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IDE ny Technical Manual for Ideal Micro Irrigation Systems
TECHNICAL MANUAL
For
IDEal
micro irrigation systems
CGIAR Challenge Program on
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENTERPRISES
WATER & FOOD
TABLE
CONTENTS
TABLE
OFOFCONTENTS
1. Introduction................................................................................................................. 1
2. Advantages of IDEal Micro Irrigation...................................................................... 2
3. Basic Components of IDEal Drip System................................................................. 3-5
4. Basic components of IDEal Sprinkler System.......................................................... 6-8
5. Types of IDEal Micro Irrigation System................................................................... 9
5.1 IDEal Drip Systems................................................................................................ 9-11
5.2 IDEal Sprinkler Systems........................................................................................ 12-14
6. Customization of IDEal Micro Irrigation System.................................................... 15
6.1 Adjusting Length of Lateral Pipe........................................................................... 15
6.2 Connecting Additional Drip Kits to the Same Source........................................... 15
6.3 Designing a Customized System Using Simple Rules.......................................... 16
6.3.1 Design Inputs............................................................................................... 16
6.3.2 Design Outputs............................................................................................. 16
6.3.3 Survey........................................................................................................... 16-17
6.3.4 Water Requirement....................................................................................... 18
6.3.5 Operating Time/Irrigation Schedule............................................................. 18
6.3.6 Selection of Emitter...................................................................................... 19
6.3.7 Design of Lateral.......................................................................................... 20
6.3.8 Design of Sub-main...................................................................................... 21
6.3.9 Design of Mainline....................................................................................... 22
6.3.10 Selection of Filter....................................................................................... 22
6.3.11 Selection of Pump/Total Head Requirement.............................................. 23
7. Installing and Commissioning................................................................................... 24-26
8. Maintenance and Troubleshooting of IDEal Micro Irrigation System.................. 28
9. Frequently asked Questions....................................................................................... 26-27
Appendix A...................................................................................................................... 28
Flow and Friction Loss for Lateral Pipe..................................................................... 28
Flow and Friction Loss for Sub-main Pipe................................................................. 29
Glossary............................................................................................................................ 30
INTRODUCTION
1. Introduction
What is Micro Irrigation?
Slow & regular application of water directly to the root zone of plants through a network of economically designed
plastic pipes and low discharge emitters.
What are IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems (IMS)?
IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems encompass low-cost drip and sprinklers. IDEal systems are assembled and
packaged for small plots along with user-friendly instruction manuals that enable small holders to cultivate
commercial crops. In other words, micro irrigation can maximize crop productivity and protect the environment
through conserving soil, water and fertilizer resources, while also increasing farmer income.
However, a majority of smallholders in developing countries are deprived of this technology due to its high capital
cost and non-adaptability to small land holdings. Until recently, it has been too expensive to be affordable for poor
families and too large for tiny plots of land. International Development Enterprises (IDE), a non-profit
development organization, has overcome this problem by developing a range of small, easy-to-use, and affordable
micro irrigation kits. IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems allow the production of high value crops with less time and
money than traditional ways of
cultivating and irrigating
commercial crops.
IDE has been working on low-cost
micro irrigation technology in India
and Nepal since 1995. These
products are sold as ready-to-use
kits, assembled and packaged so that
they can be moved off the shelf,
installed and used by farmers. An
example of one of these
technologies is the low-cost IDEal
Drip System, consisting of a
network of plastic pipes with
emitters. The emitters deliver water
directly to the root zone in quantities
that approach the consumptive use
of the plants. Most of the
components in a typical low-cost
micro irrigation system are
manufactured from polyvinyl
chloride and various types of polyethylene and polypropylene. The manufacturing technology is based on a
simple extrusion or injection molding process. Because of this, manufacturers of plastic pipes can easily adapt the
technology to the needs of the smallholders and enable them to cultivate high-value cash crops with small amounts
of water to increase their income. With the use of the technology, smallholders are able to increase their income up
to two to three times what they make from traditional crops. With available water, farmers can also increase their
productive area when using IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems.
This manual aims at providing skills and knowledge to support an ever-growing network of institutional efforts
for the dissemination of IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems. It can also be used for in-group training courses for
professional / technical staff of implementing organizations, supply chain participants and the training of farmers
on the technology.
Technical Manual
1
ADVANTAGES OF IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems
2. Advantages of IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems (IMS)
Some of the major advantages of IMS are given below:
!
Affordability: IMS is available in affordable sizes from local suppliers at prices lower than other
available irrigation systems.
!
Improved Yield: Slow and regular application of water and nutrients uniformly to all plants improves
product quality and uniformity, and increases yield.
!
Water Saving: Water savings are 50%, compared to traditional irrigation methods. This means that when
using IMS, a farmer can irrigate more crop area per unit of water used.
!
Labor Saving: Less labor is required for irrigation, weeding, and fertilizer application compared to
traditional production methods.
!
Fertilizer Saving: Fertilizer losses are minimized with IMS, reducing fertilizer costs.
!
Energy Saving: Most of the IMS are gravity operated systems or operated with low horsepower pumps,
reducing energy demand for irrigation.
!
Difficult Terrain: IMS can be used on undulated terrain (hilly areas) where irrigation by traditional
methods is difficult.
!
Tolerance to Salinity: Due to slow and regular application of water by IMS, concentration of salts in the
root zone is reduced and by micro-leaching salts are kept away from the root zone.
!
Improved Crop and Disease Control: Regular irrigation ensures timely inter-culturing operations and
spraying, allowing better control over potential crop diseases. It also reduces the incidence of diseases
common with flood irrigation.
!
Reduced Cultivation Cost: Slow and regular application of water keeps an optimum soil-water-air ratio
in the soil which is essential for healthy plant growth. It also reduces the need for frequent inter-culturing,
weeding, etc. Combined with the above-mentioned savings, cultivation costs on the whole are reduced.
!
Application to Variety of Crops: A number of different crops can be irrigated using IMS including
vegetable crops, fruit crops, commercial cash crops, flowers, etc.
Technical Manual
2
BASIC COMPONENTS OF IDEal Drip SYSTEM
3. Basic Components of IDEal Drip Systems (IDS)
1
2
3
A
4
5
6
7
B
C
8
D
No.
Notation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Water Source
Control Valve
Filter
Main Pipe
Sub-Main Pipe
Lateral Pipe
Micro-tube / Emitter
Baffle / Dripper
Vegetable bed
8.
ABCD-Area for Expansion
1. Water Source: The IDEal Drip System is a low-pressure system that uses gravity
to increase water pressure. The water source can be an overhead tank placed at a
minimum of one meter above ground level for smaller systems up to 400 m2 area. For
larger systems, the height of the tank should be increased. If the height of the tank is
not increased, the system can be connected to a pump that lifts water from sources
such as a well, farm pond, storage tank, or a stream / canal. A manually operated
pressure pump also can be used to lift water from a shallow water table (up to 7
meters) and used for the system.
Technical Manual
3
BASIC COMPONENTS OF IDEal Drip SYSTEM
2. Control Valve: A valve made of plastic or metal to regulate required
pressure and flow of water into the system. There are valves of various
sizes depending on the flow rate of water in the system.
3. Filter: The filter ensures that clean water enters the system. There are
different types of filters - screen, media and disc. Different sizes of filters
are available depending on the flow rate of water in the system.
4. Mainline: Pipe made of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) or
polyethylene (PE) to convey water from the source to the submain line. PE pipe material is normally made from high-density
polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and
linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE). The size of pipe
depends on the flow rate of water in the system.
5. Sub-main: Made of PVC / HDPE / LDPE / LLDPE pipe to
supply water to the lateral pipes. Lateral pipes are connected to the
sub-main pipe at regular intervals. The size of pipe depends on the
flow rate of water in the system.
6. Lateral: Pipes made of LLDPE or LDPE placed along the
rows of the crop on which emitters are connected to provide
water to the plants directly. The lateral pipe size is from 12 mm
to 16 mm in most IDEal Drip Systems.
Technical Manual
4
BASIC COMPONENTS OF IDEal Drip SYSTEM
7. Emitters: A device through which water is emitted at the root zone of the plant with required discharge.
Different types of emitters used in IDEal Drip Irrigation Systems are described below:
i) Micro-tube: Straight or curled LLDPE tube with an inner diameter ranging
from 1 to 1.2 mm. The discharge from the micro-tube is directly proportional
to the operating pressure and inversely proportional to its length. The
operating pressure that is required can be as low as 1-5 meters.
ii) Drip Tape / Built-in Dripper: It has built-in drippers / outlets on
the lateral line which give a continuous wetting strip. It is mainly used
for row crops. The operating pressure required is from 1-5 meters.
8. Fittings & Accessories: Various fittings required in IDS are described below.
i) Tee Connector: Tee Connector: Tee connectors of various sizes are
required in IDEal Drip Systems to connect a branch to the main pipe, the
main pipe to sub-main pipes, the lateral pipes to sub-main pipes, etc. The tee
connectors can be either the equal tee or reducing tee type including 12mm x
12mm, 16mm x 12mm, 16mm x 16mm, 25mm x 12mm, and 32mm x 12
mm.
ii) Straight Connector: The straight connector is also called a joiner and is
required to connect pipes. It can be either the equal joiner or reducing joiner
including 12mm x 12mm, 12mm x 16mm, 25mm x 32mm, 32mm x 40 mm, and
iii) Take-Off Tee: It is used to connect the lateral pipes to the sub-main pipe in
larger systems. It is fixed in the wall of sub-main pipe with the help of a rubber
washer called a gromate. It is available for different sizes of lateral pipes
including 12mm and 16mm.
iv) Wooden Guide: It is used to protect the bottom of the sub-main
pipe while the metal punch is used to punch a hole in the sub-main
pipe from the top.
v) Metal Punch: It is used along with the wooden guide to punch a hole
on the top of the sub-main pipe in order to connect the take-off tee to the
sub-main pipe.
Technical Manual
5
BASIC COMPONENTS OF IDEal Sprinkler SYSTEM
4. Basic Components of IDEal Sprinkler Systems (ISS)
1
5
4
6
3
2
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Notation
Water Source / Pump
Filter
Main Pipe
Sub-Main Pipe
Lateral Pipe
Mini Sprinkler
1. Water Source / Pump: The IDEal Sprinkler System uses a pump or gravity
pressure to operate the sprinklers. The water source can be an overhead tank
placed at a minimum of 5-10 meters above ground level, a spring running
downhill, or a well with a pump.
2. Filter: The filter ensures that clean water enters the system. There are different
types of filters - screen, media and disc. Different sizes of filters are also available,
and the appropriate size depends on the flow rate of water in the system. Both micro
sprinkler heads and mini sprinkler heads have small nozzles, so they require filtered
water in order not to clog. On the other hand, an impact sprinkler head has a larger
nozzle and if the water is relatively clean, a filter may not be required.
3. Mainline: Pipe made of PVC or PE to convey water from the
source to the sub-main line. PE pipe material is normally made from
HDPE, LDPE, and LLDPE. The size of pipe required depends on the
flow rate of water in the system.
Technical Manual
6
BASIC COMPONENTS OF IDEal Sprinkler SYSTEM
4. Sub-main: Made of PVC / HDPE / LDPE / LLDPE pipe to
supply water to the lateral pipes. Lateral pipes are connected to the
sub-main pipe at regular intervals. The size of pipe depends on the
flow rate of water in the system.
5. Lateral: Pipes made of LLDPE or LDPE placed along the
rows of the crop on which emitters are connected to provide
water to the plants directly. The lateral pipe size is from 16 mm to
32 mm in most IDEal Sprinkler Systems.
6. Sprinkler Head: A device through which water is emitted near the plant. There are three types of sprinklers
as given below:
i) Micro-Sprinkler: It has a small rotating device to spray
water as light precipitation. It covers an area with radius of
3-4 meters. Operating pressure required is 5-10 meters.
Micro-Sprinkler Head
ii) Mini Sprinkler: It has a small rotating device to spray
water as light precipitation. It covers an area with a radius of
6-8 meters. The operating pressure required is 5-15 meters.
Mini-Sprinkler Head
iii) Impact Sprinkler: It is made of metal or plastic and has a spring
which makes the hammer move, rotating the sprinkler. It covers an
area with a radius of 10-12 meters and operating pressure required is
10-20 meters.
Technical Manual
7
BASIC COMPONENTS OF IDEal Sprinkler SYSTEM
7. Fittings & Accessories: Various fittings required in IDEal sprinkler system are described below.
i) Tee Connector: Tee connectors of various sizes are required in ISS to
connect a branch to the main pipe, the main pipe to sub-main pipes, the
lateral pipes to sub-main pipes, etc. The tee connectors can be either the
equal tee or reducing tee type including 12mm x 12mm, 16mm x 12mm,
16mm x 16mm, 25mm x 12mm, and 32mm x 12 mm.
ii) Straight Connector: The straight connector is also called a joiner and is
required to connect pipes. It can be either the equal joiner or reducing joiner
including 12mm x 12mm, 12mm x 16mm, 25mm x 32mm, 32mm x 40 mm, and
40mm x 50mm.
iii) Take-Off Tee: It is used to connect the lateral pipes to the sub-main pipe in
larger systems. It is fixed in the wall of sub-main pipe with the help of a rubber
washer called a gromate. It is available for different sizes of lateral pipes
including 12mm and 16mm.
iv) Wooden Guide: It is used to protect the bottom of the sub-main
pipe while the metal punch is used to punch a hole in the sub-main
pipe from the top.
v) Metal Punch: It is used along with the wooden guide to punch a hole
on the top of the sub-main pipe in order to connect the take-off tee to the
sub-main pipe.
vi) Stakes/Tripod stand: Micro sprinklers and mini sprinklers
are mounted on 12-inch or 18inch long plastic stakes and
connected to the lateral pipes through an extension pipe. Impact
sprinklers are mounted on a metal tripod stand.
Technical Manual
8
TYPES OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
5. IDEal Micro Irrigation System Models
Standard packaged kits were developed based on different irrigation areas, number of plants and type of crops of
interest to smallholder farmers. These kits can be upgraded or combined to form larger systems by using additional
fittings and accessories. The three main kit types are drip kit with microtube as emitter, drip kit with built-in
dripper, and shiftable sprinkler kit.
5.1 IDEal Drip Systems
Table 5.1.1 IDEal Drip System Models and Specifications
Specification
IDS20
(Family
Nutrition Kit)
IDS100
(Vegetable
Garden Kit)
IDS500
(IDEal Drip
Kit 500 m2)
IDS1000
(IDEal Drip Kit
1000 m2)
Area Coverage
Type of Emitter
20 m2
Micro-tube
1.2 mm I.D.,
25 cm long
50
100 m2
Micro-tube
1.2 mm I.D.,
25 cm long
300
500 m2
Micro-tube
1.2 mm I.D.
25 cm long
1500
1000 m2
Micro-tube 1.2
mm I.D., 25 cm
long
3000
40 cm
30 cm
30 cm
30 cm
LLDPE 16
mm O.D.
5.0 m
LLDPE 16
mm O.D.
10 m
4
1m
LLDPE 16
mm O.D.
4m
Screen Filter
(16 mm inlet
& outlet size)
1 meter
10
1m
LLDPE 16
mm O.D.
10 m
Screen Filter
(16 mm inlet
& outlet size)
1 meter
LLDPE 16
mm O.D.
12 m on each
side
20
1m
LLDPE 48
mm O.D.
25 m
Screen Filter
(32 mm inlet
& outlet size)
1.5 meter
LLDPE 16 mm
O.D.
16 m on each side
of the sub-main
60
1m
LLDPE 48 mm
O.D.
35 m
Screen Filter
(32 mm inlet &
outlet size)
1.5 meter
3.2 lph
2.8 lph
2.4 lph
2.2 lph
No. of Emitters /
Micro-tubes
Emitter / Microtube Spacing
Type of Lateral
Lateral Length
No. of Laterals
Lateral Spacing
Type of SubMain
Sub-main Length
Filter
Operating Head /
Height of Tank
Emitter Flow
(microtube as
emitter)
Emitter Flow
(built-in dripper)
Water Storage
Crops
4.0 lph / meter 4.0 lph / meter 4.0 lph/meter
20 liters
200 liters
Vegetable crops such as
tomato, eggplant, onion,
cabbage, rapeseed, paprika,
cauliflower, garlic,
watermelon, cucumber, lettuce,
etc.
4.0 lph / meter
1000 liters
2000 liters
Vegetable crops such as tomato,
eggplant, onion, cabbage, rape
seed, paprika, cauliflower, garlic,
watermelon, cucumber, lettuce,
etc. Fruit crops such as banana,
papaya, pomegranate, citrus,
mango, etc., with required
modifications.
Note: The spacing given above for emitters and lateral pipes is recommended spacing for many vegetable
crops. Different spacing of emitters and lateral pipes can be used based on plant and row spacing of fruit
and vegetable crops grown in particular region.
Technical Manual
9
TYPES OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
5.1.1 Family Nutrition Kit 20 m2 - IDS 20
5.1.2 Vegetable Garden Kit 100 m2 - IDS 100
Technical Manual
10
TYPES OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
5.1.3 IDEal Drip Kit 200 m2 - IDS 200
5.1.4 IDEal Drip Kit 500 m2 - IDS 500
25 mtr.
tr.
1m
SS
20 mtr.
12 5
mtr
5.1.5 IDEal Drip Kit 1000 m2 - IDS 1000
34
m
SS
30
Technical Manual
11
m
TYPES OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
5.2 IDEal Sprinkler Systems
Table 5.2.1 IDEal Sprinkler Systems Models and Specifications
Specification
ISS144
ISS288
(Microsprinkler (Impact
Kit)
Sprinkler
Kit)
2
288 m2
Area Coverage 144 m
with no shift
With no shift
(one use)
(one use)
Type of Emitter Micro Sprinkler Sprinkler
2
No. of Emitters 16
/ Sprinklers
12 m
Emitter Spacing 3 m
Type of Lateral LLDPE 16mm LLDPE 32
O.D.
mm O.D.
24 m
Lateral Length 13 m
No. of Laterals
Lateral Spacing
Sub-Main Size
Sub-main
Length
Filter
4
3
LLDPE
O.D.
12
1
16mm -
ISS360
(Mini
Sprinkler Kit)
ISS576
(Mini
Sprinkler Kit)
360 m2
With no shift
(one use)
Mini Sprinkler
10
576 m2
With no shift
(one use)
Mini Sprinkler
16
6m
LLDPE 16 mm
O.D.
3 m on one side
of the submain
10
6m
LLDPE 48 mm
O.D.
30 m
6m
LLDPE 16 mm
O.D.
9 m on one side
of the submain
8
6m
LLDPE 48 mm
O.D.
25 m
Screen Filter 16 Screen Filter 32 Screen Filter 32
mm size
mm size
mm size
10 m 15 m
10 m 15 m
10 m - 15 m
Operating Head 5 m 10 m
30 40 lph
900-1200 lph 200 300 lph
200 300 lph
Emitter Flow
Vegetables, Flowers and other closely spaced crops like Onion and
Type of crops
Garlic.
Technical Manual
12
TYPES OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
5.2.1 IDEal Micro Sprinkler Kit - ISS144
Valve
Filter
3m
Microsprinkler
Coverage
5.2.2 IDEal Impact Sprinkler Kit - ISS288
Technical Manual
13
TYPES OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
5.2.3 IDEal Mini Sprinkler Kit - ISS360
5.2.4 IDEal Mini Sprinkler Kit - ISS576
Technical Manual
14
CUSTOMIZATION OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
6. Customization of IDEal Drip Irrigation System
IDEal Drip System Kits have standard sizes and are have a base design for small plots with fixed dimensions.
However, farmers often have plots of varied size and dimensions. Therefore, IDEal Drip System Kits can be
customized for a particular plot or adjusted to increase or reduce the in-row spacing or between-row spacing
according to the farmer’s need. It can be done in following ways:
1. Adjusting the length of the lateral pipes
2. Connecting additional kits to the same water source
3. Designing a customized system using simple rules
6.1 Adjusting length of the lateral pipe:
Using an IDEal Drip System Kit for a smaller area than the specified size can be done easily by closing the emitters
or reducing lateral / sub-main length by using an end cap. To use the kit for a larger area, increase the lateral line
length or connect additional lateral lines to the sub-main pipe. Make sure to increase the pressure head (height of
water tank) to provide enough pressure for the increased lines. To increase the pressure and ensure water
distribution uniformity, follow the guidelines of the table below. The table gives the maximum length the lateral
lines can be with certain pressures for each kit. Water storage or frequency of storage tank filling will also need to
be increased to account for the additional water required with increased area.
Table 6.1.1: Appropriate length of lateral lines according to pressure
Type of Kit
Length of 16mm Lateral at Different Pressure Heads (Tank Height)
1 m Head
1.2 m Head
1.4 m Head
1.6 m Head
1.8 m Head
20
19
19
19
IDS20
IDS100
IDS500
IDS1000
23
22
21
20
27
27
26
26
31
30
29
29
35
35
34
33
6.2 Connecting additional kits to the same water source
Instead of changing the lateral lines, a larger area can be irrigated by combining kits. Up to four kits can be easily
combined with a single water source, provided the source has enough capacity to provide adequate water for all of
the kits. The following table shows the additional area that can be obtained by adding kits.
Table 6.2.1: Total irrigation area when combining multiple kits
Type of Kit
Area with one Area with two Area with
kit (m2)
kits (m2)
three kits (m2)
IDS20
20
40
60
IDS100
100
200
300
IDS500
500
1000
1500
IDS1000
1000
2000
3000
Technical Manual
15
Area with
four kits (m2)
80
400
2000
4000
CUSTOMIZATION OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
6.3 Designing a customized system using simple rules:
6.3.1 Design Inputs:
IDEal Drip System kits are designed to provide high irrigation efficiency and uniform distribution of water and
nutrients for high value crops as compared to conventional flood irrigation systems. If a larger system is required
by the farmer, it can be designed within the allowable discharge variation limit by using the following procedure.
The inputs required to make an effective customized drip micro irrigation system are as follows:
1. Layout of the area
2. Details of the water source and soil type
3. Agronomic details (plant spacing, crop period, season, canopy, etc.)
4. Climatic data (rainfall, temperature, evapo-transpiration, etc.)
By using this information, a complete drip micro irrigation system can be designed which will give the following
outputs.
6.3.2 Design Outputs:
1. Detail layout of the system in the field
2. Emitter selection and placement
3. Size and length of mainline, sub-main and lateral pipes
4. Pumping and filtration requirement
5. Operating schedule for irrigation.
6. Material and cost estimate
System design starts with selection of the suitable emitter depending on type of crop, water requirement, operating
time, soil type, and water quality. The length and size of lateral lines are determined based on the lateral line flow
rate, field size, etc as shown in Table 6.3.7. Similarly, the size and length of the sub-main pipe is determined. Each
sub-main is an individual unit with its own control valve. The whole area is then divided into different sub-main
units and the number of sub-main units that can operate at any one time is based on the existing pumping / water
source capacity. Sections should be designed such that the discharge is similar for all the sections. To determine the
appropriate length of the sub-main pipe, reference Tables 6.3.8A and 6.3.8B. The mainline is then planned
connecting all the sub-mains by taking the shortest possible route. The length of the main pipe can be determined
based on the flow rate so that frictional head loss is within specified limits and total pressure head required for the
system is within pump / water source capacity. Reference Table 6.3.9 to find the appropriate length for the main
pipe. If there is no pump, then the pump requirement is worked out from total discharge and pressure head required
for the system. Depending on the flow rate and water quality, a suitable filtration device is selected. The total
quantity of all the components is calculated from the layout to prepare a cost estimate.
6.3.3 Survey:
The following survey inputs are required to prepare an accurate layout of any area (size, shape and slope) for
design of micro irrigation system:
A
Technical Manual
16
C
B
D
CUSTOMIZATION OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
1. Straight distance between points at the corners (e.g. AB, BC, CD & DA). It can be measured with a tape in a
straight line with corner points duly identified by setting down stones or sticks.
2. Angle at the corner: For a three-cornered area, distances of three of the sides is sufficient to make the
layout. For a four-cornered area, any one angle has to be measured along with distances of all sides. For a
five-cornered figure, two consecutive angles are required and so on for multiple sides. A distance of 10
meters is marked from the corner on each line, forming the angle, and then a tie length is measured between
these points. To determine the corner angle, use the following equation.
Tan (angle) = Length of opposite side / Length of adjacent side
3. Elevation: Slope of the ground surface may be judged with the naked eye for small plots wherever possible
and taken into consideration while designing the drip system. If the ground surface is too undulating and
the slope is difficult to judge, levels should be taken with a leveling instrument and contours drawn on the
map to make a proper design of the drip system.
4. Water Source: Position of water source (tank, well, reservoir, pond, river, stream, existing pump, pipeline,
etc.) should be marked on the map and the following details noted.
a) Size, volume, flow rate, and height above ground level or depth from ground surface or water
source.
b) Pump details for the existing pump including suction, delivery, actual discharge & head, operating
time, pump HP, expected discharge & head.
c) Quality of water, impurities in water (algae, sand /silt, etc.) If a water analysis report is available, it
should be enclosed with the survey report or if possible the farmer should try to have it analyzed at
a local laboratory.
5. Agro-climatic details: The details of existing or future cropsshould be noted including specific areas, crop
spacing (plant to plant distance x row to row distance), number of plants and number of rows, crop
duration, expected canopy, rainfall, evapo-transpiration, etc.
6. Soil details: The details of soil quality visible to the naked eye should be noted including heavy soil or light
soil depending on soil texture ( proportion of clay, silt & sand.) If a soil analysis report is available it should
be enclosed with the survey report or the farmer should try to have it analyzed at a local laboratory.
7. Permanent details of the land: Location of farm house, large trees, rocks, etc. should be marked by taking
angular measurements from a minimum of two points so that they can be plotted accurately on the survey
plan.
Survey Plan: From the above information, a plan of the area surveyed can be prepared on a 1:1000 scale. For
smaller areas, an appropriate scale can be used depending on the size of the area. The drip system layout can be
prepared on this plan and then it can be used for installation.
Technical Manual
17
CUSTOMIZATION OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
6.3.4 Water Requirement
The water requirement of plants depends on many factors viz. temperature, humidity, soil type, wind velocity,
growth stage, shade / sun, etc. Plants absorb soil moisture and transpire it to the atmosphere during the process of
photosynthesis. Some amount of water is retained in the plant tissue and the rest of the soil moisture gets
evaporated to the atmosphere. Drip irrigation involves frequent application of water, even on a daily basis.
Therefore, water requirement of the plant per day is equivalent to the rate of potential evapo-transpiration per day.
Evapo-transpiration is the quantity of water transpired by the plants plus the quantity of water retained in the plant
tissue and water evaporated from the soil surface. The reference values for evapo-transpiration are normally
available for a particular area at the nearest meteorological observatory.
Water requirement can be calculated as:
WR (Liters per day) = ET x Kc x Cp x Area, where
ET is evapo-transpiration (mm per day)
Kc is crop factor
Cp is canopy factor
Area in sq. meter
If specific crop factor values are not available, then it can be assumed as one.
The canopy factor is the percentage of area covered by plant canopy (foliage). It varies according to the growth
stage of the plant.
The area for orchards is the multiplication of the distance from plant to plant (m) and distance from row to row (m).
For row plantation, the unit area can be taken to calculate water requirement.
Example: Calculate peak water requirement for grapes planted at the spacing of 2 m by 2m. Assume peak ET for
the area as 6 mm per day, crop factor for grape 0.8 and canopy factor 0.8.
Peak water requirement per day = 6 x 0.8 x 0.8 x 2 x 2
= 15.4 liters per day per plant
It is called peak water requirement because it is calculated on the basis of the highest rate of evapo-transpiration
which normally occurs in the high temperatures and windy conditions of summer. However, daily water
requirements will depend on the daily rate of evapo-transpiration which is less during winter and higher in
summer.
The drip system has constant discharge at the given pressure. Therefore, operating time can be varied to provide
the required amount of water depending on the season.
6.3.5 Operating Time / Irrigation Schedule
Operating (irrigation) time is the duration of irrigation system operation that provides the required amount of
water for the plants. It can be calculated as follows:
Irrigation time (hrs / day) =
Water requirement (liters per day)
————————————————————Application rate (liters per hour)
Example 1
Calculate irrigation time for a papaya tree with daily water requirement of 10 liters per day per plant and
provided the microtube system with a discharge rate of 4 liters per hour.
Irrigation time (hrs / day) =
10
—— = 2.5 hrs / day
4
Example 2
Calculate the irrigation time required for a 100 sq. meter vegetable plot with a daily water requirement of 400
liters and a microtube system discharge rate of 200 liters per hour.
Irrigation time (hrs / day) =
Technical Manual
18
400
—— = 2 hrs / day
200
CUSTOMIZATION OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
6.3.6 Selection of Emitter
The emitter is the most important part of a drip system because it delivers water at the desired rate to the plant and
maintains water application uniformity over the entire irrigated area. An emitter should match particular field
conditions including type of crop, spacing of the plants, terrain, water requirement, water quality, operating time,
pressure head, etc. Some of the criteria that can be applied to the selection of dripper are given below:
1. Reliability against clogging and malfunctioning
2. Emission uniformity
3. Simple to install and maintain
4. Pressure compensation in case of undulated terrain
5. Percentage area wetted
6. Flow rate
7. Operating pressure
8. Cost
Table 6.3.6.A: Types and application of major type of emitters to different crops
Type of Emitter
Micro-tube, Online
dripper, Inline drippers.
Self or Pressure
compensating dripper
Line source tube / Thin
walled Tape
Micro Sprinkler / Micro
Jet
Mini Sprinkler
Flow Rate
(LPH)
1-10
Operating
Pressure (m)
1-10
1-10
10-30
1-5
1-15
20-100
5-50
500-1000
10-20
Application to type of
crop and terrain
Vegetable and fruit
crops on flat terrain
Vegetable and fruit
crops on uneven land
Long row crops
Vegetable and nursery
crops
Closely spaced crops
Table 6.3.6.B: Flow rate for different lengths of microtube at different pressure head
Pressure
Head
(m)
0.20
3.23
5.25
6.98
8.53
9.98
11.33
13.86
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.00
Technical Manual
19
0.25
2.83
4.59
6.10
7.46
8.73
9.91
12.13
Length of Microtube (m)
0.30
0.45
0.60
2.54
4.12
5.47
6.69
7.82
8.89
10.87
1.99
3.23
4.29
5.25
6.13
6.97
8.52
1.67
2.72
3.61
4.41
5.16
5.86
7.17
0.90
1.31
2.13
2.83
3.46
4.05
4.60
5.62
1.20
1.10
1.79
2.38
2.91
3.40
3.87
4.73
1.50
0.97
1.57
2.08
2.55
2.98
3.38
4.14
CUSTOMIZATION OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
6.3.7 Design of Lateral
In most of the drip systems LLDPE laterals of 12 mm to 16 mm size are used. An important point to consider while
designing the lateral pipe is the slope of the field. If the average slope of the field is less than 3% in the direction of
the lateral, laterals can lie along the slope. However, if the slope of the field is more than 3%, laterals should be
used along the contours. Additionally, friction loss along the laterals must stay within the allowable limit. This
limits the length laterals can be along each side of the sub-main line. The desirable limit for emitter flow variation
is less than 10%, but depending on the crop, variation of 10 to 20% is acceptable. For 10% variation in discharge,
approximately 20% variation in the available head is acceptable. Taking into consideration all of these limitations,
the maximum allowable length of laterals can be calculated from flow equations like the Hazen-Williams
equation (using C 150):
5.35 Q 1.852 L
Hl = ———————
D 4.871
where Hl is pressure loss due to friction (m);
Q is total discharge of lateral (lps);
L is length of lateral (m);
and D is inside diameter (cm).
To cover the range of emitter discharge and spacing, a parameter called Specific Discharge Rate (SDR) is used. It
is actually flow per unit length of the lateral. It can be calculated as given below.
Emitter flow rate (lph)
Lateral SDR = ——————————— =
(lph/m)
Spacing between two emitters (m)
Discharge from lateral (lph)
———————————
Length of lateral (m)
The following tables give allowable lengths for 8 mm, 12 mm, 14 mm & 16 mm pipe at different pressure head and
lateral flow rates.
Table 6.3.7 Allowable length of 14 mm and 16 mm pipes (m)
Lateral
SDR
(lph/m)
Available Pressure Head
1m
14
mm
40
30
25
15
10
08
04
1.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
10.0
15.0
20.00
16
mm
50
40
30
20
12
10
08
2m
14
mm
45
35
30
20
12
10
05
16
mm
60
50
40
25
15
12
10
3m
14
mm
60
45
35
25
15
12
10
16
mm
80
60
40
30
20
15
12
5m
14
mm
80
60
40
30
20
15
10
16
mm
100
80
50
40
25
20
15
10 m
14
mm
120
80
50
40
25
20
15
16
mm
150
100
60
50
35
30
20
15 m
14
mm
150
100
60
50
35
30
20
16
mm
180
120
75
60
45
35
25
Note :
The above figures are for flat land (zero slope.) Pipe length adjustments must be made if the slope is above zero.
Use lateral pipes along the contour line and shorter sub-main pipe against the slope and longer sub-main down the
slope so that discharge variation is within desired uniformity levels. (Flow and friction loss tables are given in
Appendix A.)
Technical Manual
20
CUSTOMIZATION OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
6.3.8 Design of the sub-main
The sub-main pipe is designed similarly to the lateral lines because it is also a perforated pipe whose discharge
reduces along the length of the pipe. Depending on the flow rate, various sizes of PVC / HDPE / LLDPE pipes are
used as sub-main pipes in micro irrigation system. For IDEal Drip System klits, 16 mm, 32 mm and 48 mm Lay
Flat LLDPE pipe is used for the sub-main pipe. The calculation of the allowable length at different pressure heads
and flow rates for 32 mm, 48 mm, 63 mm and 75 mm is given below.
Lateral SDR (lph/m) x Length of the lateral (m)
Sub-main SDR (lph/m) = ----------------------------------------------------------Spacing between two laterals (m)
=
Total Discharge from the Sub main (lph)
-----------------------------------------------------Length of the sub main (m)
Table 6.3.8A Allowable length of 32 mm & 48 mm pipes (m)
Submain
Available Pressure Head
SDR
1m
2m
3m
5m
(lph/m)
32
48
32
48
32
48
32
48
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
20
40
60
50
50
60
75
70
90
40
25
30
30
40
40
50
50
60
80
15
20
20
30
25
30
30
45
150
07
10
10
15
15
20
20
30
300
04
07
06
10
13
17
18
25
Table 6.3.8B Allowable length of 63 mm & 75 mm pipes (m)
Sub-main
Available Pressure Head
SDR
1m
2m
3m
5m
(lph/m)
63
75
63
75
63
75
63
75
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
50
30
40
50
80
100
10
30
25
45
30
55
50
70
150
05
15
15
25
20
40
30
50
200
10
05
15
10
20
20
35
300
10
05
15
10
25
400
10
05
15
500
10
(Flow and friction loss tables given in Appendix A.)
Technical Manual
21
10 m
32
mm
80
60
40
25
22
10 m
63
mm
100
60
40
30
20
10
05
15 m
48
mm
120
90
60
40
30
32
mm
100
70
50
30
27
15 m
75
63
mm mm
120
80
80
60
60
45
40
35
25
25
15
15
10
75
mm
100
80
65
45
25
15
48
mm
150
120
80
50
40
CUSTOMIZATION OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
6.3.9 Design of Main Line
Design of the main line involves determining the diameter of the pipe and class / thickness. It depends upon flow
rate, operating pressure and topography. As per the irrigation scheduling of the sub-main units, the main line flow
can be determined by selecting the sub-mains that will operate concurrently. The main line size is selected so that
allowable pressure variations due to frictional losses are within the limit for the economic pipe sizing. Frictional
head loss can be calculated using the Hazen-Williams equation as given below.
15.27 Q 1.852 L
Hl = -----------------D 4.871
where Hl is pressure loss due to friction (m);
Q is total discharge in the pipe (lps);
L is length of pipe (m);
and D is inside diameter (cm).
The following table gives main line sizes for different flow ranges and resulting frictional head losses for 10 m of
pipe.
Table 6.3.9 Flow range and frictional loss for various main line pipe sizes
Pipe
Size
(Outside
diametermm)
Flow Range
(lps)
Friction Loss
(m per 10 m of
pipe length)
16
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
0.010.07
0.010.35
0.070.15
0.100.38
0.150.25
0.130.32
0.250.50
0.100.32
0.501.00
0.100.30
1.002.00
0.110.40
2.003.50
0.110.32
3.505.00
0.130.30
6.3.10 Selection of Filter
The filtration requirement depends on the size of the flow path in the emitter, quality of water and flow in the
mainline. IMS Kits use screen filters because water is stored in a storage tank. For large systems, depending on
water quality, different filters or combination of filters can be used. For large flow requirements filters can be
connected in parallel using manifolds so that pressure loss across the filters is within limits. Four types of filters
are mainly available in different sizes (filtration area) as described below.
1. Screen (Mesh) Filter: It is made of plastic or metal and different sizes are available for different flow rates
3
3
from 1 m /hr to 40 m /hr. It is used for normal water with light inorganic impurities. It is also called a
surface filter.
2. Sand (Media) Filter: It is made of M.S. metal and available in different sizes similar to the screen filter. It is
used for water with suspended particles and organic impurities like algae. Either sand or gravel can be used
as the media for filtration. It is also called a depth filter. and is used in series with the screen filter.
3. Disc Filter: It is made of plastic and has round discs with micro water paths, staked together in a cylinder so
that impurities can not pass through the discs. It combines surface and depth filters.
4. Hydro-cyclone: It is made of M.S. metal and has a conical shaped cylinder to give centrifugal action to the
flow of water so that heavy impurities settle. It is used in conjunction with the screen filter to filter sandy
water along.
Technical Manual
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CUSTOMIZATION OF IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEM
6.3.11 Selection of Pump / Total Head Requirement
The head (pressure) required at the inlet of the mainline or filter is calculated as follows:
Head (m) = Operating pressure (m) + Mainline friction loss (m) + fittings loss (m)
+ Filter loss (m) + (-) Elevation difference (m).
For a centrifugal pump the total head requirement is calculated as follows:
Total Head (m) = Suction head (m) + Delivery head (m) + Operating pressure (m) +
Mainline friction loss (m) + fittings loss (m) + Filter loss (m) + (-)Elevation difference
(m).
The horsepower requirement is calculated as follows:
Flow (lps) x Total Head (m)
Horsepower (HP) = ————————————————————————75 x Motor efficiency x Pump efficiency
Efficiency of the motor and pump differ for different makes and models. Approximate motor efficiency can be
assumed at 80% and pump efficiency at 75% for a mono-block pump. However, in order to procure a pump from
the market, the required flow and total head should be mentioned to the supplier / manufacturer so that he can
select a suitable model from the same or lower horsepower category.
Technical Manual
23
INSTALLATION & COMMISSIONING
7. Installation & Commissioning
Installation of IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems is a very simple process. It can be divided in to three stages:
1. Installing water source (bucket, barrel, tank, pump, etc.).
2. Laying of pipes and emitters / micro-tubes / setting up sprinklers.
3. Commissioning
If there is no overhead tank then a water source must be created (i.e. a bucket, barrel, tank, etc.) It has to be installed
above ground level on a stable support platform at the required height to achieve minimum pressure requirements
for the system (minimum 1 meter). The system then can be connected to the water source. Micro-sprinkler and
overhead sprinkler kits can be directly connected with the equivalent discharge outlet of a pump or water supply
system. Make sure that the control valve and filter are connected to the system through the main line.
For drip systems, lateral pipes are laid on the ground in a straight line or along the plant rows. Emitters / microtubes are pre-fixed on the lateral. They are placed at equal spacing so that plants receive a uniform amount of
water. For sprinklers, stakes are used to place them properly. Care should be taken so that dirt, sand etc. does not
enter into the pipes while making connections.
Before operating the system, end caps at the end of the laterals and sub-main are released so that if there is dirt in
the pipes it is washed away and air is also driven out. Open the control valve and let the water flow freely through
the pipes for some time (flush the system). Then close the end caps and ensure that water is coming out from each
emitter.
In general, the following activities are involved in the installation of IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems:
1. Study installation sketch
2. Give layout for water tank / filter platform and trenches for pipes if required
3. Check components in the kit / material at site as per the list of materials in the user manual
4. Install water storage tank and filter on the platform
5. Connect filter to the water source / pump and the main line
6. Lay out the main line, sub-main and lateral pipes
7. Cover the pipe trenches if required
8. Place / fix the emitters / sprinklers (if microtubes require inflated lateral pipes then fill the pipes with water
then punch holes and fix microtubes)
9. Start the pump / Open the valve and fill the pipes with water
10. Release all end caps / flush valves to clean the sytesm of dirt
11. Check pressure and discharge and ensure all emitters are working
12. Operate according to schedule
Technical Manual
24
8. MAINTENANCE & TROUBLESHOOTING
8. Maintenance & Troubleshooting
The biggest problem of any micro irrigation system is clogging of emitters. IDEal Micro Irrigation System Kits
use very simple emitters that are less prone to clogging due to a wider flow path. Therefore, it requires less
maintenance than other drippers. However, periodic and preventive maintenance is essential for smooth system
function. The following general checks can be carried out periodically depending on the local condition and water
quality:
1. Clogging of emitters / micro sprinklers and wetting pattern
2. Placement of emitters / micro-tubes / micro sprinklers
3. Leakages in pipes, valves, filter, fittings, etc.
4. Flushing & cleaning of filter by opening and cleaning the screen
5. Flushing of sub-main & laterals by releasing the end caps
Apart from physical impurities that can be separated by using a screen filter, there are dissolved chemical (mainly
salts) impurities and also biological impurities like algae, bacteria, etc. present in some water sources. If the
dissolved salts are more concentrated, they can accumulate and clog the emitters. Hydrochloric acid can be
applied to the emitters to flush the salts. If bacteria or algae clogs the system, chlorine treatment in the form of
bleaching powder (2 mg per liter) can be added to clean the emitters and inhibit slime growth. Some common
problems faced by micro irrigation systems, causes and trouble-shooting required are given in the following
tables.
Table 8.1.1 Troubleshooting potential system problems for IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems
Problem
Micro-tube /
micro
sprinkler /
emitter not
delivering
water.
Cause
Clogging due to
impurities in
water or air
bubble in microtube
Leakage in
lateral, submain or main
pipe
Leakage in
fittings of
lateral pipe.
Reduced
flow of water
from emitter.
Cut in pipe due to
mechanical
damage, rodents,
etc.
Pipe expansion or
frequent use
Technical Manual
25
1. Caked filter
2. Pipe leakage
3. Open end cap
Troubleshooting
1. Take out micro-tube from lateral pipe and shake it
or blow it so that the dirt or trapped air comes out. If
it is a different type of emitter / micro sprinkler,
open it and clean it with a needle so that dirt is
removed. Then fix the emitter and check it is
working.
2. Check the filter screen and gasket for any possible
leakage and if required, replace them.
Cut the pipe at the place of damage and connect it by
using joiner / connector. For large diameter pipes, if
joiners are not available then a service saddle can be
used.
Cut the pipe end for the expanded portion and insert
the fitting in it again. If the fitting is too loose for the
pipe diameter it can be adjusted by heating it.
1. Clean the filter screen.
2. Repair pipe leakage as mentioned above.
3. Tighten the end.
9. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
9. Frequently Asked Questions on IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems
Table 9.1.1 Answers to questions about IDEal Micro Irrigation Systems
Question
Water requirement of Micro
Irrigation System
Expansion / Customization of Kit
Life of components
Water saving
Spacing of micro-tube / emitters /
micro sprinklers / mini sprinklers
/ impact sprinklers
Water storage required
Root development when using
drip irrigation
Application of drip to existing
plants
Water application at the time of
sowing
Reasons for increase in yield /
quality
Answer
It will depend on climate, soil, crop, etc.
Approximately it can be equal to the evapotranspiration multiplied by the canopy factor or
percent wetted area.
Lateral pipes can be increased in length as shown in
table 5.1. Alternately, additional kits can be attached
to the same water source.
The life of most plastic components is a minimum of
five years. It can last up to ten years if maintained
properly.
Most drip systems save water application up to 50%
as compared with traditional systems.
For closely spaced crops like onion or garlic drippers
should be close enough to form the wetting strip
(between 30 to 45 cm). For widely spaced crops, one
or more drippers can be used per plant depending on
plant spacing and wetting required.
Normally, sprinklers are space at radius of coverage
area of the wetting pattern for better uniformity.
The capacity of water storage for a gravity system
should be equal to one day retention of the daily
water requirement. It can be less if the frequency of
water filling is higher or continuous.
The roots have a tendency to reach for moisture.
Therefore, the roots are very well developed when
using drip irrigation. Micro Irrigation Systems
provide the proper soil-air-water ratio for root
respiration.
Micro Irrigation System can be applied to existing
plants for better yield. Care should be taken if
moisture stress is required by some crops to induce
flowering.
It is better to provide enough water to form complete
wetting so that all the seeds/seedlings have access to
moisture.
Since water is given at regular but frequent intervals
and at a required quantity as compared with
traditional systems, plants have better metabolism
and produce a better crop in terms of both quality
and quantity. The soil-water-air ratio is also
favorable for most cash crops. Micro Irrigation
keeps the soil warmer than conventional irrigation.
contd...
Technical Manual
26
9. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON IDEal MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
Question
Pressure head required for IDEal
Micro Irrigation Kits
Use of IDEal Micro Irrigation
System on undulated area
Length of micro-tube
Damage to lateral pipes due to
rodents, etc.
Theft of IDEal Micro Irrigation
System
Shifting of micro-tube system at
the end of the season
Use of IDEal Micro Irrigation
System for different crops
Technical Manual
27
Answer
The pressure head or height of water source will
depend on the area covered or distance of remotest
emitters from the source. Approximately 1m for 100
sq.m., 1.5 m for 500 sq.m. and 2 m for 1000 sq.m.
For Micro and Mini Sprinklers minimum operating
pressure is 5 m. For impact sprinklers minimum
operating pressure is 10 m.
If there are terraces formed on hill slopes or
undulated area, one or more drip kit should cover a
single terrace, which is evenly leveled. A separate
kit should be used for a terrace on the upward or
downward side. Operate one terrace at a time to get
uniform application. If more terraces have to be
irrigated at a time then the flow for downward
terraces should be decreased with the help of a valve
or orifice so that an equal quantity of water is
supplied to each terrace.
For vegetables where micro-tubes are provided on
both sides of the lateral, it should be sufficient to
reach each row. For widely spaced crops it should
confirm to required discharge at a given pressure
head.
Lateral pipe should be cut and damaged portion
removed. Re-connect the lateral with the help of the
connector.
Try to bury the maximum length of pipes under the
ground. The lateral and sub-main pipes being
perforated with holes will be less prone tor theft.
After the crop has been harvested, the drip system
should be stored properly so that it is not damaged
mechanically or by rodents in the store / field.
Hanging it on a wooden pillar can protect it from the
rodents.
The spacing of most vegetable crops is the same or
in multiples of the minimum. Therefore, the drip kit
can be utilized for various spacing of crops.
APPENDIX
Table A.1 Flow and friction Loss for 16 mm lateral pipe with 25 cm long microtube
ROW / LATERAL LENGTH - Meters (m)
10
Microtube
Spacing
Inch
cm
20
30
40
50
LATERAL FLOW - lpm and HEAD LOSS - m
lpm
m
lpm
m
lpm
m
lpm
m
lpm
m
AVERAGE PRESSURE HEAD - 0.5 m (qa=2.84)
12
30
1.58
0.01
3.16
0.07
4.73
0.21
6.31
0.45
7.89
0.84
18
45
1.05
0.00
2.10
0.03
3.16
0.10
4.21
0.22
5.26
0.41
24
60
0.79
0.00
1.58
0.02
2.37
0.06
3.16
0.13
3.94
0.25
30
75
0.63
0.00
1.26
0.01
1.89
0.04
2.52
0.09
3.16
0.17
36
90
0.53
0.00
1.05
0.01
1.58
0.03
2.10
0.07
2.63
0.12
AVERAGE PRESSURE HEAD - 1.00 m (qa=4.59)
12
30
2.55
0.02
5.10
0.16
7.65
0.48
10.20
1.05
12.75
1.94
18
45
1.70
0.01
3.40
0.08
5.10
0.23
6.80
0.52
8.50
0.95
24
60
1.28
0.01
2.55
0.05
3.83
0.14
5.10
0.31
6.38
0.58
30
75
1.02
0.00
2.04
0.03
3.06
0.10
4.08
0.21
5.10
0.39
36
90
0.85
0.00
1.70
0.02
2.55
0.07
3.40
0.15
4.25
0.28
AVERAGE PRESSURE HEAD - 1.5 m (qa=6.10)
12
30
3.39
0.04
6.78
0.26
10.17
0.78
13.56
1.72
16.94
3.18
18
45
2.26
0.02
4.52
0.13
6.78
0.38
9.04
0.85
11.30
1.57
24
60
1.69
0.01
3.39
0.08
5.08
0.23
6.78
0.51
8.47
0.95
30
75
1.36
0.01
2.71
0.05
4.07
0.16
5.42
0.35
6.78
0.64
36
90
1.13
0.01
2.26
0.04
3.39
0.11
4.52
0.25
5.65
0.47
AVERAGE PRESSURE HEAD - 2.00 m (qa=7.46)
12
30
4.14
0.05
8.29
0.36
12.43
1.11
16.58
2.45
20.72
4.53
18
45
2.76
0.03
5.53
0.18
8.29
0.55
11.05
1.21
13.81
2.23
24
60
2.07
0.02
4.14
0.11
6.22
0.33
8.29
0.73
10.36
1.35
30
75
1.66
0.01
3.32
0.07
4.97
0.22
6.63
0.49
8.29
0.91
36
90
1.38
0.01
2.76
0.05
4.14
0.16
5.53
0.36
6.91
0.66
AVERAGE PRESSURE HEAD - 3.00 m (qa=9.91)
12
30
5.51
0.09
11.01
0.60
16.52
1.83
22.02
4.03
27.53
7.44
18
45
3.67
0.04
7.34
0.29
11.01
0.90
14.68
1.98
18.35
3.66
24
60
2.75
0.03
5.51
0.18
8.26
0.54
11.01
1.20
13.76
2.21
30
75
2.20
0.02
4.40
0.12
6.61
0.37
8.81
0.81
11.01
1.50
36
90
1.84
0.01
3.67
0.09
5.51
0.27
7.34
0.59
9.18
1.09
Technical Manual
28
APPENDIX
Table A.2: Flow and friction loss for 63 mm sub-main pipe
Lateral
SUB-MAIN LENGTH - METERS (m)
Spacing
20 -m
30 -m
40 -m
50 -m
Inch
24
30
cm
60
75
36 90
48 120
24 60
30 75
36 90
48 120
lpm
60
SUB-MAIN FLOW - lpm and HEAD LOSS - m
m
lpm
m
Lpm
m
lpm
m
lpm
-m
m
AVERAGE LATERAL FLOW (Ql=4.0 lpm)
2.22 0.04 4.44 0.24 6.67
0.75
8.89
1.65 11.11
1.78 0.02 3.56 0.17 5.33
0.51
7.11
1.11
8.89
3.04
2.06
1.48 0.02
1.11 0.01
5.56
1.50
0.90
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.02
AVERAGE LATERAL FLOW (Ql=6.0 lpm)
6.67 0.50 10.00
1.52 13.33
3.35 16.67
5.33 0.34 8.00
1.03 10.67
2.27 13.33
4.44 0.24 6.67
0.75
8.89
1.65 11.11
3.33 0.15 5.00
0.45
6.67
1.00
8.33
6.19
4.19
3.04
1.84
AVERAGE LATERAL FLOW (Ql=8.0 lpm)
8.89 0.82 13.33
2.51 17.78
5.54 22.22
7.11 0.56 10.67
1.70 14.22
3.75 17.78
5.93 0.41 8.89
1.24 11.85
2.73 14.81
4.44 0.24 6.67
0.75
8.89
1.65 11.11
10.24
6.93
5.03
3.04
3.33
2.67
2.22
1.67
2.96 0.12
2.22 0.07
4.44
3.33
0.37
0.22
5.93
4.44
0.81
0.49
7.41
24 60
30 75
36 90
48 120
4.44
3.56
2.96
2.22
0.12
0.08
0.06
0.04
24 60
30 75
36 90
48 120
5.56
4.44
3.70
2.78
AVERAGE LATERAL FLOW (Ql=10.0 lpm)
0.18 11.11 1.22 16.67
3.71 22.22
8.19 27.78
0.12 8.89 0.82 13.33
2.51 17.78
5.54 22.22
0.09 7.41 0.60 11.11
1.83 14.81
4.03 18.52
0.05 5.56 0.36 8.33
1.10 11.11
2.43 13.89
15.12
10.24
7.44
4.50
6.67
5.33
4.44
3.33
0.25
0.17
0.12
0.07
AVERAGE LATERAL FLOW (Ql=12.0 lpm)
13.33 1.67 20.00
5.11 26.67 11.27 33.33
10.67 1.13 16.00
3.46 21.33
7.62 26.67
8.89 0.82 13.33
2.51 17.78
5.54 22.22
6.67 0.50 10.00
1.52 13.33
3.35 16.67
20.81
14.08
10.24
6.19
0.33
0.22
0.16
0.10
AVERAGE LATERAL FLOW (Ql=14.0 lpm)
15.56 2.19 23.33
6.69 31.11 14.75 38.89
12.44 1.48 18.67
4.53 24.89
9.98 31.11
10.37 1.08 15.56
3.29 20.74
7.26 25.93
7.78 0.65 11.67
1.99 15.56
4.39 19.44
27.25
18.44
13.40
8.10
24 60
30 75
36 90
48 120
24 60
30 75
36 90
48 120
Technical Manual
7.78
6.22
5.19
3.89
29
GLOSSARY
Abbreviation
IDE
IDS
ISS
IMS
ET
hp
LPH
LPS
LPH per meter
ha
ft
inch
mm
cm
m
Sq.m
PVC
PE
HDPE
LDPE
LLDPE
Description
International Development Enterprises
IDEal Drip System
IDEal Sprinkler System
IDEal Micro Irrigation System
Evapo-transpiration
Horse Power
Liter per Hour
Liter per Second
Liter per hour per meter
Hectare
Feet
Inches
Millimeter
Centimeter
Meter
Square meter
Polyvinyl chloride
Polyethylene
High Density Polyethylene
Low Density Polyethylene
Linear Low Density Polyethylene
REFERENCES
Adhikari, Deepak. 2000 Simplified and Low Cost Drip Irrigation Manual, International Development
Enterprises, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Keller, Jack and Ron Bliesner. 2000. Sprinkler and Trickle Irrigation. ISBN: 1-930665-19-9. Blackburn
Press, Caldwell, New Jersey.
Proceedings of Drip and Sprinkler Workshop 1994, Jalgaon (M.S.), India.
Proceedings of Micro Irrigation Congress 1995, Orlando, FL, USA.
Suryawanshi, Sudarshan. 2000. Affordable Micro Irrigation Technology, International Devleopment
Enterprises, Delhi, India.
Technical Manual
30
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENTERPRISES
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENTERPRISES
10403, West Colfax, Suite 500, Lakewood, CO 80215, USA
Tel : 303-232-4336
www.ide-international.org
CGIAR Challenge Program on
WATER & FOOD
Fly UP