assistant referees.
5.8. The decisions of the referee regarding facts connected with play are final. The referee may only change a decision on realizing that it is incorrect or, at his discretion,
on the advice of an assistant referee, provided that he has not restarted play.
5.9. The referee decides from which center of the two touch lines a penalized, serviced
or substituted player may re-enter the field. The player has to be positioned 50cm
away from the center of the touch line on its own half and face the center of the
field when entering.
5.10. The referee may decide at any point before or during a game to relocate any
objects around the field, or direct persons to another position around the field.
The application of this rule needs to be well considered and should be reserved
for situations where the placement of objects or persons seems constructed by one
team to create artificial landmarks to help the robots’ localization3 .
3
The intent of using same-colored goals is to remove artificial landmarks. Robots should be able
to localize with the playing field and its normal surroundings. Introducing new team-specific artificial
landmarks is against the spirit and intention of the league’s progress.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
6 The Assistant Referees
12
6 The Assistant Referees
6.1. One or more assistant referees are appointed for a match whose duties, subject to
the decision of the referee, are to indicate when the whole of the ball has passed
out of the field of play, which side is entitled to a corner kick, goal kick or throw-in,
and when misconduct or any other incident has occurred out of the view of the
referee.
6.2. The assistant referees might be assigned additional duties, such as time keeping,
keeping a record of the match and controlling the game controller/referee box.
6.3. The assistant referees also assist the referee to control the match in accordance
with these rules.
6.4. In the event of undue interference or improper conduct, the referee will relieve an
assistant referee of his duties and make a report to the league organizing committee.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
7 The Duration of the Match
13
7 The Duration of the Match
7.1 Periods
7.1.1. The match lasts two equal periods of 10 minutes. Players are entitled to an
interval at half-time. The half-time interval must not exceed 5 minutes.
7.1.2. Allowance is made in either period for all time lost through, e.g. substitution(s),
timeouts, and wasting time. The allowance for time lost is at the discretion of the referee.
If at the end of either period the referee has the impression that a goal is imminent,
allowance is made for up to 30 s at the referee’s discretion to finish the current move.
7.1.3. In the knock-out games of a tournament two further equal periods of 5 minutes
each are played if the game is not decided after the regular playing time. If during
regular playing time none of the two teams in a knock-out match was able to kick the
ball to reach their respective opponent’s goal the extra time is skipped and the game
immediately continues by the five alternating penalty kick trials (cf. Section 14).
7.2 Timeouts
A team may extend a stoppage of the game by taking a timeout. During a timeout
robots may be serviced. Each team may take at most one timeout per period. If a team
is not ready to resume the game when the referee wants to start the game, it has to take
a timeout. If there is no timeout left, the referee will start the game anyway. A timeout
ends automatically after 120 s. A timeout also ends when the team signals its end to the
referee.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
8 The Start and Restart of Play
14
8 The Start and Restart of Play
8.1 Preliminaries
8.1.1. Access to the field is given to both teams at least 15 minutes prior to the scheduled
kick-o↵ time. A coin is tossed and the team which wins the toss decides which goal it
will attack in the first half of the match. The other team takes the kick-o↵ to start the
match. The team which wins the toss takes the kick-o↵ to start the second half of the
match. In the second half of the match the teams change ends and attack the opposite
goals.
8.1.2. If both teams cannot agree on the color of their team markers, a coin is tossed
and the markers are exchanged at halftime.
8.1.3. A match must start at the scheduled time. In exceptional situations only, the
referee may re-adjust the time for starting the game in accordance with both team
leaders. All robots of a team are started (and stopped) by receiving a signal through
wireless communication from outside the field. In exceptional cases, starting and stopping
robots manually may be allowed by the referee.
8.2 Kick-o↵
8.2.1. A kick-o↵ is a way of starting or restarting play at the start of the match, after a
goal has been scored, at the start of the second half of the match, at the start of each
period of extra time, where applicable. After a team scores a goal, the kick-o↵ is taken
by the other team.
8.2.2. A goal may not be scored directly from the kick-o↵. Either the ball must move
20 cm from the kick-o↵ point or must be touched by another player before being kicked
towards into the goal.
If the ball is kicked directly towards into the goal the kick-o↵ is awarded to the opposing
team.
8.2.3. The procedure for kick-o↵ is as follows:
• The referee gives the signal “READY” that all robots have to reach their own half
of the field. Robots not being able to position autonomously in their own half may
be placed by their respective robot handler.
• The opponents of the team taking the kick-o↵ are outside the center circle until
the ball is in play.
• The referee gives the signal “SET”. The referee calls robots illegally positioned to
be set back manually by the respective robot handler to the outer line of their goal
area. One field player of a manually or illegally positioned team su↵ers a removal
penalty (cf. Section 12).
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
8 The Start and Restart of Play
15
• The ball is stationary on the center mark.
• The referee gives the signal “PLAY” or whistles.
• The ball is in play when it is touched or 10 seconds elapsed after the signal.
8.2.4. Robots being able to autonomously reposition themselves can take any position on
the field that is consistent with above requirements. Robots not able to autonomously
reposition themselves, e.g. robots being carried or joysticked around by human team
members, have to start from a position not closer to the field halfway line than the outer
line of the goal area. If all robots of the team executing the kick-o↵ cannot autonomously
reposition themselves, then one robot may be placed into the center circle.
8.2.5. If one or both of the teams in a match have permission to use a manual startup
procedure, the referee gives the two signals “SET” and “PLAY” with an interval of
exactly 10 seconds. Robot players without remote start capability may be started on the
field after the “SET” signal. They may not move before the “PLAY” signal was given
by the referee. Robots with autonomous positioning ability are given between 15 and 30
seconds for re-positioning after a goal has been scored by one of the teams before the
“SET” signal for kick-o↵ is given by the referee. All human team members must leave
the field of play immediately after the “SET” signal and before the “PLAY” signal.
8.2.6. A team which uses manual kick-o↵ and not kick-o↵ with the referee box is
punished by a penalty of having to wait for 15 seconds after the signal “PLAY” before
they are allowed to locomote. If such a team has kick-o↵ then at the signal “PLAY” the
referee immediately moves the ball from the kick-o↵ position to a position somewhere
on the center line and outside of the center circle and the ball is in play. This rule does
not apply if the referee box is out of commission.
8.2.7. If a robot is moving for a significant time between “SET” and “PLAY” signals
or repeatedly violates Rules 8.2.3 or 8.2.6, it will be punished by a removal penalty (cf.
Section 12).
8.2.8. If a robot handler has not left the field by the “PLAY” signal, a yellow card is
shown to the robot closest to the incident. If the game has been influenced, the kick-o↵
will be repeated and the team that committed the o↵ence has to start from a position
not closer to the field halfway line than the outer line of the own goal area.
8.3 Dropped Ball
8.3.1. A dropped ball is a way of restarting the match after a temporary stoppage which
becomes necessary, while the ball is in play, for any reason not mentioned elsewhere in
the rules. In particular, the referee may call a game-stuck situation if there is no progress
of the game for 30 s.
8.3.2. The game is continued at the center mark. A goal can be scored directly from a
dropped ball. The procedure for dropped ball is the same as for kick-o↵, except that the
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
11 O↵side
16
robots of both teams must be outside the center circle. The ball is in play immediately
after the referee gives the signal.
8.3.3. If a player moves too close to the ball before the referee gives the signal, a kick-o↵
is awarded to the opponent team.
9 The Ball In and Out of Play
9.1. The ball is out of play when it has wholly crossed the goal line or touch line whether
on the ground or in the air or when play has been stopped by the referee.
9.2. The ball is in play at all other times, including when it rebounds from a goalpost,
crossbar, human, or robot and remains in the field of play.
10 The Method of Scoring
10.1. A goal is scored when the whole of the ball passes over the goal line, between the
goalposts and under the crossbar, provided that no infringement of the rules has
been committed previously by the team scoring the goal. A goal can not be scored
by the opponent’s goal keeper throwing the ball without it first touching another
player.
10.2. The team scoring the greater number of goals during a match is the winner. If
both teams score an equal number of goals, or if no goals are scored, the match is
drawn.
10.3. For knock-out matches ending in a draw after regular time, extra time, penalty
kicks, and scoring times will be used to determine the winner of a match.
10.4. An abandoned match is replayed unless the league organization committee decides
otherwise. If a team chooses to forfeit a match in the round robin games the other
team plays on an empty goal. If a team chooses to forfeit in a knock-out game
the other team continues in the competition. Teams may choose to forfeit games
at any stage prior to the end of the game.
10.5. If the current score in a match has a goal di↵erence of 10 goals (e.g., 10:0, 11:1,
12:2 etc.), then the referee will terminate the match and the score will be recorded
as the current score.
11 O↵side
The o↵side rule is not applied.
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12 Fouls and Misconduct
17
12 Fouls and Misconduct
12.1 Ball Manipulation
Manipulation of the ball by robot players is guided by the following principles:
1. Players may exert force onto the ball only by direct physical contact with one of
their body parts, excluding their hands, arms, and shoulders (with the exception
of the goal keeper within his own goal area).
2. The ball may be kicked with the whole foot. Kicking devices which di↵er from the
human body are not allowed.
3. Contact with the ball must be instantaneous. Actively touching the ball for more
than 1 s is considered ball holding. Inside the goal area, the goal keeper may hold
the ball for not more than 6 s. Physical contact may be exerted repeatedly by the
same player, if the ball is free to move between contacts for the majority of the
time.
4. It will also be considered ball holding, if the ball cannot be removed from a robot
by other players for more than 1 s. More than half of the ball’s volume must be
outside the convex hull of the robot, projected to the ground, for the ball to be
considered removable. If the ball enters the convex hull repeatedly, it must be
removable in between for the majority of the time. If more than one robot of a
team is in the vicinity of the ball, the convex hull is taken around all the robots of
a team, which prevent removal of the ball.
12.2 Physical Contact
Contact between robot players is guided by the following principles:
1. Physical contact between players of di↵erent teams must be minimized.
2. If physical contact is unavoidable, the faster moving robot must make e↵orts to
minimize the impact.
3. The goal keeper enjoys special protection inside its goal area. The attacking player
always has to avoid to obstruct the goalie in any way. Any contact between the
goalie and an attacking player inside the goal area is considered an obstruction.
During walking or standing the goal keeper is not allowed to stretch out its arms
to the side, front or back to maximize the area around it which cannot be entered
by a player by making improper use of this rule.
4. Extended physical contact must be avoided. Both robots must make e↵orts to
terminate contact, if the contact time exceeds 1 s.
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12 Fouls and Misconduct
18
5. If entangled robots fail to untangle themselves, the referee might ask designated
robot handlers of both teams to untangle the robots. Untangling must not make
significant changes to robot positions or heading directions. Untangled robots must
be laid on the ground not closer than 50cm to the ball and in a way not gaining
an advantage.
12.3 Attack and Defense
12.3.1. Not more than one robot of each team is allowed to be inside the goal or the
goal area at any time. If more than one robot of the defending team is inside its goal
or goal area for more than 10 s, this will be considered illegal defense. If more than one
robot of the attacking team is inside the opponent’s goal or goal area for more than 10 s,
this will be considered illegal attack.
12.3.2. The referee may delay the call of illegal defense or illegal attack if the robots
make serious attempts to leave the goal area or if they are hindered from leaving the
goal area by robots of the opponent team. The referee allows play to continue when the
team against which an illegal defense or illegal attack has been committed will benefit
from such an advantage and penalizes the original o↵ence if the anticipated advantages
does not ensue at that time.
12.3.3. The player committing an illegal defense or an illegal attack will be removed
from the field for 30 seconds removal penalty. It is allowed to return to the playing field
according to 5.9.
12.4 Indirect Free Kick
12.4.1. An indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team if a player commits any
of the following o↵enses in a manner considered by the referee to be careless, reckless or
using excessive force: kicking, tripping, jumping at, charging, striking, and pushing an
opponent.
12.4.2. An indirect free kick is also awarded to the opposing team if a player commits
any of the following o↵enses:
1. tackles an opponent to gain possession of the ball, making contact with the opponent before touching the ball,
2. holds an opponent,
3. holds the ball,
4. handles the ball deliberately (except for the goalkeeper within his own goal area),
5. makes an opponent fall,
6. charges an opponent, which is in control of the ball, from behind by physical
contact exerting significant forces on this robot.
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12 Fouls and Misconduct
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12.4.3. An indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team if a goalkeeper, inside his
own goal area, commits any of the following o↵enses:
1. takes more than four steps while controlling the ball with his hands, before releasing
it from his possession,
2. touches the ball again with his hands after it has been released from his possession
and has not touched any other player,
3. touches the ball with his hands after it has been deliberately kicked to him by a
team-mate,
4. wastes time,
5. blocks more than half of its goal line for more than 15s or for the majority of the
time.
12.4.4. An indirect free kick is also awarded to the opposing team if a player, in the
opinion of the referee:
1. plays in a dangerous manner,
2. impedes the progress of an opponent,
3. prevents the goalkeeper from releasing the ball from his hands,
4. commits any other o↵ense, not previously mentioned in Section 12, for which play
is stopped to caution or dismiss a player.
12.4.5. An indirect free kick is taken from where the o↵ense occurred.
12.4.6. An indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, if a human member of a
team, in the opinion of the referee, commits any of the following o↵enses:
1. interfering with the game on the field, e.g. through touching the ball while removing
a robot,
2. interfering with the game remotely through wireless communication, e.g. by remotely joysticking a robot, or sending commands to robots that convey information
about the position of objects on the field or activate particular patterns of actions
on the robots,
3. behaving otherwise in an unsportsmanlike manner.
In this case, the indirect free kick will be started from the penalty mark position in the
half of the opponent of the awarded team.
12.4.7. All indirect and direct free kicks are replaced by time removal penalties
to the robot committing the foul or misconduct.
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12 Fouls and Misconduct
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1. Time penalties of 30 seconds for field players and 0 seconds for the goalie inside
its goal area are called by the referee. When a penalty is called, the designated
robot handler has to remove the robot as soon as possible and by that interacting
as little as possible with the game.
2. A penalty is not called, if the punished team would take advantage of the removal,
e.g. if a robot blocks a teammate that kicks the ball towards the goal.
3. A robot su↵ering a penalty (except called for inactivity or service) may not be
serviced. A robot su↵ering a penalty due to a foul or misconduct has to stay out
of play for a minimum of 60 seconds if it is serviced during the penalty time.
4. The referee and assistant referees are in charge of timing the penalties and notifying
the teams to put back their robots to play.
5. A field player or goal keeper su↵ering a time penalty will be removed from the field
and is only allowed to re-enter the field according to 5.9 after the penalty time has
elapsed.
12.5 Yellow and Red Cards
12.5.1. A player is cautioned and shown the yellow card if he commits any of the following
o↵enses:
1. is guilty of unsporting behavior,
2. persistently infringes the rules,
3. delays the restart of play,
4. fails to respect the required distance when play is restarted with a free kick.
12.5.2. A player is sent o↵ the field and shown the red card if he commits any of the
following o↵enses:
1. is guilty of serious foul play,
2. is guilty of violent conduct,
3. receives a second caution in the same match.
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13 Free Kicks
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13 Free Kicks
All direct and indirect free kicks are replaced by time removal penalties to the
robot committing the foul or misconduct (cf. 12.4.7).
13.1 All free kicks are indirect. The ball must be stationary when the kick is taken.
The kicker may not score directly from an indirect free kick. The ball must move
at least 20cm from the position where the kick was taken or must be touched
by another player before being kicked towards the goal. If an indirect free kick is
kicked directly into the opponents goal, a goal kick is awarded to the opponent
team.
13.2 All players of the team not taking the free kick must be at a distance greater than
60cm (for KidSize) or 90cm (for TeenSize and AdultSize) from the ball. If, when
a free kick is taken, an opponent is closer to the ball than the required distance,
the kick is retaken.
13.3 The ball is in play when it is touched, or 10 seconds after the referee has given the
signal.
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14 The Penalty Kick
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14 The Penalty Kick
14.1 A goal may be scored directly from a penalty kick.
14.2: The player taking the penalty kick is placed at a distance of at least 1.5 · H from
the penalty mark.
14.3: The defending goalkeeper is placed in upright position on the middle of his goal
line, facing the kicker. It must remain upright between the goalposts until the ball
has been touched by the kicker.
14.4: No other players are allowed on the field.
14.5: When both players are ready, the ball is placed randomly within 20 cm (KidSize)
or 30 cm (TeenSize and Adultsize) of the penalty mark.
14.6: After the referee gives the start signal, the striker has 60 s to kick the ball once or
multiple times. After this time, the trial ends if the movement of the ball obviously
does not result in a goal. Otherwise, the trial is extended until the ball stops.
14.7: The striker is not allowed to touch the ball during this extension. The striker is
also not allowed to touch the ball after the ball has been touched by the goalie.
14.8: The goalie is not allowed to move forward or to fall until the ball is touched by the
striking robot.
14.9: The trial also ends if the ball stops in the marked area around the goal or leaves
the field.
14.10: Both robots are not allowed to touch or cross the line around the goal area.
14.11: If the goalie robot violates the rules in any way, the referee will let the trial continue.
If the striker robot scores a goal, then the goal counts. If the striker does not score
a goal, the trial is retaken. If the goalie violates the rules after causing two restarts,
a technical goal is awarded to the striker.
14.12: If the striker violates the rules in any way, the referee will let the trial continue.
If the striker robot is unable to score a goal, the trial ends. If the striker scored,
the trial is retaken without counting the goal. If the striker violates the rules after
causing two restarts, the trial will end with “no goal”.
14.13: Both teams conduct five alternating trials.
• If after the first five trials none of the teams was able to kick the ball to the
goal line then the winner is determined by flipping a coin.
• If there is still a draw in knock-out games, the alternating trials continue up
to five more times, until one teams leads after an equal number of trials.
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14 The Penalty Kick
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• If there is still a draw in knock-out games, the alternating trials continue up
to five more times without goalies, until either one striker is able to score and
the other striker fails to score or both strikers score. In the latter case, the
goal is awarded to the striker that needed the shortest time for scoring.
• If there is still a draw in knock-out games, the winner is determined by flipping
a coin.
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17 The Corner Kick
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15 The Throw-In
A throw-in is necessary if the ball leaves the field of play, by fully crossing a touch line
or a goal line (unless a goal was scored) either on the ground or in the air.
If the ball leaves the field it will be replaced on the field by the referee or an assistant
referee. There is no stoppage in play.
The positions for replacement of the ball are described in the following with respect
to the touch lines and always meant to be in a distance of about 40 cm orthogonal to
the position on the touch line and inwards to the playing field.
If the whole of the ball passes over a touch line then the assistant referee will replace
the ball back on the field on the same side of the field as the ball went out of play. The
ball will be replaced in one of three positions:
• If the referee cannot determine which robot was the last to touch the ball before it
left the field, then the ball is replaced directly in from the point at which the ball
left the field.
• Otherwise, the ball is placed one meter back from the point it went out, where
“back” is defined as being towards the goal of the team that last touched the ball.
In any case, the ball cannot be placed closer than the length of the goal area to either
end of the field.
If the whole of the ball passes over a goal line then the ball will be replaced back on
the field according to the following rules:
• If the referee cannot determine which robot was the last to touch the ball before
it left the field, then the ball is replaced in about 1 meter distance from the corner
of the field.
• If the ball was last touched by the defensive team then the ball is replaced in a
distance of a about the goal area length from the closest corner of the field.
• If the ball was last touched by the o↵ensive team then the ball is placed on the
halfway line on the side of the field the ball went out.
Balls are deemed to be out based on the team that last touched the ball, irrespective of
who actually kicked the ball.
16 The Goal Kick
The goal kick is performed without stopping play according to the throw-in procedure.
17 The Corner Kick
The corner kick is performed without stopping play according to the throw-in procedure.
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18 The Dribble and Kick Competition (AdultSize)
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18 The Dribble and Kick Competition (AdultSize)
The dribble and kick competition is a 1 versus 1 competition between two teams. It is a
kind of combination of a penalty kick and a soccer game. The striking robot starts in the
middle of the playing field facing the yellow opposing goal. The goal keeper of the other
team is in the yellow this goal. After the robots are placed, the ball is placed randomly
on the imaginary line segment in parallel to the goal lines and through the penalty mark
in the half of the field with the blue goal (that is the half behind the robot) . Before
each trial, the referee also randomly places a black obstacle in the path between the
penalty mark in front of the robot and the goal area.
After the referee blows the whistle, the striker has to acquire the ball and score a goal.
A goal is only valid if the last point of contact between the striker and the ball was within
the half of the field with the yellow goal (that is the attacking robot must move the ball
into the yellow half before kicking it into the goal) opposing goal.
The goalkeeper starts in walking posture in the middle of the goal. It is allowed to
move freely inside of the goal area. The goal keeper must remain in walking posture
until the ball has been kicked at the goal or the ball has crossed the line parallel to the
goal line which goes through the penalty mark. The goalie is then allowed to fall to try
to block the ball. If the attempt still continues after the goal keeper has jumped for the
ball it has to get back into upright standing or walking posture after not later than 15
seconds.
Neither robot is allowed to cross the goal box area, i.e. the defending goal keeper is
not allowed to leave the goal area as well as the attacking striker is not allowed to enter
it. In one run the same robot of one team has to perform both roles of the goal keeper
and the striker of its team.
The maximum time for an attempt is 2 minutes and 30 seconds.
Everything else remains the same as in the penalty kick competition.
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19 The Technical Challenge
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19 The Technical Challenge
It is not allowed to use robots which are specialized for a specific technical challenge.
Only the robots used for the soccer games are allowed to participate in the
technical challenges. No hardware modifications of the robots are allowed for
the Technical Challenges (i.e., a robot cannot be modified from the configuration it
had in the soccer games).
The team scheduled for the technical challenge must have access to the field five
minutes prior to the scheduled starting time. The referee will give the start signal at the
scheduled time.
This year’s challenge consists of four parts A, B, C and D. Each of the parts A, B, C
and D can be attempted multiple times, in any order. The team might terminate a trial at
any time, in order to reattempt the same part or switch to another part of the challenge.
A trial terminates automatically when 25 minutes elapsed after the referee gave the start
signal. This concludes the technical challenge for the team. The time is taken for each
of the trials, if completed successfully. The minimum time is used for scoring each part
of parts A, B, C and D of the challenge. The team with the minimal time receives 10
points. The second fastest team receives 7 points. The third fastest team receives 5
points. All other teams who successfully managed this part of the challenge receive 3
points. Intermediate scoring applies to parts A, B, C and D as detailed in the following
sections. The intermediate scoring rules in the technical challenge do only apply to the
best three teams if there are no three teams which can pass the respective challenge
completely.
The final score of a team’s participation in the technical challenge is the sum of the
three highest scored parts.
Robot Handlers During the Technical Challenge
In KidSize and TeenSize robot handlers are not allowed to enter the field during the
technical challenge, unless the referee asks them to remove a robot.
In AdultSize one robot handler is permitted to stay on the field during the trial subject
to the following restrictions:
• The robot handler is not allowed to touch the robot.
• The robot handler is not allowed to interact with the robot’s sensors in any way
In the moment the handler either touches the robot or interacts with the robot in any
way the trial is finished and counted as unsuccessful.
19.1 Part A: Throw-In Challenge
The robot starts in the center standing on the center point and facing one of the two
goals on a penalty mark facing the opposite goal. A black pole is placed randomly
inside the center circle at the beginning of each trial. A ball is placed 1.5 times the ball
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
19 The Technical Challenge
27
Figure 6: Throw-in challenge with example trajectories of the robot and the ball. The
relevant distance between the black pole and the first impact point of the ball is indicated
by a gray, dashed line.
diameter outside of the field around within 30 cm of one of the end points of the halfway
line. The ball is placed at least 30 cm away from the nearest pole. The robot must go
to the ball and throw it back into the field to the black pole. Before the throw, the ball
may be moved by feet or must be picked up and may be carried towards the touch line.
At the moment of delivering the ball, the thrower:
• faces the field of play,
• has part of each foot either on the touch line or on the ground outside the touch
line,
• uses one or both hands,
• delivers the ball from behind and over its head or, if the robot cannot perform this
type of motion, it must perform the closest possible motion.
The robots are ranked by the distance the ball has been thrown into the field. It is
measured on the line connecting the robot position at throw-in and the final position of
the ball. The distance is taken from the intersection of this line with the center of the
touch line between the black pole and the point where the ball first touched the ground
after the throw.
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19 The Technical Challenge
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Intermediate Scoring for Throw-In
• The robot picks up the ball from the ground and holds it for at least 3 seconds.
— 4 points
• The robot throws the ball. — 8 points
19.2 Part B: Obstacle Avoidance and Dribbling
Six black obstacles (cylinders of diameter 20 cm and height 90 cm) are put in the field, as
defending players. In KidSize the obstacles are placed within the area between the blue
team’s own goal’s penalty mark and the yellow opposing goal. The obstacles are put at
arbitrary positions by the referees, just before the start of each trial, when the robot is
already waiting at the starting position and are rearranged at each trial. The distance
between the obstacles is at least 50 cm for KidSize and at least 100 cm for TeenSize
and AdultSize. No obstacles are placed in the center circle. At least one obstacle is
placed on the direct line between the ball’s starting position and the center of the yellow
opposing goal. The ball is randomly chosen and is placed at the center of the penalty
area line and the robot directly behind it facing the yellow opposing goal. The robot
must reach the yellow opposing goal with the ball by dribbling the ball and enter the goal
with it, by crossing at least once the line between two obstacles and by avoiding touching
all obstacles. This means that it is not allowed to walk either left or right around the
cluster of obstacle poles to reach the goal. The robot must dribble the ball through the
obstacles in the goal. A minimum of 10 touches/kicks with a ball movement of at least
one robot’s foot length is required before the ball is moved over the goal line.
The ball is chosen randomly from a set of balls matching the following criteria:
• same size, mass and similar surface to the official game ball
• the ball may contain writing, pictures and patterns of any color
• the predominant color from any side must not be a green identical to or closely
matching the field color, nor must it be an orange identical to or closely matching
the official game ball
Before the trial starts, the team is allowed to show the ball to the robot for as long as
required. However, during that time the robot must run autonomously and must not be
manually programmed or calibrated.
The trial ends without success, if the robot bumps on any obstacle or if the robot or
the ball leaves the field.
The trial ends with success, if the robot touches the goal line and the ball is inside the
goal. The teams are ranked by the time needed to complete the task.
Poles are only re-arranged and a new ball is only randomly chosen once the robot has
actually made an e↵ort to navigate and to dribble the ball around the poles.
Intermediate Scoring for Obstacle Avoidance and Dribbling
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19 The Technical Challenge
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• Robot and ball reach the middle line by dribbling and a minimum of 5 touches/kicks.
— 5 points
19.3 Part C (KidSize and TeenSize): Double Pass
Both robots A and B start in one goal area of the field. The task is to perform four
specific double passes and to play the ball into the other goal. Two black obstacle poles
simulating other players are placed onto the field. The first obstacle pole is placed within
a circle of 20 cm radius around the center mark and the second obstacle pole within a
circle of 20 cm radius around the penalty mark. At the beginning the ball is placed onto
the penalty mark in front of the start goal area.
• The trial starts when the first robot leaves its goal area.
• The first double pass to perform is from player A to player B inside the own half
of the field.
• The second double pass to perform is from player B to player A between the first
obstacle and the own goal.
• The third double pass to perform must pass in between the two obstacles.
• The fourth double pass to perform must pass in between the second obstacle and
the other goal.
• The trial ends successfully if after the fourth double pass the receiving robot plays
the ball into the other goal.
• The ball can be dribbled in between double passes.
• The trial ends if the ball leaves the field or enters the other goal without having
performed all double passes. The trial also ends without success if one of the
robots leaves the green carpet.
Intermediate Scoring for Double Pass (between robot A and B (A: first kicking))
• 1st double pass from robot A to robot B — 0 points
• 2nd double pass from robot B to robot A — 4 points
• 3rd double pass from robot A to robot B — 6 points
• 4th double pass from robot B to robot A — 8 points
• Robot A plays the ball into the goal — 10 points
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19 The Technical Challenge
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Figure 7: Double pass challenge with example trajectories of the ball and the two robot
players A and B (not to scale). A possible motion of the ball is indicated by gray lines.
The four double passes are indicated by dash-dotted lines.
19.4 Part C (AdultSize): The Footrace
The footrace in the AdultSize consists of several runs depending on the team’s preference
and the available time. A run goes from one touch line to the other touch line and back
to the first touch line. The team places their robot in front on the border strip, outside
the field, in front of the touch line. The robot must be in an upright standing posture.
The team may use either side of the field. Di↵erent robots might be used for multiple
runs.
After the referee gives the start signal, the robot walks as fast as possible across
the half of the field towards the opposite touch line, makes a U-turn there and walks
back. The opposite touch line must be touched or crossed by each of the robot’s feet.
If the robot touches the start line before the referee gave the start signal, the start is
invalid. This robot receives a warning and the start is retaken. The warnings of a team
accumulate within a footrace. Every third warning results in an unsuccessful attempt of
a run.
If the robot crosses the final touch line the time is measured. Both feet must be
outside the field on the border strip again. If a robot falls, it must get up by itself to
continue the run.
If a robot leaves its half of the field, its run terminates at the position where it left
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19 The Technical Challenge
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the field. If 90 s after the start signal the robot does not cross the goal line, the attempt
has failed. The team must place their robot in front of the start line within 60 s after
the end of a run.
The shortest time out of all successful runs counts for the technical challenge.
19.5 Part D: High-Kick Challenge
The goal of the high-kick challenge is to kick the ball in the goal at maximum height. At
each attempt, the team announces the minimum height their robot tries to achieve. The
minimum height must be at least 1/3rd of the ball’s diameter and must be a multiple of
1cm.
The ball is then placed on the penalty mark and the team may position the robot
freely but at least 30cm away from the ball. After the start signal, the robot may move
the ball to any position before attempting a kick from the ground. Only kicks count that
score a goal of at least the minimum height. The trial ends unsuccessfully when the ball
leaves the field, or when the robot touches the goal obstacle.
The robots are ranked by the maximum height they successfully managed to kick the
ball into the goal.
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20 The Competitions and Trophies
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20 The Competitions and Trophies
20.1 Setup and Inspections
The competitions in the Humanoid League are preceded by a setup and inspection period
of at least 24 h. During this time, every robot will be inspected by the league organizing
committee for compliance with the design rules detailed in Section 4. All robots will be
photographed during the inspection. A reinspection becomes necessary after any change
that could a↵ect the compliance to the design rules. A reinspection might be requested
by any team leader up to 10 minutes prior to a game.
20.2 Referee Duty
Each team must name at least one person who is familiar with the rules and who might
be assigned for referee duties by the league organizing committee.
20.3 Competitions
20.3.1. The competitions consist of:
1. Soccer Games for KidSize (3 vs. 3) and TeenSize (2 vs. 2)
2. Dribble and Kick for AdultSize.
In the event of less than 3 teams participating in TeenSize the TeenSize teams will join
the AdultSize for a joint Dribble and Kick competition.
The technical challenges consist of:
1. Throw-In Challenge (KidSize, TeenSize and AdultSize)
2. Obstacle Avoidance and Dribbling (KidSize, TeenSize and AdultSize)
3. Double Pass (KidSize and TeenSize) or Footrace (AdultSize)
4. High-Kick (KidSize, TeenSize and AdultSize)
20.3.2. Both, Dribble and Kick (AdultSize) and Soccer Games (KidSize and TeenSize)
are organized in one or more round robins and playo↵s. For the first round robin, the
teams are assigned to groups at random. All teams of a group play once against each
other. The round robin games may end in a draw. In this case, both teams receive
one point. Otherwise, the winning team receives three points and the not winning team
receives zero points.
20.3.3. After games of a round robin have been played, the teams of a group are ranked
based on (in decreasing priority):
1. the number of earned points,
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
20 The Competitions and Trophies
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2. the goal-di↵erence,
3. the absolute number of goals4 ,
4. the result of a direct match,
5. the time needed to score a penalty kick into an empty goal (up to five alternating
attempts to score, until at least one team scored),
6. the drawing of a lot.
20.3.4. At least two teams of every group will enter the next round robin or the playo↵s.
20.3.5. The game plan needs to be announced prior to the random assignment of teams
to groups.
20.4 Best Humanoid
20.4.1. The teams of all three size classes are ranked in separate lists to determine the
overall best humanoid.
20.4.2. The ranking is based on the aggregated number of points earned in the individual
competitions.
20.4.3. The points earned in the technical challenge are used directly.
20.4.4. For the Dribble and Kick competitions (AdultSize) and the Soccer Games (KidSize and TeenSize) the winner receives 60 points. The second best team receives 42
points. The third best team receives 30 points.
20.4.5. As KidSize, TeenSize and AdultSize robots do not compete directly, a jury
decides the overall best humanoid robot, 2nd best humanoid robot, 3rd best humanoid
robot. The jury consists of the team leaders of all teams, except for the teams ranked
first in the KidSize, TeenSize and AdultSize lists. The jury decides by majority vote. In
case of a draw, the president of the RoboCup federation decides the vote.
• The teams ranked first in the KidSize, TeenSize and AdultSize lists are candidates for the best humanoid. The jury decides from the general picture of the
performance according to the criteria:
A. Robustness
B. Walking ability
C. Ball handling
D. Soccer skills
4
Here, for each game that a team has won according to Rule 10.5 with a di↵erence of 10 goals only
10 goals are counted.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
20 The Competitions and Trophies
34
for the robot that is the best humanoid.
• Of each, KidSize, TeenSize and AdultSize, the best robot that was not chosen to
be the best humanoid robot is candidate for the 2nd best humanoid robot. Criteria
are the same as for the best humanoid.
• The robot ranked first in the KidSize, TeenSize or AdultSize lists that was not
chosen for 1st or 2nd best humanoid is the 3rd best humanoid robot.
20.5 Trophies
20.5.1. A trophy is awarded to the winner of each of the individual competitions and
technical challenges. In case of less than 3 teams participating in a size class no trophies
will be given in this class.
20.5.2. A trophy is awarded to the teams second and third in the KidSize 3-3 soccer
game, the TeenSize 2-2 soccer games and the AdultSize Dribble and Kick competition.
In case of less than 5 teams participating in a size class the team ranked third will be
awarded a certificate instead of a trophy. In case of less than 4 teams participating in a
size class the team ranked second will also be awarded a certificate instead of a trophy.
20.5.3. Certificates are awarded to the teams second and third in the technical challenges
and to the teams ranked second and third in the Best Humanoid list.
20.5.4. The Louis Vuitton Humanoid Cup is awarded to the team ranked first in the
Best Humanoid list.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
A The Trend in Rule Evolution for the Next Years
35
A The Trend in Rule Evolution for the Next Years
In this section the Technical Committee (TC) wants to make explicit the trends to be
followed in the rules in the next years in order to improve the scientific level of the robots
developed by the RoboCup teams. The evolution of rules in the humanoid league has
been following a biennial schedule where major changes (like the number of players per
team) have been introduced every two years and only incremental changes every other
year.
- The Layout of the Field
• Size of the playing field may increase with the number of players. In particular,
the KidSize will switch to a 6x9m large field in 2014.
• Instead of specifically colored goals non-colored goals may eventually be introduced.
• Landmark poles will be removed in 2013.
- The Design of the Robots
• Adjustment of the role of HCOM
For 2014, adjustments in the definition of H (ref. 4.1.1) are anticipated in
order to encourage a higher, more human-like center of mass. This may a↵ect
other size restrictions. The topic will be discussed in the team leader meetings
at RoboCup 2013 Eindhoven and results announced on the Humanoid League
Mailing list.
• The foot size of all robots will be decreased.
This is to foster the development of more advanced walking algorithms. By
reducing the size of the foot the intrinsic stability of the humanoid robot is
reduced and dynamic walking is encouraged (e.g. from H 2 /26 in following
years in steps of H 2 /28, H 2 /30 etc. to finally reach human-like proportions).
For 2012 2013 the maximum foot size of 2011 (H 2 /30) will be used. For
2013 the reduction will be continued to H 2 /32. For 2014 a reduction in
foot size is anticipated.
• More human like vision.
In 2008 the Humanoid League has undertaken a first large step towards more
human like vision by restricting the field of view to 180 degrees. For 2010 the
TC would like to improve the rules further towards human like vision with one
or two eyes in a way that takes into account the number of cameras, their
individual lines of sight and fields of view. (This has already been included in
the rule changes decided for 2010 by majority of team leader vote.)
- Handling of the robots.
• In the future, robot players will be removed from the field by assistent referees
in order to limit the number of humans on the field.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
A The Trend in Rule Evolution for the Next Years
36
• Robots must feature a handle in the neck area (with a to be specified size)
and must be designed in a way that they tolerate to be lifted vertically by
this handle without taking harm or causing harm to the handler.
- Rules of the Game
• The number of players in soccer games will be increased.
This is to encourage team play and cooperation among humanoid robots. In
2008 3 on 3 games in KidSize and in 2010 2 on 2 games in TeenSize have
been introduced and in the following years the number of players should be
increased further.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
B Human Reference Data
37
B Human Reference Data
Corresponding to the robot data of Section 4 data of a three year old girl have been
obtained during RoboCup 2009. They can serve as a reference to assist in guiding the
rule evolution with respect to robot design.
Height Htop
Height, when the arm is stretched over the head
Arms stretched sidewards
Length of the legs Hleg
Height of the knee
Height of the center of mass Hcom
Distance between shoulders
Height of the head (from the shoulder) Hhead
Arm length
Distance between the eyes
Size of one shoe (enclosing rectangle) S = 15 cm ⇥ 6.8 cm =
95 cm
110 cm
90 cm
50 cm
25 cm
55 cm
24 cm
23 cm
25 cm
6 cm
102 cm2
According to Eq. (1) from page 6
H = min {Htop , 2.2 · Hcom } = min {95 cm, 2.2 · 55 cm} = 95 cm.
From H 2 /S = (95 cm)2 /102 cm2 = 88.48 a possible target footsize limit of H 2 /88
may result for Section 4.3 by 2050 or earlier.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
B Human Reference Data
38
Acknowledgements
These rules evolved from previous versions of the RoboCup Humanoid League rules. We
would like to thank Henry Yen for the conversion of the rules into a basic LaTeX version
in 2010. The 2008 version of the rules was compiled by Pasan Kulvanit and Oskar von
Stryk, the 2007 version of the rules by Emanuele Menegatti and the 2006 version by Sven
Behnke, who did a remarkable job improving the rule document and gearing it towards
the FIFA Laws of the Game. The improvements of the 2005 version were compiled
by Norbert Michael Mayer. Other input came earlier from the rules of the RoboCup
MiddleSize and Four-Legged Leagues.
The rules were continuously discussed within the technical committee of the humanoid
league and also on the humanoid league mailing list. The following members of the
technical committee for 2013 were responsible for the rule evolution: Carlos Acosta,
Jacky Baltes, Sven Behnke, Luis F. Lupian, Marcell Missura, Daniel Seifert and Pieter van
Zutven. Special thanks go to Martin Friedmann and Sebastian Mielke for the contribution
of several figures.
2013 RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League Rules and Setup
Fly UP