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SANDEC Report 8/03
Decentralised Composting
An Option for Indian Cities ?
Report of a Workshop held in Bangalore, India
4- 5th June, 2002
June 2002
Chris Zurbrügg, Silke Drescher, Almitra. H. Patel, H. C. Sharatchandra
SANDEC / EAWAG
2
Introduction & Programme
The workshop "Assessment of Decentralised Composting Schemes in
India" was held in June 4 – 5th 2002 in Bangalore following a previous
study tour by the research team in March 2002 to 6 cities and 19 composting schemes in southern India. The objective of the study tour was
to appraise existing schemes in view of technical, organisational, financial, marketing, institutional, and social aspects. The main issues
and results were documented in a draft report on "Decentralised composting in India – An Option for India". This report served as basis for
discussion throughout the workshop.
The research team would like to thank the participants that gave us the
benefit of their observations and insights during the workshop and for
their interest and active participation. Special thanks goes to Mr.
George Verghese of CEE, and Mr. Subramanya Secretary of the Residents Association in Kalyana Nagar, as well as Mr. Suresh of KCDC
for their generous offer to show the participants around their sites and
answer the numerous questions. Finally, we wish to thank the Swiss
Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG) for
their financial support.
WORKSHOP PROGRAMME
9.00 AM.
10.00-12.30
14.30-17.00
20.00-
4th May 2002.
Assembly at the Hotel The Basil
Visit of Kalyana Nagar Site
Visit of KCDC Facility
Workshop Dinner
5th May 2002
09.00-09.30
09.30-09.45
09.45-10.30
10.30-11.00
11.00-11.30
11.30-13.30
13.30-14.30
14.30-15.00
15.00-15.15
15.15-16.30
16.30-17.00
17.30-
SANDEC / EAWAG
Registration
Welcome, The Study, Institutions Involved
Presentations on the Findings of the Study
Coffee/Tea
Introduction to working group objectives
Group Work
Lunch
Finalisation of Presentation by Groups
Tea/Coffee
Presentations by Groups & Discussion
Conclusions
Departure of out-station delegates
3
SANDEC / EAWAG
4
1 Site visits
On the 4th of June 2002 the workshop participants attended field trips
to the composting schemes of Kalyana Nagar and Karnataka Compost
Development Corporation (KCDC) in Bangalore.
1.1 Kalyana Nagar
A classic situation of the problem of development and provision of services and maintenance in planned and unplanned areas was evident in
the 1990s in four new layouts being developed by the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA), Kalyana Nagar, Brindavan, Bhuvanagiri,
and Kasturi Nagar. In partnership with the Center for Environment
Education (CEE) and Technology Informatics Design Endeavour
(TIDE), the BDA presented a project to the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD). The project components were: 1)
Geographical Information Systems; 2) Solid Waste Management; 3)
Open Spaces Management; 4) Project Secretariat.
In the solid waste management project component, focus was set on
developing an approach of action and mobilisation among the community to initiate and implement a community operated solid waste management system. This also involved setting up a composting scheme
for the biodegradable fraction.
Figure 1: Composting bins of the main Kalyana Nagar composting site
Waste is collected in handcarts from door-to-door and sorted by the
employed waste collectors during collection. Biodegradable waste and
"dry" non-biodegradables are loaded into separate bins on the collecSANDEC / EAWAG
5
tion handcart. The bins are then delivered to a "recovery center". Here
the biodegradable fraction is piled into composting bins (9x4x3 feet)
and the non-biodegradables sorted according to their value as recyclables or rejects. Rejects are collected regularly by the municipal truck at
a communal collection point.
After three years of operation, management of the schemes was
handed over by CEE to a residents association which has set up a
waste management committee structure. This body is now responsible
for all operational and planning procedures concerning waste management.
1.2 KCDC
The Karnataka Compost Development Corporation (KCDC) was one of
11 composting units set up in 1975 based on WHO technology. Within
a year, 10 of these had stopped, because the WHO technology could
not handle unsegregated Indian waste, and the design caused marketing problems (glass splinters in the compost).
In the 70ies, on 15 acres of land KCDC processed 50-60 tons of mixed
waste per day. They have expanded to using 22 acres and processing
150 tons/day until last year, and currently process 250 tons/day of
mixed waste plus 50 tons/day of market waste for which they won a
tender to collect it in their own vehicles. KCDC hopes to increase
waste intake to a total of 400 tons/day after commissioning the vermicomposting bins which are currently in construction on additional 7
acres.
Figure 2: KCDC, elongated heaps (windrows) on sealed composting
surface
SANDEC / EAWAG
6
Waste heaps (approx. 13 feet wide, 10 feet high and of varying length)
are shaped by the available 3 payloaders (Front End Loaders). These
vehicles are also used for turning the heaps. Cowdung slurry is used
as starter culture, which is sprayed onto the waste heaps (cowdung
slurry consists of 2 baskets of fresh cowdung to 200 litres of water).
Two process stages, a high temperature stage (70-75 °C) lasting for
10-15 days, and a middle temperature stage (40-45 °C) after that, can
be observed. Waste material only going through a composting process
stays in the heaps for about 60 days. For the planned vermicomposting
process, partly-composted material (after 25-30 days) is taken from the
heaps and piled into bins. After leaving the waste for 3-4 days to bring
the temperature down to 27-30 degrees, worms are introduced. Four
species of African worms are used. This vermicomposting in bins takes
about 30-40 days, depending on worm density. A top layer of vermicastings is harvested every 3 days and sieved by a rotary screen.
Aerobic windrows go through 4 sieving stages after 60 days. Mesh size
is 50 mm, 25 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm, all through rotary screens (which
are replacing their vibro-screens). The 50 mm screen removes 80-90%
of the non-biodegradables, which amount to 30% by weight.
Two Bobcats are used for cleaning the site and feeding the rotary
screens and spreading coarse compost for soaking up leachate from
the heaps. Recently KCDC has also added a 50,000 litre leachate
storage tank.
Figure 3: KCDC rotary screens
One rag-picker family pays KCDC Rs 5000 a year for waste-picking
rights. KCDC employs 50 permanent staff (including 36 on the yard) at
about Rs 5-6000 per month, plus another 40 casual daily wagers at Rs
60-100 per day (i.e. Rs 1560 to 2600 per month).
SANDEC / EAWAG
7
Plain 4 mm compost is sold at Rs 950/ton. Enriched compost contains
75% plain compost + 2.5-3% Rock phosphate (@ Rs 3300/t) + Neem
cake (@ Rs 3900/ton) + 5-6% poultry manure (@400/ton) + 5-6%
sugar-factory press mud (@ 350/ton). It is sold for Rs 1600 per ton locally or Rs 2700 per ton at Bidar in far north Karnataka. It is used on
farms, estates and plantations, and sold through the Dept of Agriculture or Horticulture, with subsidies. These Departments are given 2
months’ credit, and dealer margins are 10-15%. Vermicompost is sold
at Rs 2.75 per kg unbagged, or Rs 3.40-3.50 per kg in 50-kg bags.
City sales are at Rs 4 per kg, door delivery.
SANDEC / EAWAG
8
2 Presentation of Results
The research study, conducted by SANDEC (Ms. Silke Drescher & Mr.
Chris Zurbrugg), Almitra H. Patel, and H.C. Sharatchandra, involved an
assessment of 20 composting sites (including one anaerobic digestion
scheme) in 6 cities of southern India. A draft report of the study was
handed out to all workshop participants and the results were presented
in a summarised form. Main messages of the presentation are summarised below.
What waste management system do we want to achieve?
Figure 4: Ecological and sustainable waste management involves closing material cycles and thus providing maximum potential for recovery,
recycling and reuse of inorganic and organic waste fractions.
What is the framework in India?
A) The Report of the Supreme Court of India (1999): Solid Waste
Management in Class I Cities in India, recommends
!
composting as one part of the SWM, decentralised if possible
!
incentives for setting up compost plants
B) The legal framework of the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management
and Handling) Rules (2000)
SANDEC / EAWAG
9
!
Regulates composting as one treatment option for biodegradable waste
!
Aims for waste segregation at source
!
Defines standards for composting sites and compost quality
C) The waste composition: at least 40-50% of municipal solid waste is
biodegradable
Why this study?
SANDEC and the research team want to address municipal officers
and decision-makers as well as the interested public, and provide insights on the potential of decentralised composting as one part of a
sustainable SWM system.
Why should a municipality get involved in management of biodegradable municipal waste?
!
to minimise waste amounts in dump sites and landfills
!
to reduce waste management costs (e.g. transportation, disposal)
!
to improve nutrient and humus content and soil condition of agricultural land
!
to reduce environmental impact of uncontrolled rotting waste (e.g.
ground water pollution, methane production, vermin, stray dogs)
What are the potential advantages of decentralised composting?
!
supports municipal solid waste collection services
!
reduces further transportation of waste
!
reduces the area required for centralised waste processing and
landfilling
!
creates employment in the neighbourhood
!
enhances environmental awareness in the neighbourhood
!
direct contact and intense interaction with residents (e.g. for household segregation or payment of waste collection fees)
Observed existing experiences
20 sites in 6 cities of southern India were classified according to their
organisational set-up and scale of operation into:
A. Backyard composting
B. Neighbourhood and Community-based (CBO)composting
C. Composting on premises of institutions and companies
D. Middle-scale composting enterprises
E. Large-scale centralised composting facilities
SANDEC / EAWAG
10
Type
Name of site/ location
Location
A&B
EXNORA
Chennai
B
Pammal
Chennai
C
Central Leather Research
Insitute (CLRI) / BELL
Scientific Handling of
Waste Society(SHOW),
CEE, Kalyana Nagar
Residence Association
Residents Initiative for a
Save Environment (RISE)
Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL)
Terra Firma
Chennai
B
B
B
C
D
E
E
E
B
B
Bangalore
Bangalore
Bangalore
Bangalore
Bangalore
Karnataka Compost De- Bangalore
velopment Corporation
Vennar Organic Fertiliser Mysore
Envirex, MSW Treatment Vasco de
Plant
Gama, Goa
Sindh Colony
Pune
Chembur,
Mumbai
C
Diamond Garden Residents Forum ALM
(DGRF)
Sandu Lane ALM,
Chembur, Mumbai
Shyam Nagar Slum,
Mumbai
Orchid Eocotel
C
Tata Power Colony
Mumbai
D
Dadar Pumping Station,
Vermigold
Varsova, Green Cross,
Composting Site
Clean Air Island, Colaba
Composting Site
Mumbai
B
B
D
D
Chembur,
Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai
Composting
Technique
Bin-composting
Organisational
Setup
household segregated NGO & CBO
solid waste
Vermi-composting household segregated NGO & CBO
solid waste
Pit-composting
sorted mixed house- Company initiative
hold waste
Bin-composting
household segregated CBO
solid waste
Bin-composting & household segregated NGO & CBO
Vermicomposting solid waste
Bin-composting
household segregated CBO
solid waste
Anaerobic diges- canteen waste
Company initiative
tion
Windrow commarket waste, agro- Enterprise
poasating and
industy waste
vermi-composting
Windrow and
mixed waste
Contractor of City
Vermi
Windrow compost- mixed waste
Enterprise
ing
Windrow compost- mixed waste
Enterprise
ing
Windrow compost- sorted mixed house- CBO
ing
hold waste
Bin-composting
household segregated CBO
solid waste
Bin-composting
Feed stock
household segregated
solid waste
Pit-composting
household segregated
solid waste
Vermi-composting segregated waste and
in bins
kitchen waste
Pit-composting
sorted mixed household waste
Vermicomposting market waste
in heaps
Vermicompsting in market waste
heaps
Vermicomposting market waste
in heaps
CBO
CBO
Company initiative
Company initiative
Enterprise
Enterprise
NGO
Table 1: Overview of visited sites
SANDEC / EAWAG
11
Figure 5: Map of visited locations
Results on technical and operational issues?
Backyard composting in plastic recycled drums of 200 litres is sufficient for a household of 4 persons. This approach is feasible for
households with a high level of composting awareness and a garden
for placing the drum and for use of the produced compost. A second
option is the mulching of biodegradable waste drums in which vegetables or other plants are placed. These drums can be kept on terraces
(also called terrace gardening).
Community-based systems are frequently bin-composting systems
or vermi-composting systems. These usually small-scale systems (<2
t/day) are always combined with a residential waste collection service.
Waste is collected either already segregated or else is sorted by the
waste collectors depending on the degree of participation by the residents. Composting is usually a secondary spin-off activity of the waste
collection system.
Company and Institution composting have similar technological approaches as the community-based schemes. As there is often enough
space available on the premises, optimising the use of space is often
not a priority issue.
Medium-scale composting enterprises are mostly larger in scale
then the above (2-10 tons/ day). Schemes observed mostly use vermicomposting technology in windrows and treat pure biodegradable market waste which they collect themselves.
SANDEC / EAWAG
12
The general space requirements for composting depend on the approach used. An average space requirement of 150 sq m per ton of
waste per day can be used, however detailed estimates have to be
evaluated according to the design envisaged. All schemes observed
depend on the municipality for providing land either free of charge or at
a very cheap lease.
Results on the financial and marketing issues?
For backyard composting a one time investment of Rs. 600-800 is
necessary. The life time of a drum is around 5 years. Marketing of
compost is not an issue as the compost is used in the composter’s own
garden.
In community-based systems investments show large variations from
Rs 1 - 71 lakh per ton per day. This depends on the approach used
and the supporting type infrastructure built or purchased (office building, collection vehicles, etc.). An average estimate is ~ Rs 2.5 - 3.5
lakh per ton per day. Operational costs consist of 70 - 90 % for salaries
due to the manual labour approach used in these schemes. Markets
for sales are usually restricted to the neighbourhood where prices are
comparatively high but demand is low.
Medium-scale composting enterprises, benefit from lower investment cost per ton of waste because of economies of scale. An average
of Rs 1 - 1.4 lakh per ton per day can be used as an approximation.
Limited markets for compost sales are a large challenge which all systems face.
In all financial evaluations, land costs were never taken into account!
Financial and economic cost and benefits
Financial evaluations focus on the composting scheme itself. However,
for a holistic view, the cost savings from decentralised schemes from
reduced transportation and landfill costs would need to be taken into
account. A simple example can illustrate this aspect.
Municipal waste transportation costs average Rs 1250 per ton of
waste.
A small neighbourhood initiative with a composting scheme of 600 kg
waste per day diverts 22 tons a year from the municipal waste stream.
This amounts to savings in transportation costs for the municipality of
Rs 27,500 per year.
Assuming all currently 670 existing neighbourhood schemes divert the
same amount of waste, this amounts to cost saving for the municipality
of Rs 1.8 crores per year on 400 tons of waste a day.
Realistically this figure is probably even higher as this calculation does
not include cost savings due to saved landfill space or reduced environmental pollution potential by the landfill.
SANDEC / EAWAG
13
Social and organisational aspects
Community-based schemes have important social cohesion and empowerment functions which go far beyond only waste management.
Collection and cleanliness is the main priority for the residents, composting thus is not regarded as essential. These schemes depend very
strongly on municipal goodwill and collaboration for land allocation and
collection of rejects. The examples of Advanced Local Management
citizen groups called ALMs in Mumbai are a good example of such
successful public/community partnerships.
Company and institution composting have the advantage of centralised and clear decision-making structures which can be of great advantage for the municipality for easier negotiations and coordination. Often
a lack of employee and employee household member participation was
observed.
Middle scale enterprises focus on existing pure waste streams such
as market waste or agro-industrial wastes – thus there is very little involvement on the residential level.
Large scale composting schemes suffer greatly from indiscriminate
delivery of non-biodegradable waste mixed with organic waste. The refuse accumulates although agreements with authorities to collect and
dispose of this fraction are arranged.
Institutional aspects
Community-based schemes depend to a large extent on municipal
support and possibilities of communication and coordination. Sometimes a certain degree of support is available through the allocation of
land, however most often these schemes are not recognised or accepted by the municipality as partners in solid waste management.
Mumbai municipality has shown efforts to support and integrate them
into the "system" through the ALM program.
Middle scale enterprises depend on municipality for land and for
waste allocation contracts. They all lack support with buy-back arrangements for compost or by development of market demand.
Role of Citizens and Institutions
!
!
!
!
!
Cease littering and indiscriminate dumping
segregate waste at source
avoid mixing of wet, dry or inert wastes
enable provision of separate individual or communal bins for different waste fractions
undertake composting in backyards and/or utilise compost
Role of Municipal Authorities and State Government
!
Political will and development of state policy and regulations as well
a municipal policy, acts and regulations
! Development of a “master plan” for separation and composting
SANDEC / EAWAG
14
!
!
!
!
!
!
SANDEC / EAWAG
Active promotion of waste minimisation and recycling
Active promotion of household segregation
Education and training of municipal officers and workers
Recruiting a resource person for support and advice
Encouraging institutions and companies to adopt recycling strategies
Using compost in public spaces
15
3 Working Group Results
Three working groups were established to discuss the main challenges
faced by decentralised options, to describe potential solutions and to
recommend necessary support by the public and by the authorities.
Challenges identified by the working groups were discussed and prioritised (by points) by all participants in a general forum.
3.1 Technical and Operational Issues
Problem
Lack of Technical and Operational Knowledge
!
Lack of on-job training facilities/possibilities for decentralised composting unit operation. (7 points)
!
Lack of sound resource persons/institutions identified that can provide assistance for composting/vermicomposting knowledge transfer. (3 points)
!
Lack of knowledge on composting/vermicomposting in CBOs, municipal authorities and institutions/companies and enterprises. (Information is available but is not well disseminated) (2 points)
Suggested Solutions
Problem:
!
Forming of a specific body (Composters Association or Federation)
!
Supported financially by the government authorities
!
Responsible for networking
!
Conducts pre-operational surveys for suggesting appropriate composting technique
!
Monitors member schemes in technical and operational issues
!
Serves as hotline for troubleshooting
!
Develops information material, literature and audio visuals
!
Advises on quality improvement (see below)
Lack of Quality Assurance (3 Points)
Suggested Solutions
SANDEC / EAWAG
!
Support by authorities to analyse compost samples (e.g. Pollution
Control Board Labs)
!
Developing guidelines coupling quality criteria to appropriate use of
the product
16
!
Problem:
Developing common standards for compost (in preparation by
KVIC)
Lack of list of proven technologies
Suggested Solutions
!
Pot and container composting (on household level on terraces or
gardens)
!
Drum or bin composting (for households with gardens)
!
Pit composting (if large spaces available, ideal for pruning and garden waste; only if groundwater and water supply contamination potential does not apply)
!
Vermicomposting in windrows or bins (depending on available
space and waste; for neighbourhoods, CBOs, institutions, companies, as well as middle-scale enterprises
!
Aerobic composting in windrows or bins (for scales larger than 0.5
tons per day; available space and waste type)
3.2 Financial and Marketing Issues
Problem
Problem
Financial challenges of CBO/NGOs
!
Lack of payment by residents due to mindset, reluctance or lack of
information (8 points)
!
Lack of seed money or shared cost arrangements with municipality
(due to cost savings) (2 points)
Financial challenges of enterprises
!
Lack of approved project reports for use in obtained approval or
bank loans (2 points)
!
Lacking provision of pilot phase where royalties are excluded
!
No tax exemption for capital costs of such pollution abatement
schemes
!
No penal clauses for uncollected or unsegregated waste
Suggested Solutions
SANDEC / EAWAG
!
Support from all government Organisations for developing market
for compost
!
Increased awareness building and fee payment enforcement for
residents
!
Sales taxes exemption for investments made and for the compost
product
17
!
Provide cost sharing structures with municipalities and government
agencies for partly reimbursement of avoided costs to municipality
!
Exempting royalties in a pilot phase
!
Sales taxes exemption for investments made and for the compost
product
!
Support in kind by municipality in providing prompt and regular collection and transport of rejects.
3.3 Social Mobilisation and Organisational Issues
Problems
.
!
Lack of awareness, sensitivity and acceptance (NIMBY) and lack of
participation (5 points)
!
Lack of support from authorities for social mobilisation (3 points)
!
Lack of good and sustainable leadership (2 points)
!
Lack of support from media (1 point)
!
Threat of privatisation trend which will kill local activities (1 point)
!
Lack of participation of public and private institutions
!
Misunderstanding concerning segregation (better phrase – do not
mix)
!
Threat of court cases by a few aggrieved individuals which can
close down successful schemes
Suggested Solutions
!
Awareness programs for children with site visits of dump and composting schemes
!
Public awareness campaigns including use of media
!
Forming sustainable organisational structure in CBO initiatives
!
Ensuring government and local authority support for enforcing segregation at source
!
Increased awareness building and fee payment enforcement for
residents
3.4 Institutional Issues
Problems
.
!
SANDEC / EAWAG
No policies and legal guidelines or regulations for decentralised
schemes (3 points).
18
!
No institutional framework to plan, support and co-ordinate composting activities
!
Lack of acceptance by municipalities of decentralised composting
approaches.
!
No land use planning and earmarking of composting sites
Suggested Solutions
SANDEC / EAWAG
!
Develop institutionalised framework for planning, authorisation and
support of decentralised composting schemes
!
Develop local policies for organic waste management
!
Earmark some Civic Amenity sites in new layouts as designated
waste-processing sites for decentralised options.
19
4 List of Participants
Name
Organisation
Postal Address
Phone (India +91)
Office
Residence
Fax
Mobile
Email
[email protected]
Anselm Rosario
Waste Wise Re- 1300 D, 1st cross,
080source Center
1st main, HAL 3rd stage, Tippasan- 5273941
dra,
Bangalore - 560 075.
5255543
Soosai.K
Bangalore
Agenda Task
Force
1st Floor, Neptune,
No. 19-1, Alexandra Street, Richmond Town,
Bangalore-560 025.
0802122609
2122611
98440-54420
[email protected]
Anjana Iyer
UWEPSwabhimana
25, MSH Layout, Stage-I, Anandnagar,
Bangalore-560 024.
0803336030
3336030
98442-53453
[email protected]
Jaideep Saptarshi
Vermigold Ecotech Pvt. Ltd.,
11, Garden Homes,
022C.D. Marg, Khar (W), Mumbai - 400 6463589
052.
6463589
91-226007610
Rajkumar Sharma
D.G.R.FALMANACAGNICITISPACE
6, Suswagatam - 1,
080Opp, Diamond Garden, M.D.S.
5280510
Marg, Chembur, Mumbai - 400 071.
5289505
5284707
P.K. Venkataramanan
RISE-Residents 55, 1st cross, HAL 3rd stage, BanInitiative for Safe galore - 560 075.
Environment
George Verghese
Centre for Envi- 143, Infantry Road, Bangalore - 560 080ronment Educa- 001.
2869094
tion
SANDEC / EAWAG
[email protected]
0805280104,
5285349
3374096
[email protected]
2868207
20
98441-96447
[email protected]
[email protected]
Name
Organisation
Postal Address
Office
Satish Kumar V,
Gavas
Mrs. Almitra H,
Patel
Chemtrols Engg, M.S.W Treatment Plant HeadlandLtd/Envirex India Sada,
Pvt. Ltd
Vasco-Da-Gama,
Goa - 403 804.
514, 5th cross, 7th main,
HMT Layout, RT Nagara
Bangalore - 560 032.
0803535532
Fax
Mobile
Email
521062
[email protected]
080-8465365
0808465195
[email protected]
3535532
3535532
[email protected]
0832521062
Member, Supreme
Court Committee 50, Kothnur, Bagalur Road,
for Solid Waste
Bangalore - 560 077.
Management
Ranjan Rao Yerdoor Nagarika Seva
Trust
Phone
Residence
H.O: PO Guruvayanakere - 574
217, Beltangady Taluk, Dakshina
Kannada District, Karnataka.
[email protected]
Eshwar Prasad.B
PARISARAEnvironmental
Protection Organisation
256, 1st 'C' main, 12th cross, WOC
2nd stage, Mahalakshmipuram
Bangalore - 560 086.
Shanta Chatterji
CLEAN AIR ISLAND
SADGURU, 16, French Bridge
Road, Chowpatty
Mumbai - 400 007.
0223619249
3860703
A. Subash
BELL FOUNDATION
17/2, 5th East Street, Kamarajnagar, 044Thiruvanmiyur
4402984
Chennai - 600 041.
4402984
[email protected]
Smt. Sarla Datar
The Sind Co548, Sadhu Vaswani Nagar, Aundh, 020operative Hous- Pune - 411 007.
5887951
ing Society Ltd.,
5885035
[email protected]
SANDEC / EAWAG
080-3594294
3619249
21
[email protected]
Name
Organisation
Postal Address
Office
Manju N, Tadvalkar INORA, C/o
RESCON
RESCON 43/1, Karve Road
Pune - 411 038.
Phone
Residence
Fax
0205444066
5888232
5444066
Ms. Susan Peter
Swamy
548, Sadhu Vaswani Nagar, Aundh 020The Sind Cooperative Hous- Pune - 411 007.
5887951
ing Society Ltd.,
7274501
A.L. Saraswate
Advisor to Pune A-2/10, Rajmayoor Society, Behind 020Municipal Cor- Diwgi Metals, Erandawana
5501214
poration
Pune – 411 004.
5446942,
5411180
S. Indrakumar
EXNORA Inova- 11, 6th street,
tors Club Pam- Sankar Nagar, Pammal
Chennai - 600 075.
mal
0442368621,
Extn-523
Chris Zurbrugg
SANDEC/
EAWAG
P.O. Box 611
8600 Duebendorf
Switzerland
0041-1823 5423
0041-1-823
5399
# 66, 3rd Main Road,
Cholanagara
Amarjyothi Lay out
Bangalore 560 032
0803332480
3439008
Email
Mobile
[email protected]
[email protected]
98230-53353 trishar-
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
H.C. Sharatchandra Consultant
Mahalakshmi. J
SANDEC / EAWAG
EXNORA Inova- Plot No. 197, D. No. 5,
tors Club Pam- 3rd cross street,
mal
Sankara Nagar, Pammal
Chennai - 600 075.
0442483758
22
Assessment of Decentralised Composting Schemes in India
A Research Project of the Swiss Federal Institute of Environmental Science and Technology SANDEC / EAWAG
Workshop in Bangalore 4-5 June 2002
SANDEC / EAWAG
23
SANDEC / EAWAG
24
Fly UP