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Manajemen perubahan

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Manajemen perubahan
MANAJEMEN PERUBAHAN:
Pengalaman Fakultas Kedokteran
IRAWAN YUSUF
Fakultas Kedokteran
Universitas Hasanuddin
PENDAHULUAN
MENGAPA BERUBAH????




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Perubahan kebutuhan masyarakat
Kompetisi yang semakin ketat
Globalisasi
Perubahan kebijakan pemerintah
Sisdiknas, BHP, quality-assurance)
Kemajuan teknologi komunikasi
informasi
(UU
dan
PENDAHULUAN

GOOD UNIVERSITY TEACH,
UNIVERSITY TRANSFORM:
GREAT
Knowledge to product
 Human resource to human capital
 Imagination to reality


GOOD
UNIVERSITY
PRODUCE
GRADUATES, GREAT UNIVERSITY
PRODUCE LEADERS
Sulit berubah
better
PRESENT
PAST
upper
FUTURE
“GAP”
lower
harmfull
The DELTA GAP’s Theory of CHANGE
Ikaputra et.al, Unistaff summer school Unisattt Training, 2005
MANAJEMEN PERUBAHAN
PROSES PERUBAHAN
KONDISI
SAAT INI
Established equilibrium
that continues
indefinitely until
something disrupts it
MASA
TRANSISI
• Low stability
• High emotional stress
• High (often undirected) energy
• Control becomes major issue
Stability
• Past patterns of behavior become
highly valued
Feeling of security
KONDISI
YANG DIHARAPKAN
• Conflict increases
• NEW VISION
MANAJEMEN PERUBAHAN & TRANSISI
(WORKING ON THE GAP)
1. EXPLORING
Involving people as many as
possible to have :
•
•
Sharing vision
Agreed upon SWOT feeling
2. SYSTEMIZING the Process:
•
•
Keep people connected to the
change process
To create a space to express the
positive and negative
3. VENTURING
•
•
•
Analizing the gap
Anticipating resistance and
gaining the commitment
Providing opportunities for
innovation and creativity
Pilot and implementation
4. INTEGRATING
•
•
•
•
Evaluate the changing process
Expand successful process
Review the pilot and
implementation
Institutionalized the approach
RESISTENSI TERHADAP
PERUBAHAN

Mengapa resisten terhadap perubahan?
 Self
interest
 Psychological impact
 Redistributive factor
 Destabilisation effect
 Culture incompatibility
RESISTENSI TERHADAP
PERUBAHAN

Bagaimana
perubahan?
 Status
sikap
resisten
quo
 Filtering of information
 Maladaptive defence mechanisms
 Negative personal construct
terhadap
I WANT (+)
I GET (+)
I DON’T GET (-)
I DON’T WANT (-)
POWERFUL
MAN
VICTIM
LOOSER
SUCCESSFUL
RESISTER
Resistance is a self-regulating mechanism which
• Keeps us from getting hurt
• Keeps us from doing things not in our best interest
• Keeps us from taking on too much
RESISTENSI MERUPAKAN ASET
ORGANISASI
Resistensi menunjukkan komitmen
Resistensi menyediakan informasi baru
Resistensi menghasilkan enerji
Resistensi menimbulkan rasa aman organisasi
Tekanan x Visi x Rencana Transisi
Perubahan =
>1
Resistensi
Mempersiapkan perubahan….
S hared vision
U nderstand the organization
C ultural alignment
C ommunication
E xperienced help where necessary
S trong leadership
S takeholder involvement
PENDEKATAN UNTUK
MENGATASI RESISTENSI

Systemic Approach
Top-down
 Bottom-up


Transformational intelligence Approach
Motivational intelligence (MQ)
 Process intelligence (PQ)
 Relational intelligence
 Creative intelligence

Systemic Approach
INDIVIDUAL
SOCIAL
TECHNOLOGICAL
DEPARTMENT
STRUCTURAL
ORGANISATION
POLITICAL
TOP DOWN
BOTTOM UP
TRANSFORMATIONAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH
CQ
CQ
RQ
PQ
MQ
CQ
Methods for dealing with resistance to change
Approach
Commonly used
in situation
Advantages
Drawbacks
Education
+communication
Where there is a
Once persuaded,
Can be very timelack of
people will often
consuming if
information or
help with the
lots of people
inaccurate
implementation
are involved.
information and
of the change.
analysis
Participation +
involvement
People who participate
Where the initiatiors
Can be very timewill be committed to
does not have all
consuming if
implementing change,
the information
participators
and any relevant
they need to
design an
information they
design the change,
inappropriate
have will be
and where others
changes
integrated into the
have considerable
change plan.
power to resist.
Methods for dealing with resistance to change`(Con.)
Approach
Commonly used
in situation
Advantages
Drawbacks
Facilitation +
support
Where people are
resisting because
of adjustment
problems.
No other approach
Can be time
works as well with
consuming,
adjustment problems expensive and still
fail.
Negotiation +
agreement
Where someone
or some group
will clearly lose
out in a change
and where that
group that has
considerable
power to resist.
Sometimes it is a
relatively easy way to
avoid major
resistance.
Can be too
expensive in many
cases if alerts
others to negotiate
for compliance.
PENGALAMAN YANG DAPAT
DIPETIK

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Change is learning, and learning is change
Individual learning and organizational learning are
inextricably link
There are far more options for improvement or
innovation than there is time or resources to address
them
Change is not an event but is a complex and subjective
learning/unlearning process for all concerned
The most successful changes are the result of team
effort
PENGALAMAN YANG DAPAT
DIPETIK

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The change process is cyclical, not linear
Change does not just happen – it must be lead
Change is a mix of external forces and
individual action
We must look outside as well as inside for viable
change ideas and solutions.
THANK YOU
Fly UP