...

ROSEMARIN 2012 Sanitation Systems and their Functionality in Health Protection

by user

on
Category: Documents
4

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

ROSEMARIN 2012 Sanitation Systems and their Functionality in Health Protection
Sanitation Systems and their
Functionality in Health Protection
Arno Rosemarin, PhD
Senior Research Fellow
Stockholm Environment Institute
Theme 1 - Water and Sanitation for Development
Session 8 - Sustainable Sanitation and the Role of
Hygiene in the Value Chain
4th Africa Water Week, Cairo
May 17, 2012
”EAWAG Compendium”, 2008
”SEI Health Compendium”, 2011
WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use
of Wastewater, Excreta and
Greywater (2006)
Meaning of Sanitation
 Safe collection, storage, treatment and
disposal / reuse / recycling of
 human excreta (faeces and urine)
 sludge and sewage effluent
 grey water
 solid waste
 Hygiene and behavior change
 Drainage and management of
stormwater
What are the parts of a sanitation system?
User
Interface
-Dry toilet
-Urine diverting
dry toilet
-Urinal
-Pour flush toilet
-Flush toilet
Collection
and Storage
Conveyance
-Single pit
-Single pit VIP
-Alternating dry
double pit
-Alternating wet
double pit
-Double dehydr.
vaults
-Aquaprivy
-Septic tank
-Composting
chamber
-Manual emptying -Imhoff Tank
-Mechanical
emptying
-Simplified sewer
-Small bore sewer
-Conventional
gravity sewer
-Jerry can/tank
(Semi-)
Centralised
Treatment
-Anaerobic
baffled
reactor
-Anaerobic
filter
-Trickling filter
-Waste
Stabilization
ponds
-Finishing pond
-Constructed
wetland
-Co-composting
Reuse and
Disposal
-Application of
urine
-Application of
dehydr. Faeces
-Compost
-Irrigation with
wastewater
-Aquaculture
-Soak pit
-Leach field
-Incineration
-Land
application
-Surface
disposal
Exposure and Transmission Routes
ingestion of excreta from hands
dermal –contact
contact with flies/mosquitoes
inhalation of aerosols and particles
contaminated groundwater/surface water
contact with overflowing/leaking contents
ingestion of excreta
consumption of contaminated produce (vegetables)
Barriers to Prevent Spread of Pathogens:
the ”F-Diagram”
Water 1st International
Risk reduction strategies
WHO’s multiple barrier approach from “Farm to Fork”
Wastewater
generation
Wastewater
treatment
Farmer/
Consumer
Producer
Safe
Safe
Irrigation
produce
Practices
Traders/
Retailers
Hygienic
Handling
Practices
Street food
kitchens
Safe food
washing and
preparation
Policy recognition, safer farm land, tenure security,
market incentives, safe-food labelling,…
Consumer
Awareness
…
creation
to create
demand for
safe produce
Pathogens in
faeces that
can be
transmitted
through water
and improper
sanitation
Avg Health Burdens from Diarrhoeal Diseases
(Our Planet)
Current annual diarrhea cases in SSA:
1.2 billion which lead to 769.000 dead children, mostly under 5 years
Ascaris: Distribution of Disease Burden
Ascaris lumbricoides blocking a 3-yr old child’s intestine
Medical Research Council Policy Brief (2) 2006
Dumping of Sludge= “Advanced Open Defecation”
Understanding the Nutrient Loop
«What we take from the soil, we give back to the soil»
Productive Sanitation
a neglected treasure
≈
N = 2,8 kg
N = 2,8 kg
P = 0,4 kg
P = 0,4 kg
K ~ 1,3 kg
K ~ 1,3 kg
Per person
Per person
TSP = 2 kg
per year
per year
KCL ~ 2,6
Urea = 6 kg
kg
Urine Collection in Niger
(SEI, 2009)
Storage and hygienisation of urine: ”Takin Ruwa”
Participative Testing of
“Takin Ruwa” in Niger
Safe and fertile crops
URINE
CONTROL
Construction of Composting
Pit Latrines in Zimbabwe Schools
School children making concrete
slabs, ringbeams and toilet houses in
traditional material and bricks
(Morgan - Aquamor, Zimbabwe)
School Sanitation
Garden Experiments
Children recording the results
Taking measurements
Maize trials using urine fertiliser
Urine Diversion
Dry Toilet
Separates urine and
faeces at source
School Sanitation
Keeps Girls in Schools
(WRC, 2011)
The New Sanitation Ladder
Based on Function
(Kvarnström et al 2010)
Safe Sanitation Made Possible
 Requires a systems approach – the
value chain
 Affordable, functional, maintainable,
appropriate and participative
 Design the entire chain including
disposal and reuse
 Profits generated from health protection
also can include energy (biogas), food
production and water savings
Stockholm Environment Institute
www.sei-international.org
www.ecosanres.org
www.susana.org
Fly UP