Comparative Law - Law, Politics and Society

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Comparative Law - Law, Politics and Society
R. Herlambang Perdana Wiratraman, SH., MA.
Fakultas Hukum Universitas Airlangga
E. [email protected]
P. +6281357819129
Tujuan Perkuliahan
 Mahasiswa dapat memahami pengertian/pemaknaan perbandingan
hukum, analisis yang dipergunakan dalam membandingkan sistem
hukum, baik dari tinjauan filsafat, budaya, politik dan sosial/budayakemasyarakatan.
 Mahasiswa dapat mengenali sistem-sistem hukum yang berkembang
di dunia dan teori-teori yang memberikan dasar untuk mengetahui
pergeseran sistem hukum
 Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan situasi kekinian atau tren
perbandingan hukum dan menggunakan pendekatan kritis untuk
berbagai tujuan perbandingan.
Alur perkuliahan
 Konsep , Fungsi dan Tujuan Perbandingan Hukum
 Sejarah Perbandingan Hukum
 Metode Perbandingan Hukum
 Resiko/bahaya perbandingan hukum(The perils of comparative law)
dan Keuntungan/nilai lebih perbandingan hukum(The virtues of
comparative law)
 Transplantasi Hukum (Legal transplant)
 Pengantar Keluarga Sistem Hukum
Bahan Perkuliahan (Primary)
 Alan Watson (1993) Legal Transplants: An Approach to Comparative Law.
Georgia: University of Georgia Press.
 Alan Watson (2007) Comparative Law: Law, Society and Reality.
Vanderplas Publishing
 Konrad Zweigert and Hein Koetz (1998) An Introduction to Comparative
Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 Mark van Hoecke (ed.) (2004) Epistemology and Methodology of
Comparative Law. Oxford and Portland Oregon: Hart Publishing.
 Peter D. Cruz (1999) Comparative Law in A Changing World.
London/Sidney: Cavendish.
Bahan Perkuliahan (Secondary)
 Werner Menski (2006) Comparative Law in A Global Context: The Legal System
of Asia and Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 Esin Örücü (2000) “Critical Comparative Law: Considering Paradoxes for Legal
Systems in Transition.” Nederlandse Vereniging Voor Rechtsvergelijking, Vol. 4.1
June 2000.
 John W Cairns and Olivia F. Robinson (ed.) (2004) Critical Studies in Ancient
Law, Comparative and Legal History. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
 Annelise Riles (ed.) (2001) Rethinking The Masters of Comparative Law.
Oxford: Hart Publishing.
 Jan M Smits (ed.) (2006) Elgar Encyclopedia of Comparative Law. Glos/UK:
Edward Elgar Publishing.
Bahan Perkuliahan (Secondary)
 Shidarta (2004) “Karakteristik Penalaran Hukum dalan Konteks
Keindonesiaan”, Disertasi Program Doktor Ilmu Hukum. Bandung: Universitas
Katolik Parahyangan.
 Montesquieu (1993) The Spirit of the Laws. Cambridge: Cambridge University
 Roscoe Pound (1931) The Spirit of the Common Law. Francestown/New
Hamsphire: Marshall Jones Company.
 Mary Ann Glendon, Michael Wallace Gordon, and Christopher Osakwe (1994)
Comparative Legal Traditions: Text, Materials and Cases on the Civil and
Common Law Traditions, with Special Reference to French, German, English and
European Law. 2nd Edition. St. Paul, Minn: West Publishing.
Konsep Perbandingan Hukum
 Perbandingan Hukum, apakah itu?
 Metode, disiplin ataukah ilmu?
 Apa yang dipelajari dari Perbandingan Hukum?
 ‘an intellectual activity with law as its object and
comparison as its process (Zweigert and Kotz, 1977: 2)
 ‘systematic study of particular legal traditions and
legal rules on a comparative basis’ (Cruz 2007: 3) …
and ‘….comparative law is primarily a method of study
rather than a legal body of rules’ (Cruz 2007: 5).
‘The tertium comparationis belongs to the paradigmatic
framework of the comparatist and as such forms part of the
conseptual apparatus with which he approaches his field of
science in a primary sense….. Comparability, on the other
hand, is part and parcel of positive legal reality. It is
dependent on the identity of the ontic characteristics of
positive (in casu juridical) phenomena qua juridical
Van Reenen (1995: 420)
Alan Watson
 ‘… the study of the relationship
between legal systems or between
rules of more than one system… in the
context of a historical relationship… [a
study of] the nature of law and the
nature of legal development’ (Watson,
1974: 6-7)
 Watson’s approach: (1) historical
relationship; (2) inner relationship;
and (3) ‘same pattern of development’
Sistem hukum dan tradisi hukum
 Key distinguishing features: (a) the system’s historical
background and development; (b) its predominant and
characteristic mode of thought; (c) its particularly distinctive
institutions; (d) its sources of law and the way it handles these;
and (e) its ideology (Zweigert and Kotz 1998: 68-73).
 A legal tradition: ‘… deeply rooted, historically conditioned
attitudes about the nature of law… the role of law in… society and
polity, the proper organization and operation of a legal system,
and about the way law is, or should be made , applied, studied,
perfected, and taught. The legal tradition relates the legal system
to the culture of which it is a partial expression. It puts the legal
system into cultural perspective (Merryman, 1985: 2 in Cruz
2007: 4).
Fungsi Perbandingan Hukum
 Apa saja fungsi perbandingan hukum?
Tipe Perbandingan Hukum
Five possible groups:
 Comparison of foreign systems with domestic system in order to
ascertain similarities and differences
Studies that analyses objectively and systematically solutions which
various systems offer for a given legal problem
Studies that investigate the causal relationship between different
systems of law
Studies that compare the several stages of various legal systems
Studies that attempt to discover or examine legal evolution generally
according to periods and systems
(Hug (1932) “The History of Comparative Law”, 45 Harvard Law
Review 1072).
Pembagian Perbandingan Hukum
 Descriptive Comparative Law
..is the inventory of the systems of the past and present as a whole as well as of
individual rules which these systems establish for the several categories of legal
 Comparative History of Law
..is closely allied to ethnological jurisprudence, folklore, legal sociology and
philosophy of law.
 Comparative Legislation [comparative jurisprudence]
represents the effort to define the common trunk on which present national
doctrines of law are destined to graft themselves as a result of both of the
development of the study of law as a social science, and of the awakening of an
international legal consciousness.
E Lambert in Waston 1974: 3
Pembagian Perbandingan Hukum
 Comparative Nomoscopy
The description of system of law
 Comparative Nomothetics
The analysis of the merits of the system
 Comparative Nomogenetics
Study of the development of the world’s legal ideas and systems
J.H. Wigmore , 1936, in Waston 1974: 3
Tujuan Perbandingan Hukum
 Apa tujuan [studi] perbandingan hukum?
 Apakah bisa tujuan tersebut direfleksikan dengan
kebutuhan anda/profesi? Bagaimana hal tersebut bisa
Esin Örücü (2000)
 Academic study;
 Law reform and policy development;
 A tool for research to reach a universal theory of law;
 The provision of perspective to students;
 An aid to international practice of the law;
 International unification and harmonisation - common core research;
 A gap-filling device in law courts; and an aid to world peace.
These objectives are sometimes grouped as practical, sociological,
political or pedagogical.
Zweigert and Kotz (1998)
 An aid to the legislative process
 An instrument of interpretation of the law
 A vehicle for teaching law at university level
 A means of promoting legal unification
 (in Europe) the development of a common private law
Pengembangan studi-studi perbandingan
 Comparative law and legal philosophy (comparative
 Comparative law and legal history (historical comparative
law or historico-comparative perspective);
 Comparative law and culture (comparative legal cultures
and law and culture studies); and
 Comparative law and economics.
Pengembangan studi perbandingan hukum
 Comparative constitutional law
 Comparative administrative law
 Comparative civil law (in the sense of the law of torts, delicts, contracts
and obligations)
 Comparative commercial law (in the sense of business
organizations and trade), and
 Comparative criminal law
Studies of these specific areas may be viewed as micro- or macrocomparative legal analysis, i.e. detailed comparisons of two countries,
or broad-ranging studies of several countries.
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