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LI
SH
G
EN
ISSN 1021 – 268X
grid
IPTRID network magazine
Issue 28, February 2008. Published twice yearly.
International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID)
CONTENTS
Water policy issues
of India
Waste water reuse
in Gaza Strip
Drip irrigation in Kenya
The GEMAWED project
Fertigation device under
surface irrigation
Book review
Aim and scope
grid
GRID
is
published
to
assist
communication between researchers
and professionals in the spheres of
irrigation and drainage. It informs
readers about IPTRID activities and
about research and development in
irrigation and drainage with a view
to stimulating international debate on
these issues.
IPTRID magazine
Issue 28, February 2008
Submission of material
GRID
invites
short
written
contributions, principally for the
Diary and Forum sections. They may
include photographs or drawings,
which must be of high quality and
suitable for reproduction at reduced
size. Contributions should be
sent to: International Programme
for Technology and Research in
Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID),
Land and Water Division (NRL),
Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations, Viale delle
Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome,
Italy.
By submitting material, the
author(s)
agree(s)
that
the
copyright of that material is
transferred to the publishers if and
when it is accepted for publication.
Opinions and data reproduced in
GRID are the sole responsibility of
the authors and do not necessarily
represent the views of IPTRID or
the publishers.
Editorial team
Carlos
Garcés-Restrepo,
Chief
Editor – Hervé Levite, Guest Editor
– Edith Mahabir-Fabbri, Language
Review – IPTRID Technical Staff,
Article Reviewers
Publishers
Published by the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations.
Modern irrigation equipment:
Center pivot system. (FAO)
CONTENTS
A welcome from the Programme Manager
Our interview with Mr Daniel Zimmer
International
3
4
MAIN ARTICLE
Water policy issues of India: Study outcome and suggested policy interventions
6
GROUNDWATER
The COTAS in Guanajuato, Mexico:
A new approach towards groundwater management
8
WATER CONSERVATION
Analysis of socio-economic impacts of wastewater
reuse schemes in Gaza Strip
11
MODERNIZATION
Low-head drip irrigation kits in Kenya
14
CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT
Promoting gender mainstreaming in water resources management
in the Mediterranean Region: The GEWAMED project
ISSN 1021-268X
Sponsors of GRID
Department
of
Development, UK
GRID is produced for professionals
working or having an interest in
irrigation and drainage projects
in developing countries. It covers
all relevant disciplines including
engineering, agriculture and the social
sciences.
16
COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION
The role of GIS in rural development
18
Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations, Italy
RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY
Ministry for Foreign Affairs, France
The GIGNAC canal: An experimental laboratory for irrigation canal control 19
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries
and Food, Spain
A fertigation device for surface irrigation from Egypt
IPTRID Secretariat, Italy
BOOK REVIEW
The designations employed and
the presentation of material in
this information product do not
imply the expression of any opinion
whatsoever on the part of the Food
and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations concerning the
legal status of any country, territory,
city or area or of its authorities, or
concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries.
Date for submission of material for
Issue 29 is 30 June 2008.
2
February 2008 :: GRID 28
Water lifting devices
21
22
IPTRID NEWS
IPTRID evaluates the APPIA Project in West and East Africa
Evaluation of the MREA Project by IPTRID
Staff changes
23
23
24
FORUM
How much water is needed for the keeping of livestock?
26
DIARY
Conferences and symposia
28
A welcome from the
Programme Manager
Dear Reader,
In relation to our activities
The six month period since our last GRID issue concentrated on the
reorganization of our Governance, in line with what we had reported earlier. We
had a Management Committee meeting in Stockholm in August 2007 where we
set the basis for the establishment of our new apex body, the Steering Committee (SC). Then we met in Sacramento, USA
in October 2007 under the Consultative Group to formalize the proposed changes. Finally, we had our rst SC meeting in
London in November where three main donors: DFID from UK, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from France, and FAO
[maybe we will be able to add Spain], once more, committed to support IPTRID for 2008 and beyond. Subsequently, a
new strategy and work-plan was formulated setting the stage for a renewed Programme which focuses its activities on
facilitating the research uptake and the exchanges of technology in the context of irrigated agriculture in the poorest
countries in the world.
With respect to other activities, the Programme continued its involvement and support in a varied number of ways:
We celebrated signed Letters of Agreement with our partners ANAFIDE from Morocco and ARID in West Africa (based
in Burkina-Faso) to pursue dedicated e-mail conferences on water scarcity and maintenance of small scale irrigation,
respectively, under the framework of the CISEAU project. We edited and published for ARID, a French version of the
APPIA Manual “Participatory Rapid Diagnosis and Action Planning for Irrigated Agricultural Systems”. We stepped up
our interventions in India and Tanzania in relation to the Swiss PEP pump. In Egypt we concluded the study on their
experience in Irrigation and Drainage Research Uptake, and among others, in collaboration with our host partner at FAO,
the NRLW Division, we initiated a review of the status of spate irrigation, on a global scale.
Concerning this issue
Our periodical, GRID 28, the rst issue of 2008 had again our Senior Technical Ofcer, Hervé Levite, as Guest Editor. Our
agship magazine continues to draw international attention as evidenced by the numerous messages of support, including a
request from Central Asia to have it translated into the Russian language, something we are exploring, as we went to press
with this issue. We do not expect to disappoint you with the issue in your hands.
For our interview we tapped Mr Daniel Zimmer, the Chief Executive Ofcer of the World Water Council. He tells us
about his organization’s activities and how it relates to our work and how IPTRID can grow and thrive. Our main article,
from India, fell under our Country Policy Support Project (CPSP) agreement with ICID when we decided to include
one more article under this arrangement. After that, we traveled the world: From Mexico, the work on COTAS, their
groundwater organizations; in Gaza Strip we learn about waste water reuse and its importance for day to day livelihood;
Kenya presents us with its efforts on modernized, low-cost technology, the drip kits; and the Mediterranean region offers
an article on Gender and Irrigation, which is the rst time we address this issue in our magazine.
The Research and Technology section deals with modern irrigation in France and a fertigation device from Egypt. One
may also read about the role of GIS in rural development. In the Forum, a discussion on water and livestock should interest
you, as well. Finally, our Book Review touches on water lifting devices.
Enjoy your reading and send us your contributions. GRID belongs to you!
Carlos Garcés-Restrepo
IPTRID Programme Manager
3
GRID 28 :: February 2008
Interview with
Daniel Zimmer
is not, in general, an end in itself, but
simply a means to achieve important
objectives, food production being one
of them. I often say that today the
In this new issue of GRID we have the
water community needs a Copernican
pleasure of bringing you an interview
Revolution: it has to see itself more
with the Chief Executive Officer of
like one planet in an interconnected
the World Water Council, Mr Daniel
system rather than as the centre of
Zimmer. The Council, serving as a
the universe!
platform to promote awareness and
encourage debates on critical water
issues at all levels, is thus a fitting
interlocutor
for
IPTRID
as
our
Programme parallels their mission in
the divides in interests, ideologies and
the narrower subject of technology and
solidarity for the benet of the planet
research for irrigated agriculture. Mr
and all people on it.
Zimmer provides a candid view about
his organization and how it can interact
with our Programme [The Editor]
On WWC and its activities
The “true” impact of
the World Water Forum
is often brought into
question, what is your
reaction to this?
What importance does
the WWC give, within
its efforts, to “water for
agriculture” as opposed
to “water supply and
sanitation”? Do you see a
balance or think there is a
bias towards the latter?
Can you brief us about
the Istanbul Water Forum
preparation? Do you see
irrigation and drainage
being again on the
international agenda,
especially in a country
like Turkey where new
investments are huge in
the last couple of years?
The Istanbul Water Forum will be
built around the 100 most important
questions we have to respond to in
order to signicantly progress in
addressing the daunting water related
The theme “water for agriculture”
challenges. Collaborative work is in
lacks
international
progress to dene these questions, and
All global events are under scrutiny.
representation which would enable
I expect that agricultural water will
Criticism is important since it puts
the communication of simple and
feature high in this list of questions.
pressure
on
the
organisers
good
and
clear messages to the world. The
forces them to ensure that a Forum
WWC strives to put this issue on
is not “just another meeting”. Since
the global agenda, but it cannot
the rst Forum, a lot of progress
compensate for the lack of good
has been made to ensure continuity
international representation.
The WWC is leading
activities on “financing
water for agriculture”. Can
you tell us about this and
what the results are, so far?
and concretely follow-up on the
More generally, I have noticed that
proposals and commitments that are
the issues that are easily at the centre
Work
announced.
of the global debate are those that are
preparation for the Mexico Water
on
this
It
issue
has
started
We see more and more the World
directly related to water and not those
Forum.
Water Forum as a triennial process.
looking at water as an instrument for
difculties
The Forum week is just a pause
something else. Issues such as “water
nancing is mostly needed. For
when the work carried out during
for health” or “water for industry”
irrigation
the preparatory process is discussed.
are not better represented than “water
simply lies in the “development of
Conclusions must be drawn and then
for agriculture”.
irrigation”. But when confronted
in
highlighted
in
prioritizing
specialists,
the
the
where
priority
followed-up on. Besides, it cannot
This highlights an important
with the nancial world, agricultural
be denied that the Forum has truly
feature of the water community
specialists have difculties explaining,
accelerated debate and dialogues,
which, for the past ten years, has
more precisely, if their needs entail e.g.
creating a better understanding of
done a lot of valuable work for itself
building new schemes, and if so, which
issues and interests. We still have far to
in order to increase its coherence. By
kind, modernizing existing schemes to
go, but bridges are being built to cross
doing so, it has forgotten that water
increase their efciency, building more
4
February 2008 :: GRID 28
storage capacity or protecting water
previous position with Cemagref,
resources. One issue is perhaps that,
the French Research Institute on
from a water-centred perspective,
Agricultural
it is difcult to convince people
Engineering. This was in the early
that building systems to use more
years of IPTRID, and I believe a lot
water is a priority, while the message
of relevant work was accomplished
conveyed in many places is that we
at that time by research institutions
face increasing water scarcity. Work is
from several countries.
and
Environmental
required to develop a message that is
coherent with this general perception.
Monitoring is a key aspect
for achieving the Millenium
Development Goals
(MDGs). You are leading a
water monitoring alliance
for that. Can you tell us
about the specific tools
developed for the water
for food sector?
On research and
technology issues
Since WWC is in contact
with a very broad number
of institutions working on
water, what role do you
foresee for the Programme
in the near to mid-term
future?
You know very well the
research community, being
yourself from this domain
at Cemagref. Researchers
are often criticised for not
having enough impact
on the ground. Do you
share this opinion and do
you have some specific
recommendations to
enhance the situation?
Researchers should not be criticised
for not having enough impact on
I believe a lot should be done to
the ground. After all, this is not their
improve and disseminate knowledge
duty. What is very important though
on all water management techniques,
is the denition of the research
ranging from large scale irrigation to
priorities. These priorities should be
One of the greatest difculties in
conservation practices. Agricultural
dened through processes in which
monitoring results comes from a
water management should develop
users and researchers interact.
lack of coordination between the
a
and
But change is not a matter of
institutions engaged in such activities.
technologies are key in achieving
research only. If researchers want
A great deal of data is collected, but
that.
to have a greater impact, they also
comprehensive
approach,
it is not made available to those who
An important issue in this respect
need to understand the dynamics of
truly need it! The Water Monitoring
is the conditions of the adoption
change, which has to do with politics,
Alliance was created as a response
of new technologies by farmers.
economy and sociology.
to this problem. We have already
These conditions need to be better
collected
more
understood. For this purpose, a better
monitoring
understanding of the “development
programmes who deal with water,
dynamics” of farmers is required. One
and we are discovering new ones
important and misunderstood factor
every day! The Water Monitoring
of this is probably the demographic
Alliance web-site is designed to
dynamics of farming families: when
facilitate access to water related data
the agricultural population’s density
In relation to irrigation and
drainage in the developing
world, what particular
technical aspect would
you think would be of
importance for IPTRID to
address?
by providing information on these
increases, more resources must be
Irrigation and drainage should
programmes
allocated to the production of food
deal with the large spectrum of water
supplies and less to market crops.
management activities ranging from
than
information
120
signicant
and
for
facilitating
the
interrelations between them.
We are also developing country
In such conditions, many farming
water conservation techniques to
and regional pages where the most
families enter into “survival mode”
large irrigation schemes. A major
relevant data is made accessible.
and are no longer in a situation where
challenge for the future is to improve
they can afford or adopt innovations.
the low yields of small-scale farmers,
In my view, IPTRID could play a role
typically below 2T/ha. Under this
in developing a better understanding
threshold the water productivity
of this.
is
On WWC and IPTRID
How familiar are you with
IPTRID and its activities?
very
low,
and
paradoxically,
improving these low yields would
I had the pleasure of working with
have a positive impact on the total
IPTRID for several years in my
water consumption. <
5
GRID 28 :: February 2008
MAIN ARTICLE
Water policy issues of
India: study outcomes
and suggested policy
interventions
reduced to 1 518 cubic meters per
capita under the projected population
of 1 333 million in 2025. The present
water withdrawals are assumed by
NCIWRDP as 629 billion cubic
meters and in 2025 are projected to
grow further and are expected to be
843 billion cubic meters, considering
Country Policy Support
Programme (CPSP)
river basin) were chosen (See map).
the growth of population, urbanisation
A Basin-wide Holistic Integrated
and industry. See table 1.
In order to analyse the supply and
Water Assessment (BHIWA) model
The BHIWA model developed for
demand issues of all three sectors,
supported by ICID was applied to
assessment of water resources at the
namely food, people and nature in
these two basins. The results of the
basin level was applied to two sample
an integrated manner, ICID initiated
assessment for these two basins,
river basins, namely the Sabarmati and
a ‘Strategy for Implementation of
extrapolation of the assessment and
Brahmani basins. The sample basin
Sector Vision on Water for Food and
policy
highlighted
results were extrapolated to other
Rural Development’ initiative in the
by the studies were presented in
basins in India. Policy interventions
year 2000. ICID also felt the need to
a National Consultation held in
emerging from the studies in the
mobilise strong international support
November 2003, in New Delhi.
context of integrated and sustainable
for strategies and policies in the
This article summarizes the water
water use were evaluated. A summary
water sector to achieve food security
and related policies issues that have
of the key policy issues emerging
and reduce poverty in developing
emerged from the two basin studies.
from the detailed assessments and
related
issues
countries through independent water
consultations held at the basin/
assessments. In line with this, ICID
India – Water resources
national level is as follows:
launched a project entitled “Country
The geographical area of India is 329
•
Policy Support Programme (CPSP)”,
Mha, of which is 180.6 Mha is arable.
of all waters on land, rather than
with funding support from the
A total area of 142 Mha is net sown
terrestrial surface and ground
Government of The Netherlands.
area, of which 57 Mha is an irrigated
water runoff being recognised as
Since China, Egypt, India, Mexico
area. India has the largest irrigated
the primary and real source for
and Pakistan hold 43 percent of the
area in the world. The total drainage
world’s population and 51 percent of
area of India is divided into 24 basins
the world’s irrigated areas, they were
of which, 13 major basins have a
the depletion of resources, needs
chosen to participate in the CPSP.
drainage area larger than 20 000 km2.
to be managed through increases
Multi-stakeholder consultations at the
The average annual renewable water
in efciencies across all sector
respective basins and at the national
resource of the country was assessed
uses, and by curtailing especially
level were held to discuss the outcome
at 1 953 billion cubic meters by the
its “non-benecial” component
of detailed assessments, including
National Commission for Integrated
of
extrapolation at the country level.
Water
from lands under natural use and
Findings from such consultations
Plan (NCIWRDP). The potentially
were used to identify elements in the
usable water resource is estimated
national policies that required changes
at 1 086 billion cubic meters, (690
to some extent, be promoted, its
in the context of integrated and
billion cubic meters from surface
usefulness in water short basins,
sustainable use of this vital natural
water and 396 billion cubic meters
where the existing reservoirs
resource.
from groundwater). The per capita
hardly ll up, is very limited;
Resources
Precipitation is the primary source
water assessments (See Table 2);
•
Development
Consumptive use, which results in
evapo-transpiration,
both
agricultural use;
•
While local harvesting of rain can,
For carrying out detailed water
availability of water, which in 2001
assessment in India, a water decit
was 1 901 cubic meter per year,
use is necessary. In irrigation
basin on the west coast, (the Sabarmati
considering the population of 1
projects, where all lands cannot
river basin) and a water rich basin
027 million and renewable water
be irrigated in all seasons due
on the east coast, (the Brahmani
resources as just mentioned, will be
to water availability and other
6
February 2008 :: GRID 28
•
Integration of land and water
Table 1: Water demand for various sectors in 1998 and 2005, in India (BCM)
use the groundwater, in preference
SECTOR
1998
2025
2050
Irrigation
524
618
807
need to be put in place in such
Domestic use
30
62
111
situations;
Industrial use
30
67
81
Inland navigation
0
10
15
the availability of water, through
Power
9
33
70
a
Environment
0
10
20
irrigation to monsoon irrigation,
36
50
76
can reduce the consumptive use
629
850
1180
Evaporation losses
TOTAL
to the cheaper public canal water,
•
post
monsoon
The
high
priority
given
to
proportion of return ows, needs
drinking water must be developed
needs to be integrated in the
to be countered both by adequate
by dening the core and non-core
cropping patterns;
treatment of the wastewater being
demands, and by allocating the
Inter-basin transfer of surface
discharged into natural waters,
better quality and more reliable
waters from an adjacent river
and by encouraging reuse of
basin or basins is an obvious
wastewaters without discharging
option to meet the additional
these into water bodies;
water supply is necessary as
sources to meet the core demand;
•
Development
of
urban
The use of good quality stored
is development of a sewage
as Sabarmati and to restore the
water, for dilution of wastewaters,
system and sewage treatment. A
groundwater regime and provide
appears a costly solution, which
mandatory provision, which does
for environmental ows in the
ties
water
not allow the public funding of
downstream;
•
up
the
precious
resource. Adequate treatment of
only the supply part, would be of
use,
wastewaters, recycling and reuse
help;
which has developed in many
appear to be the more efcient
water-short basins, needs to be
options;
The
high
groundwater
curtailed as articial recharge
In
some
the
groundwater
technically
and
besides
•
A periodic review of supply
norms, in regard to domestic
from imported water may be
unviable,
•
from
constraints, rain-fed agriculture
needs of water decit basins such
•
shift
of water;
•
•
Adjusting the cropping patterns to
basins,
water, is necessary. In the long
is
not
run, the disparity between urban
economically
developing beyond that which
and rural users needs to be
•
water-rich
use
threatening
is required for meeting domestic
diminished, by providing piped
water quality and reducing dry
demands of the rural areas. The
household connections and ush
season river ows;
growing use of surface water for
For water short basins, a better soil
irrigation is likely to increase the
and water management through
returns to the groundwater, and
requirements need to include
introduction of sprinkler and
the consequent regime changes
both the requirements (mostly
micro irrigations etc. would no
in groundwater can lead to water
consumptive) of the terrestrial
doubt be of some help in demand
logging. A balanced, conjunctive
ecosystems,
management.
The
toilets, in the rural areas;
•
Environmental
water
and
the
ow
increasing
use of both sources is essential for
requirement (EFR) of the aquatic
hazards of pollution of surface and
avoiding such hazards. Policies,
ecosystems. While environmental
ground waters, through higher
which encourage the farmers to
ow requirements (EFR) need
Table 2: Water balance of a typical 1 Km2 low rainfall rural area in India
LAND USE
PORTION
(ha)
RAINFALL
(mm/year)
ET
(mm/year)
Forests
10
750
650
100
10 000
Barren
30
750
500
250
75 000
Agriculture
(Rainfed )
60
750
600
150
90 000
--
--
--
TOTAL
100
RUNOFF
(mm/year)
(m3/year)
175 000
7
GRID 28 :: February 2008
GROUNDWATER
to be recognised as valuable,
acceptable methods need to be
developed, as well;
•
Navigational
times
use
compatible
is
with
many
the
environmental ow requirements.
However, where the navigational
ow
requirements
in
The COTAS in Guanajuato,
Mexico: a new approach
towards groundwater
management
some
months are more than EFR, the
Introduction
trade-offs
The
between
navigation
Technical
quality deterioration and a reduction
Councils
in the social benefits extracted from
Aguas
this resource. All its aquifers are
considered, and the basin water
Subterráneas, COTAS) of Guanajuato
overexploited, with studies by CEAG
management may have to be
employ a promising and innovative
indicating
adjusted to meet the accepted
approach
groundwater
extractions fluctuate around 4 100
navigational requirements.
management. Their experience shows
MCM, while recharge is around 2 900
that
and other uses would have to be
(Consejos
Aquifer
Técnicos
towards
that
total
groundwater
groundwater
MCM for the whole state. Although
hydrologic
management at aquifer level is a good
irrigation accounts for the majority (83
modelling and analysis of past,
alternative for locally engaging the
percent) of extractions in Guanajuato,
present and various scenarios for
global
groundwater is also critically important
the future for the two sample basins
challenge. Because of severe over-
have provided a better understanding
exploitation and pollution of aquifers
of the water resources and human
in many parts of the world, it is now
impacts in these basins. The holistic
widely recognized that the centralized
The new approach toward
groundwater management
view
administration
groundwater
Between late 1996 and 2000 the
through the modelling gives a sound
has failed and that new forms of
CEAG set up 14 COTAS in the state
and much broader basis to describe
groundwater management are needed.
of Guanajuato. These developments
the state of water availability and
In view of this recognition, the State of
were in line with the institutional
likely water use under different
Guanajuato, through the State Water
changes that took place in Mexico
sectors and various future scenarios
Commission of Guanajuato (Comisión
from the mid-1980s onward, as a
at the basin/sub-basin level, source-
Estatal del Agua de Guanajuato,
response to the national concern
wise (surface and ground water,
CEAG) has created 14 COTAS to work
about water quantity and quality
separately) and interaction between
on the implementation of participatory
issues in the different basins.
the two. Modelling has also been used
groundwater management plans at
COTAS are conceived as full-
to develop a set of indicators, which
aquifer level. This article describes
edged user organizations, which are
help in understanding the current
the COTAS, their formation process,
to serve as mechanisms for reaching
water scene for other basins of India.
achievements, challenges and future
agreements on aquifer management
More importantly, the comprehensive
perspectives in the Mexican context.
by
The
of
modelling
detailed
the
assessments
framework
taken
participatory
de
groundwater
of
management
developed
for industrial and urban water use.
the
various
sectors
using
groundwater. Their composition and
representation is based on the active
of various policy options and possible
The water problem in the
state of Guanajuato
scenarios of the future land and
The state of Guanjuato in Mexico
the different water use sectors within
water use, including their hydrologic
has an overall negative water balance.
the state. In most COTAS there is an
implications, as provided above. <
Mean annual surface water runoff
active participation of the industrial,
is 1 364 MCM while its demand for
potable water, and service sectors as
For more information contact ICID
surface water is 1 557 MCM and many
well as of the commercial farmers
at: [email protected]
problems of water quality in most of
or agro-industrialists and the small
the state rivers are identified. At the
farmers and peasant groups (ejidos).
under CPSP has allowed the testing
8
February 2008 :: GRID 28
participation of the water users of
same time, the mining of groundwater
The internal functioning of the
has triggered the threat of depletion,
COTAS is basically decided upon by
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Graph 1. The structure of the COTAS (based on CEAG, 2002)
the general assembly which consists
companies,
of all the users participating in the
the users themselves, NGO’s and
contributions
for
COTAS. To manage the day to day
the National Water Commission
introduced. These consist mainly of
functioning of the organization a
(Comisión
subsidizing the installation of piped
directive council is elected by the
CONAGUA).
Nacional
del
from
Agua,
government
support
irrigation
programmes
modernization
are
conduction systems, sprinkler and
general assembly from amongst the
drip irrigation, as well as plot leveling.
users. There is a president, a treasurer,
What have COTAS done?
The nal goal is to produce the same
a secretary and a couple of general
In the almost ten years that have
amount or more crops with less water.
board members that usually come
elapsed since the creation of most
Once the new irrigation systems are
from the different water use sectors.
of
Guanajuato,
installed, the users are trained to use
The directive council is supported
these institutions have established
them and are organized in aquifer
by a hired full-time executive board,
themselves as important stakeholders
monitoring committees to monitor
which is consists of a general manager,
in groundwater management. They
aquifer
a technician and an administrative
have
spaces
volumes of all users and evaluate the
support staff member. The role of
where the groundwater users have the
results of the interventions. Users
the governmental institutions is to
chance of setting up agreements and
taking part in these programmes have
technically and nancially support
get funding to work in the specic
to install meters on their pumps.
the COTAS and their work through
context of each aquifer. See Figure 1.
the
Technical
Council
and
the
Consultative Group (See Graph 1).
the
COTAS
become
in
permanent
Agriculture is the largest water use
In
levels,
the
established
report
Terms
since
of
2005
extracted
Reference
between
sector in all aquifers. As it is assumed
COTAS and CEAG, several activities
activities
that a lot can be gained out of more
that the Executive Board of COTAS
COTAS are nancially dependent
efcient irrigation, most COTAS
have to do and report include: capacity
on the state and federal governments,
work intensively with the agricultural
building on rights and responsibilities
mainly the Guanajuato State’s Trust
sector. The work concentrates on the
water users have within the legal
for Social Participation in Water
improvement of irrigation efciencies
water rights system; the promotion of
Management
and
Several
water awareness campaigns in schools
channeled through the CEAG. Some
COTAS have focused on pilot zones
and farmer groups; bi-annual reading
COTAS have been able to obtain
with the agricultural users to identify
of the monitoring wells that CEAG
extra sources of funding through
and reach agreement on measures
has in the different aquifers; the
the private sector, the municipal
to reduce groundwater extractions.
organization of farmer monitoring
governments, the drinking water
In these pilot projects the various
groups; and make a yearly update of
For
most
of
their
(FIPASMA),
and
crop
productivity.
9
GRID 28 :: February 2008
the database on groundwater wells in
have focused on different problems
character of the COTAS. It wanted
the aquifers.
and therefore different activities in
COTAS to be yet another state
their aquifers. Some examples are:
institution. It was the CEAG that
The number of users that are
members of the COTAS has risen
COTAS Irapuato-Valle has done
advocated
through the years from 225 in 2000 to
several
assessment
user-based approach of the COTAS.
8 610 in 2006 (of an estimated 18 000
studies and has worked on several
Based on the success and experience
groundwater users), and 20 aquifer
water quality programs in its
of the COTAS in Guanajuato, the
monitoring committees were formed.
aquifers together with universities
CONAGUA
Additionally, the COTAS have also
and the municipality of Salamanca;
creation of COTAS in over-exploited
COTAS Jaral de Berrios has
aquifers in the rest of the country. In
worked a lot on user participation,
these COTAS the CONAGUA forms
been actively involved in training
•
•
around 5 300 users.
ood
risk
the
participatory
has
stimulated
and
the
Another important achievement
training of users and monitoring
part of the Consultative Group, and if
of the COTAS is that each has
committees and is now nalizing
the COTAS wish, the CONAGUA
updated and veried the database
a
the
can also serve as the Technical Ofce
on groundwater wells. Lastly, for
construction of aquifer recharge
of the COTAS. However, this ofce
infrastructure; and
can also be lled by a state government
many farmers, the COTAS have
become an important help desk or
•
feasibility
COTAS
study
Ocampo
for
and
Sierra
representative,
or
by
somebody
service window that supports them
Gorda have focused more on
appointed by the users. At present
in their interactions with government
small-scale
there are more than seventy COTAS
agencies.
concerning
rainwater harvesting as they have
groundwater concession titles, the
no groundwater problems in their
COTAS play an important role as
aquifers.
Especially
infrastructure
for
For
renewing the groundwater use titles.
Because of the user-based character
of these institutions, different COTAS
Figure 1. Farmer gathering.
10
February 2008 :: GRID 28
more
information
[email protected]
intermediary between farmers and
CONAGUA, both for obtaining and
in Mexico. <
Future perspectives
of the COTAS
Initially
the
skeptical
about
CONAGUA
the
contact:
This
article is based on research done by
the Irrigation and Water Engineering
was
participatory
Group or Wageningen University, the
Netherlands.
WATER CONSERVATION
Analysis of socio-economic
impacts of wastewater reuse
schemes in Gaza Strip
accepted unconditionally the use of
wastewater due to the severe shortage
of fresh water, poor water quality, the
high costs of purchased water, and the
impact of educational programs.
Introduction
acceptance of wastewater reuse is a key
The Gaza Strip is a plain coastal strip
factor in a reuse policy success. The
Economical aspects
of wastewater reuse
of 365 km2 located in a semi-arid area.
main reasons behind the high level of
It is stated in the National Water Plan
The annual average rainfall varies from
agreement of interviewed farmers to
(NWP) that wastewater investment
400 mm at the north to about 200
use wastewater for irrigation includes
costs represents about 37 percent of
mm at south The entire population
increasing salinity level in the local
the overall Palestinian investment
depends totally upon groundwater.
agricultural
fuel
plan for the Gaza Strip. The time
The total abstraction of groundwater
price and maintenance costs. The
period to achieve the strategies and
exceeds 155 Mm3/year. The agriculture
health and religious aspects are also
targets are outlined in the National
consumes around two thirds of
major concerns of people. A great
Water
groundwater pumped through more
effort should be made to introduce
schemes are an indispensable option
than 4000 wells with the remainder
safe wastewater as a water resource
for Palestine in general and Gaza in
being used for industrial and domestic
and to increase public awareness. In
particular. It is relatively of a lower
water supplies. The aquifer is being
the southern area, where the cubic
cost than other options like importing
over-exploited. The gap between
meter of fresh water purchased is more
water or desalination of brackish
water demand and water supply
than 2.0 NIS (US$ 0.45) the quality
water which was estimated roughly
increases with time as a result of rapid
of
increasingly
by PWA and the World Bank at US$
population growth in this small area.
deteriorated
qualitatively
0.55/m3 for production purposes only.
The water balance record reveals a
and quantitatively. More than 91
For example, farmers in the South of
decit of about 55-60 Mm3/year.
percent of farmers accepted direct
Gaza buy water from Israeli Water
wastewater reuse schemes, while the
Utility at US$ 0.5/m3. By comparison,
national
remaining expressed their hesitation
the cost of puried efuent used for
interest and it is considered an
and conservative attitude towards
irrigation or groundwater recharge
important component for the overall
the idea. The educational level, living
has been recently estimated at US$
maximization of water resources.
background and the environment
0.1/m3 (for capital costs) which has
Wastewater
led to signicant nancial savings.
The reuse of treated wastewater
efuents
represents
groundwater,
increasing
has
both
Plan.
Wastewater
reuse
provides
an
played a remarkable role in convincing
groundwater
for
farmers about the feasibility of using
irrigation when 110 Mm3/year of well
treated wastewater, as observed in
treated wastewater can be used for
the two pilot projects nanced by the
Cost/Benefits of
wastewater reuse schemes
irrigation per year as it is planned in
Agricultural Mission in the French
The valuation approach suggests
the National Water Plan by year 2020.
Embassy in Amman (MREA). At
that
The use of efuents in irrigation would
the beginning, almost all the Bedouin
incorporate socioeconomic, health-
give signicant benets, including
people were hardly convinced of the
related and environmental impacts of
reduction in groundwater abstraction
safety of feeding their animals with
wastewater reuse in agriculture, for
for irrigation, potential to irrigate areas
plants irrigated with treated water. In
proper assessment. When evaluating
currently rainfed, fertilizer savings and
the second pilot project site in Gaza
wastewater reuse projects, the initial
an increase in crop production.
(City), no difculties to get the farmer
approach is to categorize all benets
acceptance about irrigating their farms
into two groups, direct and indirect
Social consideration
with treated waste water was observed.
benets. For the former, increased
Agriculture in the Palestinian lands
In June 2006, a new survey was
crop production, savings on fertilizer
is an important productive activity.
conducted in the eastern parts of Khan
costs and on water supply as well
In the Gaza Strip the main water
Yonis area which showed that more
as generating job opportunities, are
consuming crop is citrus. The public
than 96 percent of farmers interviewed
just a few. For the latter they are
alternative
reuse
a
wells,
to
cost
benet
analysis
must
11
GRID 28 :: February 2008
Table 1: Input/output costs of citrus and olive (NIS/dunum, farm gate prices)
(KFW, PWA, 2006) 1 US$=4.44 NIS; 1 Dunum=0.10 Ha
Full yield (EC=<1.7)
Olive(3)
Yield (kg/dunum)
Selling price (NIS/kg)
GROSS PROFIT (NIS)
Yield at EC=2
Effluent(1)
Yield at EC=3.2
Groundwater(2)
Citrus
350
3000
2,400
1,500
5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1,750
1,500
1,200
750
52
172
172
172
Expenses:
Fertilizer
Chemicals
Water (0.5 NIS/m³)
Hired machinery
65
35
35
35
188
450
450
450
40
30
30
30
Labour costs(4)
300
480
480
480
TOTAL VAR. COSTS
645
1,167
1,167
1,167
1,105
333
33
-417
200
147
147
147
63
135
135
135
908
1,449
1,449
1,449
842
51
-249
-699
131.75
281.25
281.25
26
86
86
1,262.75
700.25
400.25
-417
999.75
418.25
118.25
-699
GROSS MARGIN
Depreciation
Interest on capital
TOTAL COSTS
(5)
NET PROFIT
Results of the agricultural development program
Lowered cost of water(6)
Lowered cost of fertilizer(7)
GROSS MARGIN
NET PROFIT
For EC = 2 dS/m, yield reduction of 20 percent. (2) For EC = 3.2 dS/m, yield reduction of 50 percent. Groundwater expected to be more saline
than effluent. (3) No yield reduction expected due to salinity. (4) Including hired and family labour. (5) Land rent not included. (6) Cost of effluent
assumed at 0.15 NIS/m³. (7) Fertilizer value of the effluent, sludge replacing imported manure
(1)
minimized environmental damages,
yield reductions in citrus of about
tariff for efuent was assumed in
controlled soil erosion and protection
50 percent, at which level citrus
comparison with well pumping costs
of groundwater which reduces waste
production would make a loss on
which exceed 2 NIS (US$ 0.45). The
and enhances water conservation.
gross margin of 417 NIS (US$ 93.7)
average rate of yield per tree in Gaza
An estimate of the economic
per dunam. By replacing well-water
Strip is about 100 kg/tree, while the
benets and the potential of using
of this quality for efuent at a future
records of Shetwai farms reached
treated efuent in irrigation have been
projected salinity of 2 dS/m and by
170-200 kg/tree, with an observed
made by different models. The purpose
using sludge, the gross margin would
income and savings in the fertilizer
of this is to show the impact of the use
become positive, estimated at 400 NIS/
applications.
of treated efuent for irrigation at the
dunam (US$ 90.1). Olive trees are more
Groundwater expected to be
farm level. The economic parameters of
tolerant of salinity and signicant
more saline than efuent. (3) No yield
the market, such as product selling price
yield reductions are not expected
reduction expected due to salinity (4)
and other factors have been observed as
within the range of concentrations in
Including hired and family labour (5)
being constant. The reference standards
the area. By irrigating with efuent
Land rent not included (6) Cost of
for this computation have been taken
and using sludge, the gross margin
efuent assumed at 0.15 NIS/m³ (7)
from FAO studies. The computation
may be expected to increase by 14
Fertilizer value of the efuent, sludge
method employed is an input/output
percent. This indicates an economic
replacing imported manure
analysis applied to crops. A simple
improvement for farmers switching
input/output calculation is shown in
from
efuent
in the treated efuent, wastewater
Table 1.
groundwater
to
Concerning the nutrient load
irrigation, even though full yield
contains nutrients and trace elements
Areas with groundwater EC of
potential of citrus will not necessarily
necessary for plant growth. The value
3.2 dS/m would in theory experience
be achieved. For this example, a low
of nutrients for an assumed added
12
February 2008 :: GRID 28
water volume of 800 m3/dunam is
the various farms. Furthermore, such
of the current pilot projects carried out
about US$ 70. The average cost of
wastewater reuse projects will create
in GS emphasized that a high degree
fertilizers needed for one dunam is
many other supported jobs, e.g.
of efuent reuse must be achieved in
approximately US$ 100 or 13 percent
transport, packing of citrus, crushing
Gaza in order to reduce the current
of the total production running costs.
of olives and marketing jobs.
levels of groundwater withdrawal by
This indicates that nearly 70 percent of
Despite
those
negative
benets,
some
the agricultural sector and to mitigate
the cost of fertilizers can be excluded
potential
environmental
the negative environmental impacts.
from the total production cost, which
effects may arise in association with
All future collection and treatment
would result in a clear increase in the
the use of wastewater. One negative
strategies
prots. In addition, treated sludge
impact is groundwater contamination
possibilities whenever and wherever
could represent a signicant source
by a high level of saline nitrate and
practical. Reuse of wastewater efuent
of income. Treated sludge for soil
other detergents in the efuent reuse.
offers the release of complementary
conditioning and fertilization has a
The quantity and kind of salts present
resources, sustaining the existing
nutrient value equivalent of between
in wastewater are probably the
and expanding irrigated areas and
US$ 0.125 to US$ 0.50/year while
most important two parameters for
in addition, the treated wastewater
manure or chemical fertilizers can
evaluating the suitability of treated
provides a renewable and valuable
cost more.
efuent for irrigation. Data on the
source for agriculture and free limited
The benets of wastewater reuse
increase of salt content in wastewater
water supplies for domestic and
schemes for job creation programmes,
resulting from wastewater use and the
industrial purposes. <
in the special case of the Palestinian
variations increases within a sewage
people (in particular, because of the
system are especially important in
For more information contact J. Y. Al-
severe and tense circumstances in the
evaluating the reuse potential of
Dadah, Palestinian Water Authority,
region) is estimated and evaluated as
wastewater in irrigation projects.
Gaza Strip: [email protected]
should
integrate
reuse
being worthwhile. Most of the Gazan
farmers depend on agriculture as
Conclusions
their main income, and many of their
The obvious conclusion and all the
children, women and younger also
socio-economic indicators of the
participate in the working activities in
relevant studies and the initial results
Orange production field from treated waste water in Gaza.
13
GRID 28 :: February 2008
MODERNIZATION
Low-head drip irrigation
kits in Kenya
Kenya – a water scarce
country with untapped
irrigation potential
up a base in Nairobi where they
Kenya has 582,000 Km of landmass
initially gave the kits for free to the
out of which only 17 percent has
local people but started selling them
medium to high agricultural potential.
at a subsidised price in 1989. In April
The remaining 83 percent is either arid
1994, the missionaries left for their
or semi-arid and is usually collectively
home country and the technology
known as arid and semi arid land
started to die off. Basically, the drip
(ASALs). Agriculture is the mainstay
kits that were left behind were sold
gardens and orchard drip irrigation
of Kenya’s economy contributing
at a giveaway price and the project
kits for fruit trees. These systems are
to over 50 percent of the country’s
could no longer sustain itself. There
briey reviewed below.
export earnings and accounting for
were also issues of poor management
about 80 percent of rural employment,
of the already installed kits. Problems
Bucket drip irrigation systems
with women providing 75 percent
of clogging in the drip lines were
The bucket drip irrigation system
of the labour force. Growth and
frequent and the community lacked
is comprised of a 20-litre bucket,
development of the agricultural sector
simple
two or more drip lines for a total of
is heavily dependent upon developing
maintain the drip systems.
demonstrated small-scale vegetable
gardening using these kits. They
2
the ASALs. The conservation of water
innovative
measures
to
30m, a lter screen, connecting tubes
The gap left by the missionaries
was
semi-arid areas where water supplies
Agricultural
are scarce and people have to walk
long distances to retrieve water. This
in the small-scale drip irrigation
for the local brands of bucket kits
makes the technology attractive in dry
technology in August 1996. The
e.g. the dream bucket drip irrigation
land agricultural production.
Institute
kit supplied by Kenya Rainwater
irrigation
technology
lled
by
Kenya
assembling the bucket kits is bought
Institute
from Chapin Third World Projects
(KARI) who got ofcially involved
in the USA or other local suppliers
Research
imported
assembled
the
and end closures. The material for
resources is important in arid and
Drip
later
Figure 1. A five year old drum kit drip
irrigation system.
material
hundreds
of
and
Chapin
Harvesting
Association.
These
delivers water into the plant root
bucket-kits and promoted a training
bucket units are ready to assemble the
zone.
water
program that had shown promising
system. KARI used to be the main
can be applied in drip irrigation,
Small
impact in Malawi. KARI scientists
supplier of bucket kits assembled
which would not be possible under
followed-up to assist the farmers
from materials from Chapin but
traditional irrigation methods (ood,
to address new challenges in the
KARI no longer stocks them since
furrow and sprinklers). It is with
technology.
up
local suppliers have kits assembled
this in mind that the introduction
demonstrations in Nairobi and four
from materials sourced locally. A
of drip irrigation technology to the
other centres. From the early stages
typical bucket kit to irrigate 100
smallholder farmers has attracted
of development, KARI collaborated
plants costs US$ 17 when supplied
interest
with various stakeholders to assist
complete with the bucket.
in
amounts
the
of
government
and
development partners.
in
the
KARI
low-cost
also
drip
set
irrigation
technology transfer.
Genesis of low-head drip
irrigation in Kenya
Drum drip irrigation systems
The drum drip irrigation system
(Figure 1) is comprised of a 200 litre
Affordable, low-cost drip irrigation
Current drip irrigation
systems in Kenya
was introduced in Kenya in 1988,
The range of low cost drip irrigation
ground, a manifold made of PVC or
when missionaries from the USA
systems in Kenya now includes
polyethylene pipes, tees, gate valve
brought the Chapin bucket drip
bucket, drum, farm kits (eighth acre)
and tted bends, lter system, and
irrigation kits to Kenya. They set
and family kits (1⁄4 acre) for vegetable
ten drip lines, each 15 metres long.
14
February 2008 :: GRID 28
drum, placed one metre above the
A typical drum kit to irrigate 500
drip irrigation systems. The irrigation
were Ksh 3 670 (US$ 55), 17 900
plants costs US$ 135 when supplied
systems are modelled along the
(US$ 271) and 71 100 (US$ 1 077) for
complete with the drum.
Chapin/KARI one-eighth acre system
bucket, drum and eighth-acre systems
but uses drip lines manufactured by a
respectively. Thus, these drip kits
Farm kits drip
irrigation systems
local factory located in Thika near
make economic sense considering that
Nairobi. With more skilled farmers
their expected life span is six years.
The farm kit drip irrigation system
often providing the technical advice,
can service up to one-eighth of an
units ranging from one quarter to half
Social benefits
acre and consists of a screen or disc
an acre are in place. The farmers have
Drip irrigation can adapt to family
lter, sub-mainline, connectors and
also discovered that apart from saving
capacity to meet household needs for
drip lines. The system usually get its
water, the technology leads to better
both food and income. Women tend
water supplied from a 1000 litre tank
crop quality. This is important to the
to use the small kits which are used in
raised one meter high, to create the
farmers who grow snow peas for the
the homestead/kitchen garden while
pressure. A typical one-eighth acre
export market.
men use the larger kits i.e. farm kits
kit to irrigate 2 500 plants costs US$
In the Isinya – Kitengela areas
and other higher-capacity kits because
424 when supplied as a complete kit,
of Kajiado District, where migrant
of their high economic value. Women
with the tank (see Figure 2).
farmers have settled in areas previously
and children were found to undertake
under pastoral use, in order to survive
the light gardening duties while men
Family kit
the arid nature of the area, the settlers
and the youth were involved in more
The family or quarter (1⁄4) acre drip
have intensied water harvesting and
demanding duties such as double
irrigation system is similar to the one-
storage. Apart from run-off water
digging of plots, installation of kits,
eighth acre drip kit but is double the
harvesting, some settlers have made
servicing and maintenance of the
size. The system also gets its water
water connections to supplies such as
systems. <
supplied from a 1000 litre tank raised
the municipal set-up or to commercial
one meter high, to create the pressure.
bore holes. Faced with water scarcity,
For more information contact I.V.
A quarter acre kit to irrigate 5 000
these settlers are using drum farm kits
Sijali and F. Kaburu of the Kenya
plants costs US$ 681 when supplied
and orchard drip irrigation systems to
Agricultural Research Institute at
complete with the tank.
grow crops for the home and market.
[email protected]
The settlers usually employ a farm
Orchard kit systems
hand (gardener) to handle the systems.
The orchard system comprises of a
There is a growing population of
screen or disc lter, sub-main lines,
farm hands, skilled in low head drip
polyethylene
irrigation
pipes
and
button
drippers. The system usually gets its
technology,
who
have
become important in the area.
water supplied through a 1000 litre
plastic tank raised anywhere from
Economics of the systems
three to ve metres, above the ground,
Experience with the drip irrigation
depending on the area covered. The
kits has shown that small-scale farmers
cost of orchard systems has ranged
in dry lands are able to adopt and use
from US$ 200 to 1 000, tank included.
them successfully. Field reports for
the various low-cost drip irrigation
Emergence of tailor-made
drip irrigation systems
systems in the dry lands of Moiben,
In Narumoru where farmers are faced
returns from the sale of tomatoes,
with water scarcity in the midst of
cabbages and traditional vegetables
a semi-arid environment, since the
amounting to Ksh 4 320 (US$ 72),
area lies in the rain shadow of Mount
19 600 (US$ 297) and 76 200 (US$ 1
Kenya, farmers have modernised
155) for bucket, drum and eighth-acre
their old hand watering practices to
systems, respectively. The net returns
Uasin Gishu District showed gross
Figure 2. A farm kit system.
15
GRID 28 :: February 2008
CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT
Promoting gender mainstreaming in water
resources management in the Mediterranean
region: the GEWAMED project
The GEWAMED project is nanced
the inheritance laws discriminate
within the Six Framework Research
against women (they receive only
technologies: Many rural women
Programme
European
half of the land or no land at all).
in
Commission (EU). It emphasizes
This has been widely documented,
are illiterate. This in itself is a
networking,
and
for example, by a survey on Law
strong limitation for accessing
dissemination of past and present
and Practice related to Women’s
information.
research activities, related to gender
Inheritance Rights in the Middle
women are literate the modalities
and water issues. [The Editor]
East and North Africa (MENA)
for providing information are not
Region” carried out by the
suitable or the information is not
of
the
coordination
Gender and water
resources: Myth or reality?
The development and management of
•
Geneva-based Centre on Housing
Rights and Evictions (COHRE);
Access
the
to
information
Mediterranean
But
and
region
even
when
addressed to the needs of women;
•
Very
limited
representation
Access to work in agriculture: It
of women in the participatory
water resources have been on-going
is also widely documented that
management of water resources:
activities since the origin of civilization.
women undertake as much as
One of the pillars of IWRM is the
In the last decades, activities related
50 percent of the work in farms
more participative management of
to water resources have been the
(irrigated and not) and are rarely
the water resource. The progress
subject of great attention and a body
adequately compensated for the
made in achieving this objective
of knowledge has been developed.
work done. When women are
is modest in most of the MENA
As part of that body of knowledge,
paid, their wages are considerably
countries but even where water
the
Resources
lower than those of men. In
users’ associations are established
Management (IWRM) approach was
some countries, or regions of a
women are hardly represented. In
developed and promoted by national
country, women are not allowed
part, the problem arises from the
and international organizations. More
to do work in the eld. Irrigation
inheritance laws but also due to
recently, the notion that gender should
by women at the farm is often
traditions and lack of recognition
be mainstreamed into the IWRM has
forbidden because of traditions;
of a female work force;
Integrated
Water
emerged, but for many persons how
this should be done is not clear.
•
•
Access to domestic water supply:
•
Scarce representation of women
In most of the Mediterranean
in the water institutions: Where
What does gender mainstreaming
countries access to domestic water
the public sector is responsible for
in water resources mean in practice?
supply is not a problem, as coverage
the development and management
The most common notion of this
of domestic networks are close to
of water resources the presence of
problem is reected by the image
100 percent, but there are still three
women at the decision making
of a woman carrying a jar of water
countries [Syria, Morocco and
level is very modest or absent,
on her head. Although this image is
Turkey] where the rural coverage
although at the administrative and
a reality in some countries, there is
is less than 80 percent and therefore
support services level this presence
much more to it than that in gender
important pockets remain in the
at times, is more substantial.
mainstreaming and water resources.
rural areas where the image of the
Let us review some of the problems
woman carrying water is still a
that are closely connected:
reality. Moreover, even when the
•
water
access to domestic water is provided
resources: Irrigated land is the
Access
to
land
by watering points at the village
main source of livelihood for
level there are problems related
many rural populations. In some
to how these watering points are
of the Mediterranean countries
managed and maintained;
16
February 2008 :: GRID 28
and
Figure 1. Woman working in the field.
What is the GEWAMED
project doing to contribute
to the solution of some of
the outlined issues?
GEWAMED Partners
Partic.
No.
1
The dimensions of some of the
problems
outlined
before
2
are
very large and no single project is
3
in the position of tackling them
simultaneously,
in
an
4
efcient
manner. As a result, there is a need
5
for concentrating on some lines of
6
action that, with the limited resources
available, may provide higher returns.
7
8
Essentially the GEWAMED project
is engaged in three strategic lines of
9
action, namely:
1. Creating a greater awareness
about some of these problems and
10
11
identifying others that have not so
12
clearly emerged;
2. Establishing cooperation networks
13
at regional and national levels that
allow a more uid exchange of
14
information in identifying positive
experiences and possible follow-
15
up to repeat them;
16
3. Contributing to the adoption
of policies and other decision
17
18
making instruments that will
correct
some
of
the
Participant name
Mediterranean Agronomic Institute- Bari
(Project Coordinator)
Centre de Recherche en Economie
Appliquée pour le Développent
National Water Research CenterStrategic Research Unit
Faculty of Agriculture University of
JordanAssociation Marocaine de Solidarité et
de Dèveloppement
Palestinian Agricultural Relief
Committee
Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency
The Center of Arab Women for Training
and Research
Cukurova University- Faculty of
Agriculture
Agriculture Research Institute
Mediterranean Office for Environment,
Cultural and Sustainable Development
Osservatorio Nazionale per
l’Imprenditoria ed il Lavoro Femminile in
Agricoltura
General Commission for Scientific
Agricultural Research Ministry of
Agriculture and Agrarian Reform
International Commission on Irrigation
and Drainage. Italian Committee
Instituto Andaluz de la Mujer- Junta de
Andalucía
African Training and Research Centre in
Administration for Development
René Moawad Foundation
Programme Solidarité Eau
Participant
short name
CIHEAM- MAIB
Country
CREAD
Algeria
NWRC-MWRI/SRU
Egypt
UJ-FA
Jordan
AMSED
Morocco
PARC
Palestine
EEAA
CAWTAR
Egypt
Tunisia
CUKUR
Turkey
ARI
MIO-ECSDE
Cyprus
Greece
ONILFA
Italy
GCSAR
Syria
ITAL-ICID
Italy
IAM -JA
Spain
CAFRAD
Morocco
RMF
pS- Eau
Lebanon
France
Italy
above-
mentioned situations.
and
To create greater awareness and
All three lines of action are
with
experience. To strengthen the links
disseminate project results the project
an attempt at promoting a greater
between partners and to develop
uses several means of communication
dialogue
common knowledge, annual regional
that include:
stakeholders to change the existing
workshops
•
unsatisfactory situation.
exchange of experiences and increased
among
the
concerned
different
backgrounds
are
organized.
collaboration
already
How is GEWAMED
achieving these objectives?
an
step
The
knowledge.
GEWAMED
consortium
of
project
a
represents
towards
national conferences;
•
the
construction of a body of common
Participation in international and
Organization of regional, national
seminars and workshops;
•
Establishment
of
national
communication networks;
organizations
In addition, each country in SEMR
•
Field days;
from 14 Mediterranean countries:
is establishing national networks where
•
Development of Regional and
ve EU countries and 11 from
the main stakeholders are represented.
South East Mediterranean Region
These
(SEMR); See table on Partners.
not only an important vehicle for
The consortium itself represents a
exchanging information but also for
network of governments, universities,
promoting activities in connection
research
with the project objectives.
and
18
is
important
The
NGO
institutions
national
committees
are
National websites; and
•
Publications, brochures, posters
and other bulletins.
To contribute to the adoption of
more gender-oriented policies the
17
GRID 28 :: February 2008
COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION
project will stage several national
policy
seminars
presenting
project
activities
and
results
the
to
stimulate decision makers into taking
The role of GIS in rural
development
specic actions identied. Other
Geographic
systems
time. This was important information
institutional changes are promoted
(GIS) are powerful tools that can be
for a local watershed management
through the established cooperation.
used to link diverse sets of spatial
network. Another paper describes the
For instance, the establishment of
data, including those needed to
importance of small-holder irrigation
a National Observatory for Rural
generate
strategies
market development for moving
Women Entrepreneurs in Lebanon is
and policies. Spatial data sets up
farm families out of poverty in West
under promotion with the support of
underlying rural livelihood strategies
African Sahel.
the Italian Government. <
in developing countries including, for
However, the papers make it
example, population pressure, crop
clear that restricting the perceived
For greater information about the
production,
livestock
use of GIS to the production of
GEWAMED project consult the
degradation
of
resources
maps
would
Regional website: www.gewamed.net
such as soil and water, and access to
value
of
or contact Juan A Sagardoy at
markets. Recently GIS has become
development practice and research.
[email protected]
readily available for use on PCs and
An unusual and interesting example
many spatial data (e.g. remotely sensed
is presented in the rst paper of this
imagery) are in the public domain
issue of Information Development.
and can be downloaded for free.
The
This makes it easy for poor country
colleagues,
professionals to analyze spatial data
gatherers of the Ogiek indigenous
to extract information necessary for
peoples in Kenya participated in
policy-relevant analyses.
the development of a 3D model of
LATEST AND
FORTHCOMING
IPTRID PUBLICATIONS
Issue Paper
• Payen, J. and Gillet, V.
(forthcoming). L’irrigation
informelle en Afrique de l’Ouest
– une solution ou un problème?
IPTRID Issue paper 6. FAO/IPTRID,
Rome, Italy.
Project Report
• IPTRID. 2007. Manual.
Diagnostic participatif
rapide et planification des
actions d’amélioration des
performances des périmetres
irrigués. Application à l’Afrique
de l’Ouest. DPRP. FAO/IPTRID.
Rome, Italy.
• IPTRID. (forthcoming). Syria
Symposium Proceedings on
Irrigation Modernization:
Constraints and Solutions. FAO/
IPTRID. Rome, Italy. [CD-ROM
only]
• IPTRID and National Water
Research Center, Egypt.
(forthcoming). Egypt’s
Experience in Irrigation and
Drainage Research Experience.
FAO/IPTRID. Rome, Italy.
Many IPTRID publications are
available as electronic versions on the
IPTRID Web site: www.iptrid.com
To request hard copies of these
publications, contact: [email protected]
18
February 2008 :: GRID 28
information
development
husbandry,
natural
underestimate
spatial
authors,
G.
information
Rambaldi
describe
how
the
in
and
hunter-
The current issue of Information
their ancestral hunting grounds, now
Development (vol. 23, combined issue
threatened by ecosystem destruction
2 and 3, http://idv.sagepub.com),
due to deforestation and encroaching
presents examples of how geographic
agricultural
data combined with GIS are being
the affected people could have used
used in rural development, planning
the information to strengthen their
and research in some African and
court cases against the loggers, it
Asian countries. The articles describe
became more important to the hunter-
how
participatory
processes
production.
Although
can
gatherers to preserve a particular set of
facilitate the generation of innovative
values, information and wisdom about
information from spatial data. In
the ecology of their home territory for
some cases the output of the process
the next generations.
includes one or more maps, e.g.
The papers describe in some
a crop distribution map for Sub-
detail the processes of data collecting
Saharan Africa, a poverty map of
and analyses, but the emphasis is on
Uganda, an atlas consisting of several
how the spatial information obtained
thematic maps of the Ethiopian rural
through GIS processes from data sets
economy and a similar set of maps for
can contribute to the formation of
Vietnam. Another paper describes
development strategies. As expected,
how participatory mapping processes
the
provided a way to obtain detailed
infrastructural and other geospatial
spatial information from communities
datasets all showed characteristic
in
heterogeneities,
Northern
Thailand
which
socio-economic,
whose
biophysical,
nature
is
illustrated local resource utilization
poorly understood and documented.
and changes that had occurred over
Moreover, resource information was
RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY
The Gignac canal: an
experimental laboratory for
irrigation canal control
found to be scattered, unavailable or
uncertain, while some institutions
required lengthy processes before
their data could be obtained. All of this
leads to high costs of data gathering.
Moreover, many of the study areas
was noted in several of the papers,
Context: improving
canals efficiency
the observed variability required
Besides
highly disaggregated mapping, i.e.,
modernisation of irrigated schemes
The Gignac canal
detailed.. In some cases, the derived
through
an
improvement
of
The Gignac canal is the main work
development strategy would probably
transport
and
delivery
channels,
of an irrigated area managed by the
also be applicable only at a small
management appears to be the main
“ASA1 du canal de Gignac”, and was
scale where NGOs are operating.
way to achieve water savings. Indeed,
built in 1890. The main canal is 50 km
Governments are less likely to be able
manually operated open channels
long, with a common trunk (8 km)
to make context-specic strategies and
are characterised by a low efciency
and two branches on the left and
policies at this level. The need for up-
(30 percent in some cases), which can
right banks of the river (respectively,
scaling from the disaggregated, local
reach 70 percent or more on fully
27 and 15 km). The nominal ow of
level to the macro-scale of a region
automated systems.
the common trunk is 3.5 m3/s. The
are undergoing rapid change. As
demand
•
development and the in-situ tests
of the second group of methods.
management,
or province therefore remains to be
dominant area is about 3 800 ha.
addressed. In spite of the difculties
Scientific issues
they encountered, the authors of the
From a scientic point of view, the
west from Montpellier, where the
papers in Information Development
control of open channel irrigation is
Agropolis Research Complex hosts
collectively present a strong case for
complex. This complexity is due to
several research institutes dealing
the value of GIS and spatial data sets
multiple factors like: delayed and non-
with water issues, attracting several
in formulating development strategies.
linear dynamics, complex topology
national and international events and
It is worth reading. <
of networks, interactions between
many delegations from all over the
control
unforeseen
world interested in thematic visits.
at:
Improved hydraulic management
Description of the project
refer
can look into two groups of control
The experimental project consisted
methods of growing complexity:
mainly
•
local mono-variable automatic
controllers, and building an open
control,
SCADA2 system for the canal, enabling
For
more
Marian
information
contact
Fuchs-Carsch
[email protected]
or
devices
It
and
is
located
about
35 km
perturbations.
directly to the publication mentioned.
•
sometimes
associated
of
installing
and
local
sensors
or
and
with manual operational rules at
supervision
remote
some devices,
automatic control. It has been designed
multi-variable control, generally
to make possible the test of a wide range
centralised and associated with
of control architectures and algorithms.
analysis of method robustness.
Level, gate position and flow velocity
sensors have been installed along the
Those methods can be tested on
main canal at strategic locations.
hydraulic models but they need a
On the common trunk and
real-sized validation before being
on the right bank, gates have been
industrialized. According to this, the
modernised and motorised, allowing
Gignac canal laboratory has been
the control of a four reach system.
equipped with a double objective:
•
evaluation of the rst group
Partnership
of methods, which could be
The
project
associates
of
canal
manager,
scientic
particular
importance
developing countries,
1
2
in
the
teams,
engineering companies, and colleges
ASA : Association Syndicale Autorisée = association of landowners,
under public administration control
SCADA : Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System
19
GRID 28 :: February 2008
Observation:
Canal Supervision: As soon as real
time measurements are used for
real time control, the issue of data
validation, data reconciliation and
fault detection is raised. Several
studies have been conducted on
this
factor,
leading
to
scientic
publications, a Ph. D thesis and
software tools.
Flow measurement: several options
are available for measuring ows in a
Figure 1. Control structure with motorized gates.
canal, such as calibrated rating curves,
to a “scientically focused group”
Research topics
ADCP techniques and device-based
(Groupement d’Intérêt Scientique),
Canal model
equations. The quantity of data
which has a contract valid for ve
A hydraulic model of the primary
that are measured and saved in the
years.
canals has been built with the SIC
database allowed us to evaluate and
scientic
software, which allows simulation of
compare several alternatives for these
teams, engineering companies and a
The
association
of
one-dimensional steady and transient
measurements.
canal manager promotes the transfer
ows. The large amount of precise
of academic knowledge and focuses
data enabled an appreciation of the
Commands
the experiments on problem solving
precision of the model. It is used for
Several control action variables are
and end-users’ requirements.
testing scenarios and control modules
possible as outputs of a controller.
before their implementation on the
The main classical ones are the gate
real system.
position W or the discharge Q. These
Colleges benet from the facilities
for hands-on practice in teaching
programmes
on
hydraulics
and
alternatives could be further tested
Perturbations
and compared on the real system.
Demand Study: Due to the inherent
This work was presented in scientic
Funding
time delays of the system it is
publications
Funds were donated by the French
interesting to make a prediction of
investigation.
government (through Cemagref), the
the water demands and to use it in
Regional authority (Conseil Régional),
a feed-forward controller combined
Controllers
the Departmental authority (Conseil
with a feed-back controller.
Several SISO and MIMO controllers
automation.
Général), and the Basin Water Agency
and
is
still
under
have been studied in the frame of
(Agence de l’Eau Rhône-Méditérranée
Evolutions in the System: Some
several research projects leading to
et Corse).
former lands are converted into urban
scientic publications and Ph. Ds. <
areas where the new inhabitants keep
Experiments
the ancient water rights associated
For more information:
conducted
with the land. A low pressure
Cemagref, G-EAU Joint Research
mainly before and after the irrigation
piped network is then constructed,
Unit, Montpellier France
period, which starts generally at the
providing raw water for gardening,
Pierre-Olivier MALATERRE, Head
beginning of March and ends in mid-
swimming pools and some domestic
– Transcan Team, Cemagref
October. During those two periods,
uses. This change, although still
Pierre Yves VION, Project Manager,
the canal is completely dedicated to
limited, has an impact on the water
Cemagref
measurements and experiments.
demand and therefore on the canal
e-mail:
operations that are currently being
magref.fr web site: http://gis-rci.m
studied.
ontpellier.cemagref.fr/
The
experiments
are
Some tests may also be achieved
during the irrigation period, when
and if they do not disturb the water
delivery.
20
February 2008 :: GRID 28
[email protected]
A fertigation device for
surface irrigation from Egypt
One of the main recommendations
during the growth period either by
adopted
expert
broadcasting or placement methods.
consultation meeting on the use of
There is usually less efciency and
irrigation systems for fertilizers and
great losses occur from N fertilizers
pesticides applications held in Egypt
by leaching due to the application of
in 1991 highlighted the importance
excess amounts of irrigation water
of fertigation as a new technology
in the common surface irrigation
in crop production in both pressured
technique used.
at
the
FAO
systems (sprinkler and drip irrigation)
To
pursue
the
benets
of
and surface irrigation. Likewise it was
fertigation, “a fertilizer applicator
reported that the fertigation process
device” for surface irrigation system
through drip and sprinkler irrigation
was designed and built for small elds
systems has been in use for many
of up to half a hectare. The fertilizer
crops and on many soil types in the
application device is a cylindrical
Near East.
container made from light weight
surface irrigation maintained an even
metal with a 40 cm diameter and
distribution of N in the eld and
Fertigation, as a technique, is
considered
the
most
Figure 2. A large movable fertilizer applicator
with a manual mixture.
convenient
about 50 cm in length, (which can
a high N content in plant parts, as
means of applying fertilizers as it
hold about 60 liters from fertilizer
well. Cotton yields increased by 30
increases the efciency of added
solution). The size can be increased
percent, as compared to the common
nutrients and saves labor costs next to
according to the eld area. The
placement method. In addition, for
decreasing environmental pollution.
container is rmly sealed except at the
relatively larger eld areas, the land
In Egypt, fertigation is practiced
top where a removable cover allows
leveling laser technique was applied
in only 13 percent of agriculture
for relling. In addition, it features a
to ensure rapid and even distribution
lands, while in the other 87 percent,
narrow tube (5 mm) in the center, to
of irrigation water and more than one
fertilizers are placed in soils. The
overcome the differences in hydraulic
of the fertilizer applicator units was
Egyptian farmer is used to applying
head during the solution discharge
adjusted and used to drip the liquid
nitrogen fertilizers as needed, to
and also to maintain a constant ow-
fertilizer into the main eld head
different crops, usually once or twice
rate. In the bottom, there is a valve
irrigation canal where plastic siphons
to adjust the ow-rate of fertilizer
were used to distribute the enriched
solution according to the rate of
irrigation water to the eld furrows.
irrigation water reaching the eld
Furthermore, training programs
(time used in dripping the solution
and
is equivalent to the time required for
engineers and farmers were organized,
irrigating the eld).
with the cooperation of the Ministry
Plastic tubing about 20m in length
trials
for
agricultural
of Agriculture.
and 1.1 cm in diameter is connected
It
was
concluded
that
the
to the valve. The irrigating farmer
advantages of fertigation for surface
distributes the fertilizer solution by
irrigation systems were:
placing the end of the plastic tubing at
•
the end of the eld plot that receives
and 2 for two applicator models).
The simple “fertilizer applicator”
nutrients
•
Supplies nutrients, when needed
•
Reduced pollution of underground
was used for applying urea solution
to cotton in the eld. Results
indicated
that
fertigation
under
Increased efciency in fertilizer
use, with maximum availability of
the irrigation water. (See Figures 1
Figure 1. The simple fertilizer
application device.
eld
water; particularly of nitrogen
•
Increased uniformity of fertilizer
distribution
21
GRID 28 :: February 2008
BOOK REVIEW
•
Reduction of application costs
also makes important observations
•
Increased crop yield and net
that can impact on the manner
income
in which the equipment can be
Fertigation may also be applied
utilized. The contents are presented
together with some pesticides,
around eight main chapters. Besides
and this chemigation saves on the
the Introduction, one chapter is
costs of two separate applications
dedicated entirely to drinking water
Fertigation
supplies,
•
•
under
surface
with
consideration
for
irrigation contributes to food
both human and livestock needs.
security while conserving the
One chapter covers water lifting
environment
for small-scale irrigation including
water management and crop water
Recently, attempts were made to
requirement
manufacture a large sized, portable
issues.
A
fourth
chapter provides fundamentals on
unit with a manual mixer built-in, for
Water lifting devices
water sources, both surface and
direct dissolution of fertilizers. Such a
by Peter Fraenkel and Jeremy Thake
groundwater, with discussions on
unit could be used for applying soluble
water quality, treatment and storage.
or somewhat soluble fertilizers and
The book is viewed by the authors as a
Two more chapters look into the
even suspended fertilizers, such as
“handbook for users and choosers”. It is
fundamental physical principles of
calcium ammonium nitrate or super-
a comprehensive guide to pumps and
water lifting and a review of pumps
phosphate because clogging would
other water lifting devices, the essentials
and water lifting techniques. In the
not be a problem in this system.
for water supply and irrigation. It is
former water losses are explained as
So the aim now is to conduct
an expanded and updated version of
well as ow through open channels
research testing the modied unit
an original book published by FAO
and pipes. In the latter a number of
for use in applying different forms
in 1956, who is again the publisher.
types of pumps are presented. The
of NPK and micronutrients. The
The book aims to inform on the
last two chapters look into power
successful and efcient use of such
existence of a wide variety of water
for pumping: human, animal, internal
a unit will lead, with the help of
pumping
movers
and external combustion engines
IPTRID/FAO, to forming a joint
and combinations thereof and how
and electric, wind, solar and water
project with colleagues from the
they can be best utilized. A second
power. On the choice of pumping
middle East, far East and other
objective is to assist users and planners
systems,
countries applying fertilizer in similar
to understand the technologies, so
considerations are reviewed and a
surface irrigation systems to test the
they can be applied effectively and
number of practical considerations
efciency for possible use under
efciently. Thus, the main purpose
offered. <
different management conditions.
is to provide a comprehensive single
devices,
prime
In 1994 the “fertilizer applicator
source of practical information for
device” for surface irrigation was
decision-makers concerned with the
granted a patent from the Egyptian
selection, sizing and procurement of
Academy of Scientic Research and
water lifting systems and their power
Technology in the name of Prof. Dr.
sources for both the supply of drinking
Abdelmoneim Elgala. <
water and for small-scale irrigation.
The overall beneciaries will be end-
For
Prof
more
information
Abdelmoneim
[email protected]
contact
Elgala
at:
users in rural areas of developing
countries gaining more accessible,
cost-effective and efcient water lifting
systems as a result of better planning
and procurement decisions.
The handbook not only provides
a myriad of technical information but
22
February 2008 :: GRID 28
nancial
and
economic
IPTRID NEWS
IPTRID evaluates the APPIA
project in West and East Africa
activities
were modest as the governments
concerned did not have a rm policy
institutional
the
on how they would like to approach
constitution and reinforcement of
this issue. Important training material
and under the framework of its
national committees of the irrigation
was generated.
cooperation for the agriculture sector
and drainage commission (CIID) in
A Project like APPIA that had
in West and East Africa, promoted
West Africa (AMAURID, ASPID) and
such a broad reach, going across
and funded the project “Amélioration
the creation of the Kenyan Association
countries
des
Périmètres
of Irrigation and Drainage (KIDA) in
necessarily
Irrigués en Afrique”, better known
East Africa. These structures made it
constraints that impinged on its
for its French acronym, APPIA.
possible, in many cases, to inuence
smooth
The project, as conceived, had two
the national policy on irrigation and
objectives of the Project were seen
geographical components: West and
drainage, in particular in Kenya, or
as too wide and demanding. Such a
East Africa. In the former, activities
take part regularly in national debates
broad goal led to a loss of focus and to
took place in Burkina Faso, Mali,
on water strategies in Burkina Faso,
interventions dealing with the whole
Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. The
Mali, Niger and Senegal.
spectrum of water for agriculture
latter saw implementation in Ethiopia
regions
faced
a
within,
number
implementation.
of
The
evaluation
issues rather than the intended and
of pilot irrigation systems in both
narrower water management aspects
was known for its English acronym
Regions
farmers’
of irrigation systems. The Project
IPIA (Improving the Performance of
constraints go far beyond those
came at the appropriate time, and
Irrigation in Africa). The organization
directly related to the administration,
it tried to ll an existing void. The
primarily responsible for the oversight
operation and maintenance of these
Project provided an opportunity
and implementation of the APPIA-
schemes. The performance of these
for stakeholders to meet and discuss
West components was the Association
systems was evaluated based on
pressing issues and to raise the
Régionale
that
the Participatory Rapid Diagnosis
importance and visibility of irrigated
and
Action
Planning
agriculture in the public forum.
ARID;
methodology
developed
the
de
showed
l’irrigation en Afrique de l”Ouest,
while
Professionnels
performance
and
and Kenya. In this region the project
de
The
to
Transfer
its Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MAE),
des
thanks
Management
The Government of France, through
Performances
level
groups in the context of Irrigation
International
(PRDA)
by
the
The Project leaves behind a
Water Management Institute, IWMI
Project. This instrument is seen
wealth of information that needs to
was allocated the oversight and
by stakeholders as a very positive
be consolidated and made available
implementation of the APPIA-East
contribution to the sector.
to interested parties. The evaluators
component. MAE asked IPTRID
Another broad area of Project
to carry out the nal evaluation of
achievements dealt with the Capacity
produced,
this project, which the Programme
Development efforts. More than 70
Manual and Training Source books,
executed by elding teams to West and
events took place over the four year
were not available in local languages;
East Africa in June 2007.
period of the Project with more than
a limitation that needs correcting. <
The APPIA (and IPIA) projects
2 250 persons beneting. However,
had a signicant impact at the
Project efforts to support farmers
The comprehensive
evaluation of the French
Mission in Jordan, Palestinian
territories and Lebanon
and
Agriculture
found that many of the eld materials
including
the
PRDA
implementation of best practices of
irrigation. Focusing on improving the
efciency of irrigation water, MREA
concentrates on the introduction of
new techniques in response to new
management rules in pilot areas in
Jordan, Lebanon and the Palestinian
In 1993, the government of France
Water
(MREA)
Territories. The proposed practices
established a Regional Mission for
based in Amman to promote the
and methods of introduction are
23
GRID 28 :: February 2008
supported by a comprehensive socio-
during the period of evaluation in
economic and technical assessment of
France, Jordan and the West Bank
irrigated agriculture in each location.
of the Palestinian Territories with
Later in 2001 and with the intention
relevant stakeholders, partners, and
to bring an institutional support
other donors. Due to the escalation
to partners in the three countries
of the political situation in the region,
VIRGINIE GILLET joined the Programme
concerned in order to contribute
the scope of the geographical mapping
in September 2005 as an Associate
to
IPTRID
Staff changes
Professional Officer supported by the
Government of France. She left IPTRID in
September of 2007 after completing her two
years of service. During her stay with us Ms
Gillet provided support across the board in
our activities such as M&E of the IWMIIPTRID joint collaboration; institutional
mapping in Thailand under the project
on Evaluation Study of Paddy Irrigation
under
Monsoon
Regime
or
ESPIM;
the organization of the IPTRID-ICID
Workshop on Monitoring and Evaluation
of Capacity Development Strategies in
Agricultural
Water
Management
held
in Kuala Lumpur in 2006 and activities
related to our Virtual Center Project for
West Africa. She was guest editor for
our GRID magazine; editor of the Land
and Water Division Newsletter; helped
in the upgrading and monitoring of our
various web pages and last, but not least, in
handling of our mailing list. Ms Gillet has
gone to Australia to pursue her Ph.D at the
University of South Australia in Adelaide.
IPTRID wishes her the best of luck in her
new endeavour.
SARA KIRSCH, joined IPTRID on 31 July
2007 as a Temporary Assistance Pool
coherent
was restricted to cover Jordan and
agricultural policies with the strategy
the
adaptation
the West Bank of the Palestinian
of water saving and management, the
Territories while the evaluation of
Government of France nanced an
the components in the Gaza Strip
FSP (Fonds de Solidarite Prioritaire)
and Lebanon was carried out through
Project
interviewing
called
of
“Economie
d’eau
agricole au Proche Orient”. The
stakeholders/partners
via video/telephone conferences.
project proposed to produce elements
On relevance, it was apparent that
of action essential to strategic choices
both MREA and the FSP Project were
that the three countries have to make
seen as useful instruments to support
regarding the management of water,
facing/combating challenges in the
the protection of environment, and the
water sector in the three countries.
agricultural and rural development.
The evaluation also recognized the
These elements relate to technical,
signicant effort made by MREA
economic and social interventions
and the FSP Project in meeting the
that deserve to be validated in
demand of its main beneciaries/
various situations. It was anticipated
stakeholders in terms of technical
that the project would result in the
support and policy set up. It also
reinforcement of: (1) the regional role
acknowledged interventions made by
of the MREA Programme through
the French actors, in particular those
a regional component intended to
of the Societé du Canal de Provence
facilitate the capitalization and the
(SCP).
complementarities of the actions and
found the scope of the intervention
work in networking of the partners,
too broad both geographically and
and (2) the complementarities of the
thematically, which probably affected
actions of the French cooperation
the real impact on national policies.
with the Partnership (which set up a
On
However,
coherence,
the
the
evaluation
rational
Technical Advisory Committee for
integration with other international
the whole Mediterranean Region)
initiatives, especially in the thematic
like IPTRID and FFEM.
donors’
platforms
such
as
the
Upon request from the “Agence
Donor/Lender Consultation Group
Française de Développement” (AFD),
in Jordan, was seen as acceptable.
IPTRID conducted a comprehensive
The case of the rational integration
evaluation of MREA and the FSP
with other initiatives was clearly
Project in June and July 2007. The
demonstrated with the observed/
evaluation was based on the common
reported collaboration with GTZ in
criteria used by the Ministry for
the Jordan Valley. It has however,
Foreign Affairs in France which
been noticed that MREA has so far,
support was very much appreciated; she
consists of ve main components:
no articulated, clear mission statement
will remain at FAO, supporting other
relevance, coherence, effectiveness,
despite the fact that the programme
programmes on a temporary basis.
efciency, and impact. The ndings
has been running for quite sometime
and conclusions are based on nearly
in the region. A concern of certain
100 interviews/meetings carried out
parties that interventions introduced
employee (TAP) in support of our General
Services activities, such as the up-keeping
of our mailing list, web page improvement
and monitoring; hiring of consultants and
other general office work. She also assisted
other staff, as required, and particularly
the Programme Manager. She left the
programme on 31 December 2007. Her
24
February 2008 :: GRID 28
visibility of the Programme was
limited to its direct beneciaries
and counterparts and its partners
in close relationship and visibility
and cooperation at the regional
level were rather limited.
of resources at appropriate time
already planned national policy
towards the sustainability of
irrigated agriculture that resulted.
This could be attributed to the
location of the programme which
was situated far from authority
ofces and unlike a programme
such as GTZ, which is nestled
integrally
within
authority
ofces. Nevertheless, and despite
the fact that the programme
was geographically limited to
its pilot areas, its reputation and
achievement amongst the farming
community was well recognized.
Furthermore, it successfully
encouraged the development
of other initiatives such as the
European MEDA project, the
AFD projects, and the Spanish
initiative. It was indeed evident
and best cost as well as the mode of
that the programme did resolve the
forward, as a promising element for
mobilization of expertise (duration,
problem of better water management
keeping the programme’s momentum
technical
and
through the successful development,
and maintaining its achievement. <
may lose their effectiveness and the
situation may become redundant if
no appropriate handover process or
institutional liability to follow up the
development is established has also
been expressed.
The
evaluation
remarkably
recognized the effectiveness of the
programme, expressed in terms of
the production of expected results,
with the large number of publications
produced and the dissemination of
results in three languages: French,
English and Arabic. However, the
Programme’s
steering
mechanism
which was set up to be from Paris was
seen as slowing the of work process
and not helping its progress.
The efciency of the programme,
in terms of the correct mobilization
exchange
capacity,
of
research
knowledge),
Finally, partners of the programme
showed much concern about its
disappearance and suggested ways
of capitalizing effort through the
organization of a nal workshop or
the establishment of comprehensive
databases
to
accommodate
achievements. They also saw the
proposed
follow-up,
non-prot
structure (Methods for Irrigation and
Agriculture – MIRRA), which came
as a result of the assessment made
by the “Groupe de Recherche et
d’Echanges Technologiques” (GRET)
to
guide
the
programme’s
way
was
introduction and adaptation of the
concluded to be relatively high
techniques/research results in terms
For more information contact: Maher
despite the small team and budget of
of action-inuence on the ground
Salman, Technical Officer of the
the programme. A good “value for
(ofcial counterparts and farmers),
Land and Water Division, FAO at
money” was, thus, achieved, thanks
and action-inuenced other projects
[email protected] or Hervé
to the assistance of many interns and
(GTZ,
Lévite,
volunteers from France as well as the
capitalization and valorization of
use of local resources at very low cost.
research is still seen as scattered in
The result was demonstrated with the
nature. In spite of the credibility
training of more than a thousand
gained at the different fronts,
IRWA,
etc.).
However,
Senior
Technical
Officer,
IPTRID at [email protected]
professionals and the request made
by the Japanese Cooperation and
the European Union to benet
from the Programme’s expertise in
irrigation modernization to train
Iraqi professionals. The value added
from
the
Programme
compared
to the effort in the same eld has,
with no exception, been recognized
and conrmed by all stakeholders,
including the end users.
On impact, the evaluation
concluded
that
no
direct
impact of the Programme has
been traced. Rather, it was
contribution/support
to
an
Figure 1. MREA project billboard.
25
GRID 28 :: February 2008
FORUM
How much water is needed
for the keeping of livestock?
water used (“evapotranspired”) in
irrigated crop production is used in
growing barley, maize, wheat and
soybean for feed. If these four crops
Introduction
livestock will be fed in the future.
constitute about 75 percent of the
As diets change and the population
Will cattle on a global scale continue
total feed requirement, the total
grows, demand for food and animal
to be raised largely on grass and
share of water evapotranspired for
feed will increase. But how much of a
crop residues or will grain feeding
irrigated feed production is about 15
rise in demand should we expect? The
become more important when the
percent of the global amount of water
recently published Comprehensive
opportunities to expand grazing land
used in producing irrigated crops.
Assessment of Water Management
decline? If it is the latter, feed demand
Similarly, also about ten to eleven
in
short)
will drive future demand for grains,
percent of the global amount of water
expects that the demand for food
Agriculture
(CA,
for
and farm managers will be pressed
evapotranspired in rainfed cropland
and feed crops will nearly double
to increase water productivity in
was found to be involved in the
in the coming 50 years (See Water
feedstuff production.
production of the four crops, barley,
for Food, Water for Life. Earthscan,
How much water is already
maize, wheat and soybean grown
2007). Part of the inevitable growth
being used in the production of
for feed. According to this analysis,
in food production can be achieved
feedstuffs for livestock is not clear.
15 percent of the water globally
by improving crop yields and raising
The CA assessment maintains that,
evapotranspired
crop water productivity (marketable
of this global evapotranspiration,
consumed by feed crops, including
product produced per unit of water
slightly more than ten percent or
grassland and forage.
evapotranspired). How much of an
7 130 km3 is used in the production
The CA uses a different set of
improvement is needed is illustrated
of rainfed and irrigated crops. An
assumptions and estimated values to
by the assumptions underlying the
additional 840 km3 is said to be used
calculate the amount of water used
best possible CA scenario for 2050
in the production of biomass actually
in the production of feed crops. This
listed in Table 1. Water demand in
consumed
livestock.
calculation involves the feed energy
agriculture includes not only water
Unfortunately, there are no hard data
supplied per kg of grass or feed crops,
for the production of crops for
on how much of the global water
the average feed energy requirements
animal food and feed but also the
used in evapotranspiration of rainfed
per animal, the mix of feeds for
water they drink. In this article, I will
and irrigated crops is for human
different kinds of livestock and the
discuss what we know about present
consumption and how much is for
water productivity of feed crop and
water needs for the production of
livestock. One often-quoted estimate
grass production. For all developing
feedstuff for livestock and explore
is that about 45 percent of the global
countries
change processes that will affect
amount of water used in agriculture
approach leads to an estimated water
the availability of water for the
can be attributed to feed production.
need of 536 km3 for maintenance of
production of fodder.
According to one estimate, more than
livestock (including here only cattle,
40 percent of the world’s grain is
sheep and goats). Maintenance refers
by
grazing
in
taken
agriculture
together
is
this
Water for livestock keeping
being fed to livestock. Since most of
The challenge for livestock production
the feedstuff is grown under rainfed
is epitomized in the expected doubling
conditions, the amount of water
of meat consumption in East Asia
consumed in irrigated crops grown
EXPECTED INCREASES
IN PRODUCTION IN 2050
between now and 2050, resulting from
for livestock is usually estimated at
Cropped area
the economic growth in this region. A
less than ten percent, but we don’t
Crop water consumption
20
global increase in consumption of
know how much less.
Water withdrawn for
agriculture
13
Table 1: Assumptions underlying
the best CA scenario for 2050
%
9
livestock products must lead to higher
Recent reports give two different
feed grain demand. Livestock are fed
approaches to calculating the amount
Global yield of rainfed cereals
58
by grass, crop residues and feedstuffs
of water consumed in livestock
Rainfed crop water productivity
31
(mainly barley, maize, wheat and
keeping. One, a spatially detailed
Global irrigated yields
55
soya) in different combinations. The
water balance calculation, indicates
that about ten percent of the global
Irrigated crop water
productivity
38
experts are not in agreement on how
26
February 2008 :: GRID 28
Table 2: Change processes
affecting livestock keeping
ONGOING DRIVERS FOR CHANGE:
the drinking water requirement is
non-food agriculturals, by 23 percent.
relatively small.
If this trend continues, some poor
a
countries will no longer be able to
straightforward question (‘how much
afford sufficient food imports to feed
water is currently being depleted
their populations. Part of the reason
in processes associated with animal
for the price increases in cereals
Urban expansion on grazing lands
keeping’) becomes complicated when
and other crops is the increased
NEW DRIVERS FOR CHANGE:
looked at in more detail. How much
production of crops for biofuel
Crops for ethanol production
competing with food and feed crops
more land and water will be required
production. One of the Millennium
for feed production when the world
Ecosystem
Rapid increase in world market prices
of grain
population reaches eight or nine
anticipates that by 2050, one quarter
billion people? The answer depends
of global energy will come from
on the assumptions one is prepared
biomass. Producing the necessary
to make.
eight billion tons of biomass would
Population growth and economic
growth
Higher meat consumption in richer
countries
Higher world-wide energy costs
Global climate change affecting rainfall
and temperature regimes
What
started
out
as
Assessment
scenarios
require more than 5 000 km3 of
Growing global awareness of
environmental issues (e.g. China)
Drivers for change
water for crop water use, i.e. about
Livestock keeping in different parts
70 percent of the present global
to the minimum amount of water
of the world has already undergone
evapotranspiration
needed to keep animals alive without
many
years,
Also, if crop residues are no longer
weight loss but excludes extra feed
resulting among other things from
plowed back into the soil, it would
needed for growth, lactation and
pressure on land and water (quality
have a huge impact on soil fertility
work. The CA estimates the global
and quantity), and environmental
and soil structure.
water used to produce feed at 1 300
concerns. Table 2 lists the most
In the second half of 2007 crude oil
km3, which includes the demand
important on-going and new drivers
prices have uctuated around US$ 85
for all other livestock species (e.g.
for changes that are affecting livestock
a barrel (with a recent high of nearly
pigs and chickens) and takes into
production.
US$ 94). Higher energy prices affect
account requirements beyond the
changes
in
recent
in
agriculture.
The current change processes
agriculture mainly through an increase
This
highlight the difficulty of predicting
in the cost of pumping groundwater,
estimate corresponds to 18 percent
what agriculture in 2050 will look
increasing costs of fertilizers and
of
the
in
agriculture
basic
maintenance
like. Most projections for the future
for the use of farm machinery as
above.
include an increase in agricultural
well as transportation of products
Considering the many assumptions
trade. Many countries (e.g., Egypt,
to markets. The use of crop residues
made in both sets of calculations, the
Malaysia and Japan,) already depend
as feedstuff involves no additional
best estimate that can now be made
on food imports because production
evapotranspiration and thus increases
is that between 15 and 20 percent of
is limited by water scarcity or
crop water productivity. Producing
global water use in agriculture is
for various other reasons. This
sufcient food and fodder will also
associated with the production of
importation of food has been feasible
require renewed efforts to increase the
livestock products.
because of relatively low food prices,
productivity of land and water.
I
global
needs.
have
evapotranspiration
mentioned
not
yet
mentioned
but suggesting that instead of striving
The required increases in yield and
livestock need for drinking water.
for food self-sufficiency water-scarce
crop water productivity listed in Table
Livestock in developing countries are
countries should import more food
1 will be hard to achieve. Adoption
estimated to drink about 11 km per
from
and adaptation of these technologies
year, and globally about 16 km . The
presupposes
market
needs to be accelerated while the
rst estimate is based on an average
prices of cereals and other foodstuffs
world learns to equitably share the
daily drinking water requirement
will
resources that none of us own. <
of about 25 l/day/tropical livestock
the commodity-price index of the
unit. Some of the drinking water is
Economist (www.economist.com; 5
For
recycled to the soil through urine
Oct 2007) shows that the aggregated
Jacob W. Kijne, Water Management
and feces. Compared with the water
dollar price of food has increased by
Consultant,
required to produce feed for animals,
45 percent since one year ago, while
[email protected]
3
3
water-abundant
remain
that
countries,
world
affordable.
In
fact,
more
information
Washington
contact:
DC
at:
27
GRID 28 :: February 2008
IPTRID
The uptake of Research and Exchange
of Technology and Innovations in irrigation
and drainage for a sustainable agriculture
The International Programme for Technology
and Research in Irrigation and Drainage
(IPTRID) is a multidonor trust fund managed by
the IPTRID Secretariat as a Special Programme
of FAO. The Secretariat is located in the Land
and Water Development Division of FAO.
The IPTRID acts as a facilitator mobilizing the
expertise of a worldwide network of leading
institutions in the field of irrigation, drainage
and water resources management.
IPTRID aims at improving the uptake of research,
exchange of technology and mamagement
innovations by means of capacity development in
the irrigation and drainage systems and sectors of
developing countries to reduce poverty, enhance
food security and improve livelihoods, while
conserving the environment. The Programme
therefore is closely aligned with the Millennium
Development Goals.
Together with its partners, the IPTRID
Secretariat provides advisory services and
technical assistance to countries and development
agencies, for the formulation and implementation
of strategies, programmes and projects. During
the last ten years, it has been supported by more
than twenty international organizations and
government agencies. The present programme
is co-financed by the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO),
the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, France
and Spain, the World Bank and the International
Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
IPTRID Central Partners
FAO, Italy
The World Bank,
United States of America
ICID Central Office, India
IWMI, Sri Lanka
HR Wallingford, United Kingdom
Cemagref, France
Alterra-ILRI, The Netherlands
IAM-BARI, Italy
Brace Centre for Water
Resources Management/McGill
University, Canada
IPTRID Current Donors
DIARY
5-10 February 2008
Second African Show of Irrigation and Drainage SAFID
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
http://www.arid-afrique.org/rubrique.php?id_rubrique=35
25–28 June 2008
Kampala, Uganda
International Conference on Groundwater and Climate in
Africa
Contact: Richard Taylor, University College London
London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
Email: [email protected]
Web site: www.gwclim.org
11–13 June 2008
Sustainable Irrigation 2008 - 2nd International Conference on
Sustainable Irrigation Management, Technologies & Policies
Alicante, Spain
Email: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2008/
irrigation08/index.html
14 June–14 September 2008
Expo Zaragoza 2008 “Water and Sustainable Development”
Zaragoza, Spain
Contact: Expo Secretariat
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.expozaragoza2008.es/
06–11 July 2008
10th International Drainage Workshop of ICID Working Group
on Drainage
Helsinki, Finland
Web site: http://www.fincid.fi/idw2008/
DFID, United Kingdom
17–23 August 2008
World Water Week 2008
Stockholm, Sweden
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.worldwaterweek.org
Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
The Netherlands
Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
France
Ministry of Agriculture, France
01–04 September 2008
13th World Water Congress
Montpellier, France
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://wwc2008.msem.univ-montp2.fr/
Ministry of Agriculture, Spain
8–10 September 2008
Africa Water Resources Management 2008 (AfricaWRM 2008)
Gaborone, Botswana
Web site: http://www.iasted.org/conferences/home-604.html
13–19 October 2008
ICID’s 20th International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage
Lahore, Pakistan
Phone: +92 42 9202538
Fax: +92 42 9202154
E-Mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.icid2008.org/
IPTRID has cooperated with
more than 60 organizations in
40 countries
The Federal Office for
Agriculture, Government
of Switzerland
Contact information
IPTRID Secretariat
Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations
Land and Water
Development Division
Office B-713
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00153 Rome, Italy
Tel.: (+39) 06 57052068
Fax: (+39) 06 57056275
e-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.iptrid.com
Fly UP