...

KONE et al 2007 Towards an Improved Faecal Sludge Management

by user

on
Category: Documents
2

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

KONE et al 2007 Towards an Improved Faecal Sludge Management
Doulaye Koné, Martin Strauss and Darren Saywell
September 2007
Towards an Improved
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM)
Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium
and Workshop on Faecal Sludge Management (FSM)
Policy. Dakar, Senegal, 9 – 12 May 2006
Bank of Netherlands Water
Partnership, BNWP
The World
Bank
International
Water Association
Committees
Scientific Committee
Baba Coulibaly, ONAS, Senegal
Doulaye Koné, Sandec, Switzerland
Alioune Ndiaye, ONAS, Senegal
Martin Strauss, Sandec, Switzerland
Darren Saywell, IWA, United Kingdom
Tonino Zellweger, Sandec, Switzerland
Organising Committee
Baba Coulibaly, ONAS, Senegal (Co-chair)
Alioune Ndiaye, ONAS, Senegal (Executive Secretary)
Madiembe Diouf, ONAS, Senegal
Bassirou Sow, ONAS, Senegal
Mame Awa Fall, ONAS, Senegal
Martin Strauss, Sandec, Switzerland (Co-chair)
Doulaye Koné, Sandec, Switzerland
Halidou Koanda, Sandec, Switzerland
Michael Steiner, Sandec, Switzerland
Caterina Dalla Torre, Sandec, Switzerland
Sponsors
UN-Habitat
The World Bank (Bank of Netherlands Water Partnership Program (BNWP))
Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP)
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)
Contacts
Dr Doulaye Koné
Eawag/Sandec
Ueberlandstrasse 133
CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
Tel.: +41 (0)44 823 52 86/+ 823 55 53
[email protected]
Dr Darren SaywellI
International Water Association
Alliance House, 12 Caxton Street
London SW1H 0QS, United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 (0)20 76 54 55 00
[email protected]
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Table of Contents
Committees
2
Executive Summary
4
The Dakar Declaration
6
Towards an Improved Faecal Sludge Management
1. Introduction
7
2. Rationales and objectives
7
3. Targeted audiences and participants
7
4. Dynamics of the Symposium/methodology
8
5. FSM key challenges and case studies
9
6. Measures and tools to address FSM challenges
9
7. Winning proposals
10
8. Evaluation of the Symposium
11
9. The Symposium CD
11
Annexes
Annex 1: Programme of the Symposium
12
Annex 2: Opening and closing speech by the Minister and CEO of ONAS
14
Annex 3: Workshop results: mitigation measures and tools
16
Annex 4: Concrete measures proposed by the participants
26
Annex 5: List of participants
28
Acknowledgements
30
Citation: Koné D., Strauss M. and Saywell D. (2007). Towards an improved
faecal sludge management. Proceeding of the first international symposium
on faecal sludge management policy. Dakar, Senegal,
May 2006, Dübendorf, Eawag publishing. 32 pp.
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Executive Summary
Executive Summary
Managing the faecal sludges collected from on-site sanitation
systems is a crucial element in public health protection and key
to successful water and sanitation projects – especially since one
vacuum truck dumping sludge indiscriminately is equivalent to the
open defaecation of 5 000 people! While urban on-site sanitation
programmes have been experiencing a major thrust over the last
10–15 years, the managing of faecal sludges (FS) accumulating
in these installations has largely remained the stepchild of urban
sanitation. As a consequence, the “faecal film” covering many
urban areas of developing countries is persisting, with the known
health and environmental hazards and impairment of urban
space.
The 1st International Symposium-cum-Workshop on Faecal
Sludge Management (FSM) Policy in developing countries was
therefore held in Dakar, Senegal, from 9 to 12 May 2006. The Symposium hosted some 70 participants from 20 sub-Saharan and
European countries (cf. the comprehensive list of participants in
Annex 5), such as policy-makers, funding agencies and enterprises/NGOs active in the sanitation field. It was conducted under the
patronage of the Senegal National Sanitation Utility (ONAS), the International Water Association (IWA) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag/Sandec), and co-financed by UN-Habitat, the World Bank (Bank of Netherlands Water
Partnership Program (BNWP), and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). During the four-day symposium, the
participants exchanged experiences and identified key subjects
and challenges. The work conducted in groups and presentations
given by the participants provided tools and concrete measures to
improve faecal sludge management.
Faecal matter is generally regarded as a taboo subject and
something dirty to be disposed of as quickly and discreetly as
possible. In the context of the symposium, the discussions on
faecal matter ranged from toilet design, faecal sludge emptying,
haulage and treatment to its reuse as a source of organic matter
and nutrients. Salient elements of the presentations during the
1st day of “drawing the scene” comprised:
- A new concept of latrine design to facilitate hygienic emptying
- Health risks of “flying toilets” in slum areas
- Faceless emptying entrepreneurs
- Complaints raised by the owner of an emptying company about
the ever increasing road toll illegally levied by the police force
- High-ranking policy-makers breaking the taboo of manual
emptying and discussing formalisation of this profession
- Low-cost faecal sludge treatment options producing hygieni­
cally safe biosolids
- Promising approaches for improved FSM currently developed
in sub-Saharan Africa (e. g. Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal)
- A relevant short film on on-site sanitation and improvements
achieved by appropriate FS management produced by ONAS
(broadcast also on national television)
- A municipal director reporting on sustainable FS management
procedures with the private sector playing a prominent role.
During the 2nd and 3rd day of the symposium, six working groups
deliberated upon specific aspects of faecal sludge management
following the truncation of challenges into six themes. This led to
the following results:
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Planning aspects
The authorities are hardly aware of the problems and health risks
associated with poor faecal sludge management. To date, there
is a long list of missing elements and measures in most settings
that have to be developed and taken into consideration;
Discharge standards; physical town planning (e. g. land acquisition for treatment); inclusion of FSM in strategic planning at national and municipal level (starting with the ToR for the consultants!);
definition of participatory planning approaches for urban sanitation,
including FSM; identification and involvement of relevant stakeholders, including households; definition of areas and coordination
of responsibilities; legal framework at national and municipal level
(laws and ordinances addressing FSM); strengthening the professional capacities of municipal services (effective decentralisation!);
planning financing strategies and sustained money fluxes (fee and
premium structure).
Technical aspects
Well-trained sanitary or environmental engineers are required to
develop appropriate FS treatment alternatives and select options
best adapted to local conditions and needs. The main criteria
for selecting an adequate option include: land requirements,
treatment objective and treatment standards (type of technology,
use of biosolids, discharge of liquid fraction), establishment of
locally appropriate standards for the reusable biosolids and for
the FS liquid fraction to be discharged, monitoring, operation and
maintenance requirements, cost factors, skill requirements, as
well as risk of failure and potential impact of failure.
Manual pit emptying will continue to play a key role for decades
to come if latrine design is not reconsidered. Hence, development
of FS technologies and collection strategies to reduce the health
risks for emptiers and to enhance the haulage radius for manual pit
emptiers (donkey or tractor-drawn collection vehicles, transfer stations?) are imperative.
The search for appropriate treatment options and treatment
plants scales (centralised vs. satellite treatment works) starts already with the emptying of on-site sanitation systems, which have
to be accessed and pumped out. Therefore, a change in latrine design must be contemplated (e. g. selecting and promoting pits of
minor depth to reduce sludge consolidation and thickening, and
equipping latrines with fixed pipes reaching the bottom of the pits
to allow easy pumping and hygienic emptying (cf. presentation of
Manus Coffey, in the Symposium CD).
Institutional and legal aspects
In many countries, efforts to decentralise responsibilities has
created a vacuum in sanitation infrastructure and service provision,
notably FSM. Responsibilities are not clearly defined, professional
skills at municipal level are mostly missing and a legal framework,
including know-how at municipal level, are often lacking.
Establishing a ministry in charge of sanitation could help solve
this problem, as it would reduce the splitting up of responsibilities
among the different ministries and authorities. This would require
the setting up of a regulatory basis for sanitation in general, and
for faecal sludge management in particular, including appropriate
(i.e. affordable and enforceable) standards for biosolids and liquids
originating from low-cost faecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs).
Executive Summary
The following elements are necessary for a sound legal framework in urban sanitation/FSM:
- Licensing FS collection entrepreneurs and FSTP operators
(contractees) by the municipality
- Establishing national legislation on FSM in general and
treatment requirements/product quality
- Defining the role and responsibility of each stakeholder
- Tariff system
- Setting up regulations on pit emptying, FS transport and
discharge.
A coordination body, comprising all relevant stakeholders or their
representatives (the mayor or his/her representative, municipal
services, FS collection entrepreneurs; households, CBOs, farmers), has to be set up and rendered functional. Its tasks comprise
the development of jointly agreed FSM strategies as well as supervision and close support during FSM implementation.
Financial aspects
Sludge collection, disposal and treatment require investments
and operating funds. Since responsibilities for faecal sludge
management are often unclear, funds are not allocated. Even if a
sanitation tax is levied on the sale of drinking water, these funds
are rarely re-injected into sanitation improvements at local level
but channelled to the central government instead.
Emptying services provided by the private sector (often without any regulatory or financial involvement by the municipalities)
function rather well. Nevertheless, the following two crucial questions remain unresolved: “How can the cost of mechanical emptying be lowered to make it affordable for the most disadvantaged?”
and “What financial and regulatory/incentive system needs to be
put in place to guarantee that FS is brought to the treatment site?”
The following strategies and tools were proposed to meet these
challenges:
- Freeing collection entrepreneurs from taxes on imported goods
such as vacuum trucks and truck spare parts
- Entrepreneurs allowing households to pay for pit emptying by
instalments
- Introducing regular emptying services set up jointly by the
collectors and municipality, with a possible incentive system
for households observing maximum emptying intervals as
established by the municipality or national regulations
- Rendering FSM sustainable and equitable at the same time may
require subsidies or cross-subsidies, for example investments
in FS treatment provided by sources external to the municipality
(national or donor).
Following the three-day discussion, several participants of the
Symposium drew up The Dakar Declaration with a view to promo­
ting the faecal sludge management cause at high level. The declaration, available in English and French, will be widely disseminated
by the participants and their organisations (e.g. PDM, CREPA, PSEau), as well as through organisations’ websites, electronic newsletters and at upcoming international events in the field of sanitation, hygiene and urban development.
Several participants suggested to continue holding FSM symposia
at regular intervals and convening decision and policy-makers. Participants from Burkina Faso proposed to organise the next symposium in their country in 2007/2008.
Capacity building
All participants agreed that technical capacity building alone is not
sufficient to ensure sustainable FSM. Strengthening the municipal
technical services and consulting firms with non-technical
competence (financial, legal, institutional, socio-economic, urban
planning) is urgently needed. Simultaneously, mechanical and
manual emptying entrepreneurs, funding agencies and local stake­
holders require capacity building in their fields of activity and re­
sponsibility.
Universities and research institutes (e. g. 2iE, national universities, CREPA, Eawag / Sandec) are the main potential providers of
basic skills and continued education for professionals. Target audiences or clients are the private sector (collection entrepreneurs,
FSTP operators, consulting firms), officials, technical and social
service staff at municipal level, technical staff, planners, and decision-makers/politicians at central level and from donor agencies.
A technical visit to Cambérène’s faecal sludge treatment plant
in Dakar on the forth day rounded off the Symposium. The Consulting Engineers, the Construction Company and ONAS, as Contractor and Plant Manager, were present to explain its operation
and answer the numerous questions and suggestions of the participants.
Advocacy
The working groups proposed to pass on to policy-makers the
message that sanitation efforts improve public health, reduce
poverty and create employment. This message can be conveyed
via the media (newspapers, TV, radio) and pressure groups (civil
groups, municipal, traditional, religious leaders).
It was suggested that selected high-level leaders/politicians be
approached and invited to raise awareness and advocate the FSM
issue in their respective countries and among their pairs or other
high-level decision-makers abroad. Names put forward comprise
the presidents of Senegal, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Mali, Uganda,
and Tanzania; Nelson Mandela; high-ranking politicians or publicly
known personalities, such as mayors of selected cities; Youssou
N’Dour (a well-known musician) or Associations of First Ladies.
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
The Dakar Declaration
The Dakar Declaration
An international symposium, hosting for the first time national and
municipal decision-makers and emptying operators from 20 countries, was held in Dakar, Senegal from 9 to 12 May 2006 under
the patronage of the Senegal National Sanitation Agency (ONAS),
UN-Habitat, the World Bank, the International Water Association (IWA), the Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP-WB), the
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), and the
Swiss research centre for Water & Sanitation in Developing Countries (Eawag / Sandec). Its goals comprised the identification of key
issues and challenges in FSM, discussion of effective policies and
approaches and development of concrete steps for sustainable
FSM improvement.
Current situation and challenges:
• In the year 2000, the international community aimed at redu­
cing by half the number of people without access to sanitation
systems in order to attain by 2015 the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, over 2.6 billion people worldwide still lack access to adequate sanitation. This situation is
especially critical in sub-Saharan Africa, since its coverage has
merely increased from 32 to 36 % between 1990 and 2002.
• Water-borne or sewered sanitation requires high investments,
is difficult to maintain and manage and serves only a small fraction of the urban population in large urban centres - today and
in future. In most cities, the households use self-financed onsite sanitation systems (latrines or septic tanks).
• Since latrine construction alone is not sufficient to eliminate
the faecal threat, the latrine/pit contents or so-called faecal
slud­ges have to be disposed of and treated adequately to safeguard public health and the environment. One truck dumping
sludge indiscriminately is equivalent to 5000 inhabitants defaecating in nature!
• In most cities and towns, faecal sludge management is currently the stepchild of urban sanitation with untreated slud­ges
being used or disposed of haphazardly and illegally, thereby
causing a permanent spread of gastro-intestinal infections and
leading to serious water pollution.
Experts presenting their experiences in FSM
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
The Symposium therefore recommends policymakers to:
• Define local and national FSM policies, including legal, institutional and socio-economic elements
• Make faecal sludge management (FSM) a priority in national
and municipal budgets to secure the necessary financial resources
• Clearly designate a national institution in charge of defining and
implementing the FSM policies and strategies
• Enhance and formalise collaboration with the private sector to
improve faecal sludge collection, haulage and treatment
• Promote equipment adapted to slum and/or peri-urban areas,
as well as improve the protection of manual and mechanical
emptiers
• Intensify training and applied sciences in faecal sludge management, focusing on appropriate technologies (design of on-site
sanitation facilities, emptying, haulage, and treatment), planning and management, commercialisation and use of FS-derived biosolids.
The Symposium
Dakar, 12 May 2006
Participants sharing experiences and discussing working groups results
Faecal Sludge Management
Towards an Improved Faecal Sludge
Management (FSM)
1. Introduction
More than two billion urban dwellers in developing countries
use on-site sanitation facilities such as pit latrines, septic tanks
and aqua privies for excreta and wastewater disposal. Areawide, sewered sanitation is not suitable in many informal urban
settlements due to water scarcity, intermittent water supply
services and financial-economic reasons. Small-bore or low-cost
satellite sewer systems may prove feasible in some selected
urban areas. It is unlikely though that sewerage will be the
predominant sanitation option-of-choice in developing countries
in the foreseeable future. Since on-site sanitation installations will
serve the growing urban populations in developing countries for
decades to come, increasing faecal sludge quantities will have
to be managed. Proper faecal sludge management (FSM) is the
important link missing in integrated urban sanitation upgrading
efforts (source: WSSCC (2004) Global WASH Symposium (2004),
Roadmap from Dakar – signpost 22).
Worldwide, significant efforts have been made in recent decades to increase sanitation coverage, notably via on-site sanitation
systems. In most programmes or schemes, though, the need to
cater for the management of faecal matter accumulating in these
installations has been left unattended. Hence, although the excreta disposal and hygiene situation may have improved in individual
households, serious health risks and environmental pollution continue to threaten urban livelihood due to the uncontrolled disposal
of the untreated contents of on-site sanitation systems into the urban and peri-urban environment. The poor are at highest risk since
dumping sites are often situated in or near low-income areas and
squatter settlements.
This symposium was conducted under the patronage of the Senegal National Sanitation Agency (ONAS), the International Water
Association (IWA) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag / Sandec), and co-financed by UNHabitat, the World Bank (Bank of Netherlands Water Partnership
Program (BNWP) and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).
Objectives of the Symposium
The Symposium comprised the following objectives:
• Provide tools allowing to create visibility and raise awareness
amongst decision-makers and planners about the importance
of integrating faecal sludge management into city-wide
waste management approaches, and for public health and
environmental risks of the current, unimproved practices
• Formulate an action plan for advocacy, transfer of knowledge
and capacity building in improved faecal sludge management
• Develop recommendations on key thrusts and strategies to
improve FSM systems (managerially and technically).
Symposium
2. Identify key
subjects and
challenges
1. Platform for the
exchange of
experience
3. Provide
effective
tools
4. Formulate
concrete
measures
Fig. 1. The four-step structure of the Symposium
2. Rationales and objectives
The 1st International Symposium-cum-Workshop on Faecal Sludge
Management (FSM) Policy in developing countries was held in
Dakar, Senegal from 9 to 12 May 2006 to:
• Raise the limited awareness of urban planners, administrators
and politicians about on-site sanitation (usually coupled with
off-site disposal or use) as the predominant path of excreta
generated within the urban and peri-urban areas. Adequate
faecal sludge (FS) management and its integration into urban
development and sanitation upgrading programmes have
therefore been widely lacking. Where the need is recognised
(e. g. in several countries in West Africa), the tools required
for faecal sludge management planning and for technically,
institutionally and socio-economically sound solutions may be
missing
• Address the lack of knowledge on strategic and technical
solutions for improved faecal sludge management
• Position faecal sludge management on the policy agenda
over the next critically important 12–18 months by adopting a
process approach to echo the outcomes of the Symposium in
other events.
3. Targeted audiences and
participants
The Symposium was intended for those working at strategic
and policy level in different types of organisations: government,
local authorities, small and medium enterprises, external support
agencies, NGOs, and other civil societies. It hosted some seventy
participants (cf. comprehensive list of participants in Annex 5) from
national and municipal institutions and emptying entrepreneurs
from 20 sub-Saharan countries and also from Europe and Asia:
Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, DR Congo, England,
Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Guinea-Conakry, India, Ireland, Kenya,
Mali, Rwanda, Senegal, Switzerland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda,
Zambia.
Opening ceremony
The opening ceremony was marked by presentations of the Head
of Eawag / Sandec’s Faecal Sludge Management Programme, by a
video on faecal sludge management in Senegal and by a speech
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Faecal Sludge Management
of the Senegalese Minister for Prevention, Public Hygiene, Sanitation, and Urban Water Management.
During his presentation, Mr Martin STRAUSS of Sandec expressed, on behalf of himself and the organisers of the Symposium, his gratitude to the Senegalese authorities for having accepted to host this event. He then greeted and thanked all the
participants at the Symposium for their interest and commitment
to the faecal sludge cause, especially since FS continues to be disposed of untreated and illicitly in most urban centres, thus leading
to the transmission of enteric diseases, environmental degradation
and impairment of the urban space. He also mentioned that since
FSM has remained the stepchild of urban sanitation to date, one of
the reasons for convening the Symposium was to develop measures to improve this condition.
The five-minute video film presented the dramatic situation experienced by people’s lack of access to appropriate sanitation and
inadequate FS management in the city of Dakar: on-plot burying of
FS or indiscriminate dumping onto roads and other public areas,
difficulties for vacuum trucks to access Dakar’s central FS dum­
ping site at Bel Air. It further addressed the health risks to emptying entrepreneurs and to the population in general as expressed by
families and a public health officer. It showed the striking improvements brought about by the citywide on-site sanitation programme
co-financed by the World Bank. The film ended by the presentation
of one of the three new FS treatment units constructed by ONAS
in the city of Dakar.
Dr Issa Mbaye SAMB, Minister of Public Health, Sanitation and
Urban Drainage, thanked the organisers for choosing Senegal. He
then mentioned the involvement and steps taken by the highest
civil authorities of the country to attain the Millennium Development Goals. He concluded by expressing his hope that the resolutions, which will be reached at the end of the Symposium, shall be
put into practice.
4. Dynamics of the Symposium /
methodology
and proposed adequate tools. Each group submitted its results
as a PowerPoint presentation to the plenary session for amendments.
Step 3
Despite the broad spectrum of experience and accumulated
knowledge of the audience, some questions still remained unanswered. We therefore focused on two key questions discussed by
the Working Groups, and requested each participant to propose
answers to each question.
Step 4
Since such meetings often end without concrete decisions, a
competition was launched where each participant was asked to
formulate concrete steps adapted to his/her working position and
limited to his/her own field of competence. The audience validated
and judged over 60 proposals and the five best were awarded a
prize (cf. concrete steps suggested in Annex 4).
To avoid participants from falling into complex discussions or
action plans beyond the scope of the symposium, and to render
the work more concrete, realistic and applicable, participants were
asked by the moderator to consider at any given time solutions
and situations within their own power of influence. Fig. 2 presents
a model of spheres of influence which helped guiding the discussions in the plenary session and workshops. The sphere of influence certainly depends on the function and position of the person
or service.
Our field of activity: depends entirely on us and on our decisions
to introduce changes.
Our working environment: here other stakeholders and decision-makers also play an important role. We can express ideas,
negotiate, exert influence and thereby contribute to sustainable
changes.
The context: here we grasp the actual situation and way in
which the context acts on our working environment. Since we
have to deal with a constraint in the best possible manner, it is
useless to complain about a difficult context.
The Symposium was conducted in four steps (cf. programme in
Annex 1 and Fig. 1):
Step 1
Selected participants presented their experience with faecal
sludge management (FSM). The situational descriptions and reported challenges were subdivided into the following six specific
topics:
• Financial aspects
• Institutional aspects
• Planning aspects
• Technical aspects
• Advocacy
• Capacity building
After each presentation, the FSM challenges, noted down on flipcharts, were classified by subtopics according to this truncation.
Step 2
During the second step, the workshop participants, grouped according to the aforementioned topics, interest and experience of
each participant, discussed and found answers to listed challenges
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
1. decide
⇒ introduce
changes
Examples: own
enterprise,
personal business
Work
environment
⇒
⇒
Examples:
members
of a community,
shareholder,
feedback
Context
and
constraints
⇒ Take note
⇒ Accept what
is given
Examples: laws,
geographic
conditions,
climate
Fig. 2. Influence sphere model for guiding group discussions
Faecal Sludge Management
5. FSM key challenges and case
studies
As aforementioned, the presentations on the first day served
to initiate the exchange of experience and discussions among
participants or with the speakers, and to identify relevant FSM
challenges to be worked out in groups. The presentations were
preceded by the video produced by ONAS and shown at the
opening ceremony. A total of thirteen presentations were held in
plenary sessions by pre-selected participants (cf. programme in
Annex 1).
All PowerPoint slides of the presentations are available on
the Symposium CD and downloadable from Sandec’s webpage
www.sandec.ch/
Table 1. List of presentations on key FSM challenges
• Situation and challenges of faecal sludge management,
Mr Martin STRAUSS, Sandec, Switzerland
• Faecal sludge management in the city of Kumasi – Perspectives
of the municipality, Mr Tony MENSAH, KMA, Kumasi, Ghana
• On-site sanitation and FSM in Senegal: Development and
perspectives, Mr Alioune NDIAYE, ONAS, Senegal
• Small enterprises in slum areas and faecal sludge management,
Mrs Rose NYANCHONGI OSINDE, Consultant, Nairobi, Kenya
• Faecal sludge management and the perspective of the small
enterprise, Mrs Aminata SIDIBÉ, GIE, Sema Sanyia Bamako,
Mali
• New approaches to latrine emptying, Mr Manus, COFFEY,
M. Coffey & Assoc., Dublin, Ireland
• Innovative financing mechanisms in sanitation, Mr Arba Jules
OUEDRAOGO, ONEA, Burkina Faso
• Management of money flows at municipal level: The “Vacutug”
example in Senegal, Mrs Iole ISSAIAS, UN-Habitat, Nairobi,
Kenya and Malick GAYE, Coord. ENDA RUP, Dakar, Senegal
• Challenges in FSM training and capacity building, Mr Cheikh
TOURE, EDE, Dakar, Senegal
• Challenges of data collection in the field of FSM, Mr Bruno
VALFREY, Hydro-Conseil, France
• Conclusions of the day along with the World Bank’s perspective,
Mr Ousseynou E. DIOP, WSP- World Bank, Dakar, Senegal
• Faecal sludge treatment options, Mr Doulaye KONÉ, Sandec,
Switzerland
6. Measures and tools to address
FSM challenges
The specific measures and tools to address FSM, as discussed in
the workshops and amended in plenum, are presented in Annex 3
and summarised in the Executive Summary. This section presents
ToRs, group organisation and questions remaining unanswered in
each workshop.
•
•
Organisation of the group
Moderators: Mrs Iole Issaias, Kenya, and Mr Sambou, Senegal
Rapporteurs: Messrs M. Gueye and S. Niang, Senegal
Issues debated
The group dealt with each step of the faecal sludge management
chain: design of on-site sanitation systems, latrine emptying
and sludge haulage technology, interdependencies between
the on-site sanitation options and pit emptying, as well as
sludge treatment/reuse. The main challenges were identified
at each step and solutions proposed by the group (cf. Annex 3
and Executive Summary).
• Open questions
- What is the best emptying system for the “sludge/liquid”
mixture?
- Which institutions should deal with technical and scientific
monitoring?
- How should research activities in faecal sludge management
be financed?
- What are the key selection criteria for faecal sludge treatment
systems?
6.2 Workshop 2: Financial aspects
• ToR
Identify potential financing options of FSM and assess their
effectiveness and applicability.
• Organisation of the group
Moderator: Mr M. Diouf, Senegal
Rapporteur: Mr D. Dakouré, Burkina Faso
• Issues debated
The current financing mechanisms known to the group
members were reviewed. The main financing sources are:
households, government or local entities, as well as technical
and financial partners. The group proposed financing sources
at each step of the chain, viz.: equipment and running cost at
household level (latrines, septic tanks and their emptying and
maintenance) should be borne by the users; investments in
treatment systems should be covered by the municipalities and
government authorities (cf. Annex 3 and Executive Summary).
• Open questions
- How can the emptying fees be made affordable to lowincome households?
- How can emptying enterprises be prevented from adding
the additional costs caused by FS treatment to the emptying
fees?
6.3 Workshop 3: Institutional aspects
• ToR
- Propose and describe adequate institutional setups for
sustainable faecal sludge management, attributing a promi
nent role to the private sector.
- What are the institutional arrangements between the public
and private sector, the laws on on-site services, including
the standards and regulations?
- How can collaborative contexts with all the stakeholders
be established, including governance in the sector, role of
professional organisations and status of entrepreneurs?
6.1 Workshop 1: Technical aspects
• ToR
Identify the key technical aspects (pit emptying, haulage and
treatment) of faecal sludge management and propose tools to
overcome obstacles.
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Faecal Sludge Management
•
•
Organisation of the group
Moderator: Mrs R. Osindé, Kenya
Rapporteur: Mr F. Adégnika, Benin
Issues debated
The group focused on the current context: current
decentralisation in several countries of the sub-region,
existence of local dynamics and active entrepreneurship,
and involvement of the populations to improve their living
conditions. It subsequently defined the points allowing to
clarify the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders at local
and national level (cf. Annex 4 and Executive Summary).
• Open questions
- How can professional training and structuring of the
stakeholders involved be ensured?
- How can the issue of FSM and recommendations of the
Symposium become priorities on the agenda of policymakers?
6.6 Workshop 6: Capacity building aspects
• ToR
How can competence be transferred to the private and public
sector?
• Organisation of the group
Moderator: Mr I. Seck, Senegal
Rapporteur: Mr J. Wéthé, Burkina Faso
• Issues debated
The group discussed the following aspects: identification of
the professional fields involved in FSM, needs for capacity
building of key stakeholders (private sector, technical services
(municipal and governmental) and research and training
institutions). The results of the group provide action plans for
capacity building of key FSM stakeholders.
• Open questions
- Who will finance capacity building?
- Who will coordinate a capacity building programme at the
African level?
6.4 Workshop 4: Advocacy aspects
• ToR
Identify the most important decision-makers and propose
adequate measures for effective advocacy.
• Organisation of the group
Moderator: Mr Darren Saywell, England
Rapporteur: Mr Segla Lihoussou, Benin
• Issues debated
The group identified three levels of decision-makers on which
to focus the advocacy for faecal sludge management: Level 1
(President of the Republic and Ministers), Level 2 (Technical
Directors) and Level 3 (representative of territorial administration
and decentralised institutions). Adequate measures were
proposed for each level (cf. Annex 3 and Executive Summary).
• Open questions
- What African minister or president could act as an advocate
among his peers?
- How can the media be involved in promoting and facilitating
a synergetic effect on the sub-regional organisations and
cooperation partners?
6.5 Workshop 5: Planning aspects
• ToR
What are the roles of the stakeholders and how can collaboration
between them be ensured to develop a sustainable faecal
sludge management strategy?
• Organisation of the group
Moderator: Mr A. Baba-Moussa, Benin
Rapporteur: Mr P.P. Bayili, Burkina Faso
• Issues debated
Based on the experience of each member, the group proceeded
to establish a state-of-the-art of the problems and constraints of
FSM at local and national level. The group proposed a strategic
planning approach for sustainable faecal sludge management
in urban areas (cf. Annex 3 and Executive Summary).
• Open questions
- How can government and local entities be made responsible
for planning and coordinating FSM activities?
- How can integrated sanitation planning be promoted?
10
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
7. Winning proposals
The concrete steps proposed by the participants are recorded in
Annex 4. After their presentation, the participants selected the
best ideas by marking them with two red dots. The five prizewinning proposals are described hereafter.
Merit projects selected by the participants
Manager of a
Organise a national symposium on
sanitation enterprise sanitation in general and FSM in
particular under the high patronage of
the President of the Republic.
Engineer, Head of
Conduct tests in the city of Ouahigouya
Research
(Burkina Faso) of combined solid waste
and faecal sludge collection and reuse
through composting.
Chief Technical
Use the influence of my office to
Advisor
have at least five ministers commit
themselves to the cause of FMS in
their programmes and work towards
implementing them.
Specialist in
Register the manual entrepreneurs,
Community
integrate them into NGOs/SME
Development
and train them in faecal sludge
management.
Director
Reproduce this Dakar workshop in the
capital of my country together with
the different ministries responsible
for Water, Hygiene and Sanitation,
as well as develop and implement
concrete and urgent actions for FSM
improvement. This two-day workshop
will be financed by funds from the
Hygiene Department and group all the
associations of emptiers.
Faecal Sludge Management
8. Evaluation of the Symposium
Prior to closing the Symposium, the participants evaluated it and
awarded “stars” to its outstanding features.
Participants
- Invite more local authorities (mayors)
- Invite representatives of municipal “grassroot” organisations
- Also invite legal experts to assist with the elaboration of rules
and regulations
8.1 Positive points
Methodology
- Steering the workshop *****
- Methodology of asking and working out questions for the
working group
Logistics
- Welcoming and logistics group **
- Documentation of comprehensive quality *
- Martin Strauss for his commitment
Participants
- Choice of participants favouring the exchange within a group
committed to the same cause
- Exchange of experience among the participants
- Contributions by the participants **
- Very high discussion level
- Good working atmosphere
Information/Observations
- The Dakar Declaration ought to be presented at the Conference
of African Ministers for the Environment (AMSEN) in Brazzaville
on 23 May 2006
- Foresee a contribution on faecal sludge management for the
AMSEN Meeting in 2007
9. The Symposium CD
Each participant will receive the Symposium CD, which can
also be downloaded from Sandec’s webpage (www.sandec.ch).
It contains all the relevant documents and presentations of the
Symposium as illustrated in Fig. 3.
Spoken language
- The language barrier was overcome
- Good interpreting assistance
Results
- The participants submitted concrete proposals
- Elaboration of a declaration
8.2 Suggestions for improvements
Methodology
- Organise a field visit during the symposium *
- Visit an illicit sludge disposal site
- Attend a “Vacutug” emptying tour or demo
- Provide a proven project example reproducible elsewhere
- Organise the competition of concrete proposals systematically
by regrouping the proposals by countries and/or have them
evaluated by teams of two
- Conduct the presentation on sludge treatment techniques in
plenum
- Plan a follow-up of the proposals at the end of the symposium
Fig. 3. Content of Symposium CD on FSM
Logistics
- Choose a meeting place large enough to accommodate all the
participants and for discussions during in-between meetings
- Foresee an alternative venue *
- Avoid colliding dates with other events
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
11
Annex 1
Programme of the Symposium
1st day
Tuesday, 9 May 2006
8.45
Arrival of participants in plenary
Opening Ceremony Presided by the Minister
9.00 – 9.45
• Welcome by Sandec
• Video projection on faecal sludge management
• Inaugural address
9.45 – 10.15
Coffee break
Mr Martin STRAUSS, Programme Officer FSM, Sandec,
Switzerland
National Office for Sanitation of Senegal (ONAS)
Mr Issa Mbaye SAMB, Minister for Prevention, Public Hygiene,
Sanitation and Urban Hydraulic of Senegal
Introduction of Symposium
10.15 – 11.00 • Welcome and objectives
• Address
• Presentation of participants and programme
Mr Amadou Lamine DIENG, CEO of ONAS, Senegal
Mr Graham ALABASTER, Human Settlement Officer,
UN-Habitat, Nairobi, Kenya
Mr Tonino ZELLWEGER, Symposium Moderator, Sandec,
Switzerland
Introduction of Faecal Sludge Management (FSM)
11.00 – 11.30 Overview of the challenges of faecal sludge
management
Mr Martin STRAUSS, Programme Officer FSM, Sandec,
Switzerland
Institutional and Planning Aspects of FSM
11.30 – 12.00 Faecal sludge management in Kumasi Perspective as seen by the municipality
12.00 – 12.30 On-site sanitation and FSM in Senegal: Evolution
and perspectives
12.30 – 14.00 Lunch
Mr Tony MENSAH, KMA Kumasi, Ghana
Mr Alioune NDIAYE, ONAS, Dakar, Senegal
Small Enterprises Serving FSM
14.00 – 14.30 Small enterprises in disadvantaged regions and
FSM
14.30 – 15.00 Faecal sludge management from the point of
view of a small enterprise
15.00 – 15.30 New approaches for emptying latrines
Ms Rose Nyanchongi OSINDE, Consultant, Nairobi, Kenya
Ms Aminata SIDIBÉ, NGO, Sema Sanyia Bamako, Mali
Mr Manus COFFEY, Newtown Mount Kennedy, County Wicklow,
Ireland
15.30 – 16.00 Coffee break
Financial Aspects of FSM
16.00 – 16.30 Innovative mechanism for the financing of
sanitation
16.30 – 17.00 Models of money flux at community level:
“Vacutug” example in Senegal
Mr Arba Jules OUEDRAOGO, ONEA, Burkina Faso
Ms Iole ISSAIAS, UN-Habitat, Nairobi and Mr Malick GAYE,
Coordinator ENDA RUP, Dakar, Senegal
Capacity Building
17.00 – 17.30 Challenges of training and capacity building in
FSM
Mr Cheikh TOURE, EDE Consulting, Dakar, Senegal
Summary and Strategic View of FSM
17.30 – 18.00 Conclusion at the end of the day combined with
the point of view of the World Bank
19.00 –
12
Dinner at Novotel upon invitation by the
Symposium
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Mr Ousseynou E. DIOP, World Bank, Dakar, Senegal
Annex 1
2nd day Wednesday 10 May 2006
Presentations (cont’d.)
8.30 – 9.00
9.00 – 9.30
9.30 – 10.00
Challenges of data collection on faecal sludge
management
Summary of challenges completed by the
participants
Coffee break
Mr Bruno VALFREY, Hydro-Conseil, France
Mr Tonino ZELLWEGER, Moderator Sandec, Switzerland
Challenges of FSM: Workshops
10.00 – 10.30
10.30 – 12.30
12.30 – 14.00
Organisation of workshops and introduction to
the tasks
Workshop 1: Financial aspects
Workshop 2: Institutional aspects
Workshop 3: Planning aspects
Workshop 4: Technical aspects
Workshop 5: Advocacy
Workshop 6: Capacity building
Lunch
Mr Tonino ZELLWEGER, Moderator Sandec, Switzerland
Workshop room
Workshop room
Workshop room
Workshop room
Workshop room
Workshop room
Workshops (contd.)
14.00 – 14.15 Introduction to the next step of the workshops in
plenary
14.15 – 15.30 Preparation of workshop and discussion synthesis
15.30 – 16.00 Coffee break
16.00 – 17.30 Sharing insights of the different workshops and
listing of open questions
Mr Tonino ZELLWEGER, Moderator Sandec, Switzerland
Technical Aspects of FSM (optional)
20.00 – 21.30 Presentation and discussion – FS treatment
options
3rd day Mr Doulaye KONE, Sandec, Switzerland
Thursday, 11 May 2006
Synthesis of Workshops and Open Questions
8.30 – 9.30
9.30 – 10.30
10.30 – 11.00
11.00 – 12.30
12.30 – 14.00
Presentation of completed results
Open FSM questions
Coffee break
Discussion of open questions
Lunch
Competing for Best Proposals
14.00 – 14.30
14.30 – 15.30
15.30 – 16.00
16.00 – 16.30
16.30 – 17.00
17.00 – 17.30
Presenting proposals for immediate actions to
improve FSM
Sharing proposals and selection of best proposals
Coffee break
Evaluation of the Symposium
Introduction to the technical visit on Friday
Official closure and cocktail
Mr Alioune NDIAYE, ONAS, Dakar, Senegal
ONAS/Sandec
4th Friday, 12 May 2006 (optional)
Technical Field Visit: Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant
8.30 – 12.00 Visit of Cambérène’s FS treatment plant in Dakar
15.00 – 17.00 Presentation and discussion - FS treatment
options
ONAS
Mr Doulaye KONE, Sandec, Switzerland
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
13
Annex 2
Opening and closing speech by the Minister and
CEO of ONAS
Mots de bienvenue du Directeur Général de l’ONAS
Mesdames /Messieurs,
Le Sénégal, à travers l’ONAS, s’honore d’abriter cet important
évènement consacré à un domaine longtemps laissé en rade dans
le secteur de l’assainissement liquide urbain: la gestion des boues de vidange issues de nos villes qui deviennent démographiquement de plus en plus denses.
Je voudrais remercier vivement ici Sandec avec Mr Martin
STRAUSS à sa tête, de cet honneur de recevoir ici à Dakar un
aréopage d’experts de domaines aussi divers du point de vue de
leurs provenances que des spécialités embrassées.
Aussi, sommes-nous en droit de nous réjouir d’ores et déjà de
la richesse présumée des débats et de la pertinence des recommandations de notre symposium qui devra permettre, faut-il le rappeler de:
- Trouver les outils permettant d’obtenir une meilleure visibilité
du secteur,
- Sensibiliser davantage les décideurs politiques et les
planificateurs,
- Renforcer les capacités dans le domaine de la gestion
améliorée des boues de vidange et,
- Echanger sur les stratégies clés à mettre en œuvre pour
améliorer la gestion des boues de vidange en milieu urbain et
périurbain.
- …/…Mesdames, Messieurs,
Pour les informations utiles à votre séjour dans notre capitale,
le modérateur Mr TONINO vous donnera tout à l’heure toutes
les précisions nécessaires concernant les réservations retour,
les horaires des repas et de pause de café, les possibilités de
déplacement à votre disposition, l’heure et l’endroit du dîner
offert, le planning des trois (03) jours de travail etc…
Pour terminer, à chacun d’entre vous, je voudrais renouveler nos
souhaits de bienvenue ainsi qu’un excellent séjour au Sénégal.
A nos partenaires résidents au Sénégal qui ont également bien
voulu venir partager leurs expériences avec nous, nous disons: «
merci encore »
“DAL LEN AK DIAM”
Ministère de la Prevention, de l’Hygiène Publique,
de l’Assainissement et de l’Hydraulique Urbaine
Office national de l’assainissement du Sénégal
(ONAS)
Symposium/Atelier sur la politique des boues de
vidange
Ceremonie de clôture
- Monsieur le Directeur Général du Réseau CREPA,
- Monsieur le Directeur Général de la Société Béninoise des
Eaux,
- Monsieur le Directeur Général de l’ONAS,
- Mesdames/Messieurs les Directeurs nationaux,
- Monsieur le Directeur du volet «Boues de vidange » de
Sandec,
- Monsieur le Directeur Régional pour l’Afrique, l’Asie du Sud
et l’Asie du Sud Est de l’Association Internationale de l’Eau
(IWA),
- Monsieur le chargé de l’Urbanisme de UN-Habitat,
- Monsieur le représentant de la Banque Mondiale,
- Mesdames et Messieurs les Représentants des différentes
institutions régionales, internationales, partenaires financiers
et scientifiques de SANDEC et de l’ONAS.
Chers Invités,
Nous voilà au terme de notre Symposium/Atelier après trois jours
de travail d’arrache-pied auquel vous vous êtes donnés avec brio.
Vous venez ainsi de plancher sur la problématique de la gestion
des boues de vidange dans nos établissements humains souvent
à démographie très galopante. Pour ce faire, vous vous êtes exercés en plénières et en groupes spécialisés:
- à identifier les voies et moyens pour sensibiliser
davantage les décideurs politiques et les planificateurs
de projets d’assainissement ou de domaines connexes à
l’assainissement liquide,
- à proposer un package d’outils pour assurer le renforcement
des capacités des acteurs dans le domaine de la gestion
améliorée des boues de vidange, et,
- à échanger sur les stratégies clés à mettre en œuvre pour
améliorer de façon sensible la gestion des boues de vidange
en milieu urbain et périurbain.
Je vous remercie.
AMADOU LAMINE DIENG
14
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
La pertinence des résultats auxquels vous avez ainsi aboutis,
m’autorise, au nom du Docteur Issa Mbaye SAMB Ministre de
la Prévention, de l’Hygiène Publique, de l’Assainissement de
l’Hydraulique Urbaine (MPHPAHyU) de vous dire ici toutes les
félicitations du Gouvernement et du Peuple Sénégalais et nos
encouragements à poursuivre cette dynamique de plaidoyer
légitime pour la promotion d’une bonne gestion des boues de
vidange dans nos différents pays.
La qualité des résultats ainsi fournis est le fruit d’un travail sans
ménagement de votre part et que vous avez accepté de consentir
avec un esprit critique mais dans une atmosphère parfaitement
conviviale. J‘en veux pour preuve: la motivation de chacun d’entre
Annex 2
vous à prendre part au « concours de proposition d’actions immédiates pour améliorer la GBV », pour lequel je félicite vivement les
participants primés.
Nous n’avons pas perdu de vue le caractère très professionnel
de l’organisation du déroulement des travaux du Symposium qui
ont grandement contribué à la réalisation des résultats affichés. En
effet, Monsieur le Modérateur, vous avez pu mener d’une main de
maître la conduite des séances tout en gardant en permanence le
difficile équilibre entre la «démocratie dans la distribution de la parole» et «la bonne maîtrise du temps». Mieux vous avez pu mettre
en place un dispositif qui a permis aux participants de produire des
résultats très concrets et fructueux.
Aussi, Mesdames et Messieurs, permettez-moi de saluer solennellement ce travail de grande valeur pour lequel je sollicite votre
acclamation générale. Merci.
Nos remerciements renouvelés vont bien sûr à l’équipe de
Sandec ainsi qu’à ses partenaires de l’IWA, de UN-Habitat, de la
Banque Mondiale etc….qui ont bien voulu honorer notre pays en
organisant ici à Dakar cet important Symposium qui s’inscrit désormais dans les annales de l’histoire de l’assainissement liquide en
Afrique.
Malgré le caractère très inédit du thème, l’engagement de
longue date et la perspicacité de Sandec ont permis de tenir pour
la toute première fois en Afrique subsaharienne une assemblée de
ce niveau sur un sujet presque tabou.
Félicitations encore à Sandec et encouragements à toute
l’assemblée à s’approprier les résultats du Symposium pour les
traduire en actions concrètes par la suite.
Pour cela, vous pouvez compter sur le Sénégal, car nous nous
engageons à partager avec vous les résultats de projet pilote en
cours de mise à service sur les stations des boues de vidange.
Je ne saurai terminer sans remercier à votre nom, la presse, les
hôtesses, les interprètes ainsi que le comité local d’organisation et
le personnel de l’hôtel.
- Bonne poursuite à tous pour le travail de réseautage nécessaire
pour maintenir la dynamique du Symposium,
- Bon retour à chacun des participants qui ont bien voulu faire le
déplacement à Dakar.
C’est sur ses mots que je déclare, clos, au nom du Docteur Issa
Mbaye SAMB, Ministre de la Prévention, de l’Hygiène Publique,
de l’Assainissement et de l’Hydraulique Urbaine (MPHPAHyU) le
1er Symposium/Atelier sur la politique des boues de vidange en
Afrique subsaharienne.
Je vous remercie
Par Monsieur Mamadou DIA
Directeur de Cabinet du MPHPAHyU
Dakar, le 11 mai 2006
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
15
Annex 3
Workshop results: mitigation measures and tools
Working group
on FSM planning
Group members
-
Rapporteur
Paul BAYILI
BABA-MOUSSA Alassane
N’DOUR Niokhor
BASSIMSOUWÉ Edjam-Etchaki
DABO Aminata Tandian
BAYILI Paul P érré
DIALLO Ousmane
Moderator
Alassane BABA-MOUSSA –
Managing Director SONEB
Methodology
• Familiar with problems based on first-hand
experience of group members
• Identification of major constraints
• Formulation of appropriate measures
• Development of a strategy
• Implementation of the strategy
Problems and constraints:
State-of-the-art …(cont’d.)
• Lack of specific standards and no n- compliance
with standards (design)
• Predominance of
(informal manual and mechanical emptying)
• Low interest by ESA in FSM
• Difficult access to latrines and septic tanks in
certain areas
• Low awareness of health risks by relevant FSM
stakeholders (e.g. manual and mechanical pit
emptiers)
16
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Working method
• Roundtable discussion among group
members
• Identification of assets / constraints,
differences / similarities and formulation of
recommendations / guidelines
Problems and constraints:
State-of-the-art
• Empowerment of L.A. in sanitation management
lacking in the enactments of decentralisation
• FSM not considered separately from wastewater
in environmental and public health legislation
• Lack of vision and strategic options at national and
local level ( PRS , local development plans ….)
• Wide range of stakeholders: unclear
responsibilities, confusion of roles
• Future FS treatment sites not earmarked in urban
master plans
Measures and solutions
• Development of a national sanitation strategy taking
into account especially the FS (e.g. in Senegal)
• Accounting for FSM sites in urban master plans
• Development of strategic plans at
f or on -site
sanitation by taking into account FS management
• Clear allocation of institutional roles for FSM
• Propagation of existing, low- cost technologies
• Organisation and capacity building of stakeholders,
particularly mechanical and manual emptiers, in
organisational and technical fields
Annex 3
Strategic FSM planning at community
level
• Accounting for on -site sanitation and FSM in municipal/
community and national development plans
• Development of a strategic plan for on-site sanitation
including FSM using an integrated and participatory
systems approach
Strategic FSM planning at community
level (cont’d.)
• Implementation: Allocating roles and
responsibilities of stakeholders, viz.:
- Households
-
• The system approach is to comprise the following
aspects:
-
Technology
Socio-culture
Economy and financial resources and mechanisms
Institutions and regulations
Partnerships
Advocated approach:
Private sector (SME, manual emptiers, NGO, CBO)
Municipalities
Decentralised government services
Development cooperation partners
Accompanying measures
Financial plan
Support measures
Working group
on technical aspects
Planning from local to national level
Chairs: Mrs Issaias and Mr Sambou
Rapporteurs: Mr Gueye and Mr Niang
Objectives:
Identify key technical aspects (pit emptying, transport
and treatment) of faecal sludge management and
propose tools to overcome obstacles
The scope of the objectives was widened by including the
following themes:
– Technical design of installations (inside the houses)
– Reuse of products derived from sludge treatment
Methodology
Definition of the targets
Consensus was reached not to discuss the
different technologies depending on income level
of the benefiting populations
• Working procedure
1. The assigned task was divided into five themes:
•
– Design of individual installations
– Emptying of pits / sludge transport
– Sludge treatment / reuse of products
2. At the level of certain themes, a listing of
installations or known systems was performed.
Thereafter, weaknesses of each system were
analysed and appropriate solutions proposed
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
17
Annex 3
1. Design of the installations
1.1. Identification of existing systems :
traditional latrine (simple pit)
VIPs/VIDPs
pour-flush latrines
latrines with liquid / solid separation – ECOSAN
(dry toilets)
– septic tanks
–
–
–
–
2. Emptying of the installations / Sludge
transport
• 2.1. Challenges and solutions
CHALLENGES
SOLUTIONS
1. Access / Distance
Use transfer equipment in areas of difficult access (Vacutug combined
with a larger suction vehicle)
Allow for accessible and nearby dumping sites during planning (master
plans)
Use extraction equipment more adapted to the typology of the hab itat
(Vacutug and improved suction system if pipe too long)
2. Sludge quality
Use caustic soda to liquefy the sludges (return to the initial pit condition,
risk of compromising operation of treatment plant receiving the sludges)
Inject water into sludge during emptying
Maintain a 6-12 months emptying frequency (before sludge solidifies)
3. Equipment limited with regard
to suction depth
Legal provision with regard to existing equipment
4. Extraction of remaining solids
Awareness campaign among users
5. Emptying trucks are mainly
second-hand vehicles
Cf. “Financial Aspects”
• 1.2. Challenges and solutions
CHALLENGES
SOLUTIONS
1. Sedimentation / solidification (in
the first three systems, the
sludge solidifies after 6 months)
Empty every six months (if mechanical;
higher emptying
frequency but smaller quantities and greater ease of extraction ) double-pit latrines (require, however, more space)
2. Sludge / liquid mixture difficult
to extract
See above
3. Site selection / access to pits
Take FSM into account when developing municipal or communal
master plans and when considering appropriate options for in house sanitation facilities
Developing / selecting equipment capable of accessing the latrin es
4. Construction material not
resistant enough for mechanical
emptying
Choose adequate construction material in
compliance with the type of facility and emptying equipment
5. Emptying frequency important
Improve design of the installations (requires
6. Inappropriate installations
Adapt the technology (requires a
3. Sludge treatment / Reuse of products
3.1. Identification of systems
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Digester (biogas)
Sludge humification (planted sludge drying beds)
Activated sludge
Stabilisation ponds
Drying beds
Sedimentation and thickening tanks
Trenching
Co-composting
Agricultural conditioners
3. Sludge treatment / Reuse of products
(cont’d.)
3. Sludge treatment / Reuse of products
(cont’d.)
• 3.2. Challenges and solutions
• 3.2. Challenges and solutions
CHALLENGES
SOLUTIONS
Digester:
1. Efficient only for raw, fresh
sludges
Feasible only for community -scale
installations or public buildings
2. Complex operations
Capacity building, skill development
SOLUTIONS
5. Inappropriate for direct FS treatment. However, the effluent originating
from FS settling / thickening units can be directed to an activated
sludge treatment plant
Drying beds
3. Large land requirement
Use of appropriate plants with
evapotranspiration properties
(reeds, cattail)
4. Technology little known as yet
Popularisation and promotion
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
CHALLENGES
Activated sludge
Planted sludge drying beds:
18
1. Design of the installations (cont ’d.)
6. Large land requirement
Pretreatment
7. Requires a primary
treatment system
Use of settling / thickening units
Annex 3
4. Open questions
• Which is the best emptying system for the “ sludge /
liquid mixture ”?
• Which institutional structures should be adopted for
technical and scientific monitoring of installations and
their operations
Working group
on institutional aspects
• How should research activities in faecal sludge
management be financed?
• What are the key selection criteria for faecal sludge
treatment systems?
5. Recommendation
Chair:
OSINDE Rose, Kenya
Rapporteur: ADEGNIKA Félix, Benin
• Appropriate options of sludge treatment technology
must be improved and disseminated through research
and demonstration
Targets of working group
• Propose and describe adequate institutional
frameworks for efficient FS management by
including the private sector in answering the
following questions:
– What are the institutional arrangements between
the public and private sector?
– Laws, standards and regulations on on-site services
– How should consultation platforms with all the
stakeholders be established?
– Governance in the sector
– Roles of professional organisations
– Status of operators, ….
Context
• Decentralisation process ongoing in various
African countries
• Insufficient competence in decentralised territorial
communities
• Central government offices or agencies exerting
the authority granted to local communities
• Presence of local dynamics and active
entrepreneurship
• The population involving itself to contribute to
improving their living conditions
Defining roles and responsibilities
of each stakeholder
Defining roles and responsibilities
of each stakeholder (cont ’d.)
At central level
At central level
• Define a national policy on FSM
• Establish a legal and regulatory framework
addressing faecal sludge management
• Define national strategies which include periurban
areas
• Establish an institutional framework accounting
for the decentralisation process, acknowledging
all the stakeholders, integrating the principle
of public / private partnership
• Create a Ministry in charge of sanitation
• Establish financial measures and tax incentives
for private operators
• Develop strategic plans at local level
(municipalities, communities)
• Plan the financing of urban faecal sludge
treatment plant construction
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
19
Annex 3
Defining roles and responsibilities
of each stakeholder (cont ’d.)
At local level
At local level
• Develop concerted strategic plans: establish coherent
and locally appropriate organisational schemes
for integrated faecal sludge management to ensure
service coverage for the entire population of the
administrative district
• Establish local hygiene and public health regulations
and ensure their enforcement
• Adopt organisational schemes that entrust the private
sector with FS collection, transport and treatment,
and where the public authority ensures regulation
and monitoring
• Create a framework for consultation and coordination
among faecal sludge stakeholders who, aside
from conflict management, express their opinion on
contracts with enterprises, tariff systems,
identification of FS treatment sites
Defining roles and responsibilities of
each stakeholder (cont ’d.)
At local level
• Reconsider the inhabitant in his / her role as a citizen
(who complies with the rules and regulations and
ensures that they are complied with), as a taxpayer
(who pays his / her taxes and fees), as a patriot (who
accepts installation of sanitation facilities in his/her
environment), as a client or user of the services (who
uses the services provided by the licensed service
providers)
• The grass-root community is responsible for raising
awareness and for monitoring / surveillance activities.
It also supports practical research / demonstration and
installation of sludge transfer stations
Working group on financial aspects
of FSM
Group composed of seven persons originating
from six countries :
- DIOUF M.
- KOANDA H.
- MENSAH A.
- DAKOURE D.
- DESILE D.
- KEBE B.
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
• Develop transparent procedures and regulations for
the private sector, and establish evaluation and
control capacities
Open questions
• How can the professionalisation and stakeholder
involvement and coordination be ensured?
Development of a stakeholder network in FSM???
• The way forward and the “ After Symposium ”?
How can the faecal sludge management issue and
recommendations of the Symposium become
priorities on the agenda of African policy- makers?
Cf. political African agendas (Africités 4,…)
Context
Financing liquid sanitation in a general and FS in particular
should be tackled at two levels:
• Financing of capital expenditure in infrastructure
(collection network, faecal sludge treatment systems)
- DIOUBATE M.
20
Defining roles and responsibilities
of each stakeholder (cont ’d.)
Moderator: Mr M. DIOUF
Rapporteur: D. DAKOURE
Translation: H. KOANDA
• Financing of recurring costs for maintenance,
operation and replacement of equipment and facilities
Core question: What is an equitable, cost-covering
tariff?
Annex 3
How can FSM be financed sustainably?
There are four main financing sources:
•
Users, direct (tariffs and fees) or indirect (taxes and
charges contributing to national and local budgets)
•
Loans from external support agencies
•
Public subsidies usually fed by grants or credits from
external support organisations
•
Private investments provided by national or foreign
investors within the framework of licensing or
privatisation of public services
Access
Emptying and
collection/
haulage
First link: Access to the sanitation service
Subsidies
Private
sector
Users
Micro
finance
Intermediate link: Emptying and collection/haulage
Fees for other
services (water,
habitat,
electricity)
Investment costs
Promotion
Subsidies
Option 1
100 %
Option 2
Users
Micro
finance
Fees for other
services
(water, habitat,
electricity)
100 %
x%
y%
Running costs (operating costs of emptiers)
100 %
Level 1
100 %
Option 2
Option 3
Private
sector
Investment costs (purchase of vehicles)
Infrastructure
Option 1
Unloading,
treatment and
reuse
y%
x%
z%
-- %
Tax relief and guarantee
fund for loans
100 %
Level 2
100 %
Level 3
x%
Households capable of paying
Public buildings
y%
Disadvantaged households
How can emptying be made sustainable in small communities (< 50 000 inhab.)?
Enlarge the inter-communal emptying area and / or diversify activities of collection enterprises
Last link: FS unloading, treatment and reuse
Subsidies
Private
sector
Users
Micro
finance
Fees for other
services
(water, habitat,
electricity)
What conclusions can be drawn?
Investment costs (infrastructure)
Option 1
100 %
Option 2
x%
Licensing over X years
y%
Running costs (operating costs of FSTP and compost / biogas pr oduction costs)
Level 1
x%
y%
Starting phase (approx. two years)
Level 2 / option 1
100 %
emptiers
Level 2 / option 2
x%
y%
emptiers
- As regards financing of investments, proven
mechanisms and innovating solutions, such as OBA
(Output-Based Aid), are available. They link
financing of investments to results obtained (World
Bank)!
- As regards financing of operating and maintenance
costs, the system will only function sustainably if
recurring costs are borne by the users
farmers
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
21
Annex 3
Open questions
1. How can private service providers be prevented
from passing on the tipping fees to households
(which would render pit emptying unaffordable to
many families)?
2. How can emptying fees be made affordable to
very low-income households?
Target:
Identify the most important decisionmakers and propose appropriate
measures to achieve efficient advocacy
among them
Identification of decision -makers
Identification of decision-makers
(cont’d.)
First level
Second level
• Technical Directors
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
President of the Republic
Ministers for Sanitation / Public Hygiene / Environment
Minister for Planning
Minister for Finance
Minister for Local Government
Minister for Public Health
Minister for Hydraulics and Energy
Minister for Scientific Research
Minister for Education
Minister for Culture
Adequate measures
Activities leading towards a positive behavioural
change
• President
– Open letter (declaration / symposium)
– Raise awareness among peers
– Advocacy among ambassadors
– Integrate hygiene and sanitation issues in political
programmes
– Support the establishment of a Ministry for Sanitation
and Disease Prevention
22
Working group on advocacy
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Third level
• Territorial Administration
– Governor
– Prefect
– Sub-prefect
• Local authorities
– President Regional Council
– Mayors
– Religious and traditional leaders
Adequate measures (cont ’d.)
Ministers
• Ministers directly concerned
– Workshops / events involving African ministers (NEPAD,
AMCOW, WSSCC)
– Technical note (statistics) of the Symposium
– Conferences presided by the ministers
– Raise awareness among peers
– Awareness raising by cooperation partners (NGO, CBO
etc.)
• Support ministers
– Integrate sanitation in government priority action plans
– Raise awareness for an integrated approach among
stakeholders involved
– Integrate hygiene and sanitation in the training curricula
Annex 3
Adequate measures (cont ’d.)
Adequate measures (cont’d.)
Technical Directors
• Organisation of symposia, workshops,
conferences etc
• Technical notes, documentaries etc
• Continuing education
• Study trips
• Exchange of experience
Territorial Administration
(governors, mayors)
• Information note, report
• Invitation to public events
• Organisation of workshops, seminars
• Organisation of CRD, CDD
• Information days on the regulatory and legal
setting
Conclusions
• All messages aimed at decision-makers have
to:
– establish a link between hygiene, sanitation and public
health condition of the populations
– prompt the reduction of poverty
– stress the importance of creating jobs and
– improving living conditions
• Advocacy in the decision-makers’ activity area
will use different communication channels
(traditional and modern) and pressure groups
(civil societies, traditional, religious and
community leaders)
Introduction / Methodology
1. Setting up the office: Very easy as there
were three persons for three positions … !!!
2. Adopting the working group objectives
3. Identifying:
–
–
–
–
professions
target groups
planned activities
organisations likely to play a role
Working group on
capacity building
Team comprising
• Ibra SECK
• Joseph WETHE
• Bruno VALFREY
(Chair)
(Rapporteur)
(Secretary General)
Members:
• Doulaye KON É
• Cheick TOURE
• Tonino ZELLWEGER
Objectives (cont’d.)
– Identify professionals involved in FSM
– Formulate suitable measures
Professions involved in FSM
• System designers
• Systems builders
• Emptying operators
• Planners
• System managers
• Social engineers (SEN)
• Regulators
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
23
Annex 3
Target groups
•
•
•
•
Private sector (consulting offices, companies)
Municipal technical services
Decentralised technical services of government
Research and / or training institutions
Activities to conduct
• Degree studies (qualifying)
• Continuing education
• Research
Structures involved
– Training and / or Research Institutions
• EIER-ETSHER Group, Ouagadougou / Burkina Faso
• CREPA Network, Ouagadougou / Burkina Faso
• Conference of universities and educational establishments in
sub-Saharan Africa
• ESP, Dakar / Senegal
• EPAC, C otonou / Benin
• EAMAU, Lome / Togo
• Univ. of Kumasi / Ghana
• Eawag / Sandec, Zurich / Switzerland
• Etc????
– Technical Water and / or Sanitation Agencies
and Services
• ONAS
• ONEA
• Etc???
– Consulting Firms
Profession 1: Selection & design of FS
treatment systems & emptying techn.
Profession 2: Construction & financing
of FS treatment or transfer sites
Stakeholder(s)
Stakeholder(s)
- Private sector
(Consulting
firms)
- Munic.
technical
services /
companies
(construction
managers)
- Research /
training
institutions
Research themes
• Appropriate technology (tanker trucks …)
• Low-cost FS treatment plant (FSTP) options
• Design parameters linked to operating costs of FSTP
• Feasibility testing of appropriate FSTP options through
demonstration projects
Educational targets (training)
• Allow stakeholders to acquire know -how in complying with
rules and regulations on selection and design of FS
treatment systems and equipment
Tools to develop
• Design manual for equipment and installations (emptying,
transport, treatment)
• Realistic construction standards (FS treatment) and standard
technical ToR (including unit prices). Remain realistic as
regards discharge and reuse standards!
• Practical design guidelines for FS treatment systems
Activities to conduct
- Private sector
(execution of
construction work)
- Munic. tech. services
and technical ministries
(quality control of
completed facilities)
Research themes
• Implementation processes
• Optimisation of deadlines / public markets
• Unit building prices
• Innovative financing mechanisms and new contract
types, based on public-private partnership (PPP)
Educational targets (training)
• Private sector capable of delivering within the
deadlines a qualitatively good infrastructure
• Technical services are capable of tendering and
conducting quality control of completed facilities
Tools to develop
• Criteria for selecting companies as service providers
• Standard building tenders
• Building contract models
• ToR for quality control of construction work
• Training modules for MTS and private sector
Profession 3: Pit emptying and sludge
transport
Profession 3 (cont'd.): Pit emptying
and sludge transport
Stakeholder(s)
Stakeholder(s)
Private sector:
Manual
emptiers
24
Activities to conduct
Capacity building activities to conduct
Research themes
•
Protection of workers (health impact)
•
Appropriate emptying equipment
•
Characterisation of manual emptiers
•
Pit layout
•
Structuring of manual / mechanical emptying / solid waste
management
Educational targets (training)
•
Manual emptiers capable of providing qualitatively better
services and limiting the impact on health (protection) and
the environment (sludge burying)
Tools to develop
•
Association of manual emptiers
•
Specific social engineering / advocacy modules
•
Manual in local language / radio broadcasts etc on
emptying technology and its risks
•
Manual for MTS / companies
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Private sector:
Mechanical
emptiers
Capacity building activities to conduct
Research themes
•
Protection of workers (health impact)
•
Appropriate emptying and haulage equipment
•
Business practices in sludge transport and
discharge/treatment
•
Pit design
•
Threshold for return on investment
•
Business characteristics
Educational targets (training)
•
Mechanical emptiers are capable of providing improved
services and enhance the management of their companies
Tools to develop
•
Representative structure of mechanical emptiers (contact
person)
•
Manual on emptying technology and maintenance of
equipment
•
Training in business management
•
Manual for municipal technical services and enterprises
Annex 3
Profession 4: Planners
Stakeholder(s)
Capacity building activities to conduct
Profession 5: Management of FS treatment
systems and / or sewerage networks
Stakeholder(s)
Research themes
•
Conflict solving
•
Potential intervention areas of private sector
•
Environmental impact (identification of appropriate sites)
– Municipal
technical services
(MTS) / Gov’t.
technical services
(GTS)
Educational targets (training)
•
Succeed in setting up facilities by complying with urban
planning (mediation)
•
Reach consensus among the various stakeholders and
involve the private sector in specific key areas
Tools to develop
•
GIS
– Consulting Offices •
Training modules for MTS / GTS
•
Methodology/approach to link FSM with urban master
planning
•
ToR: consulting the public, measuring environmental
impact, model of financial fluxes, tariff structures
•
Discussion and coordination platform among
stakeholders
Profession 6: Social Engineering (SEN
Capacity building activities to conduct
Stakeholder(s)
- Local and
international NGOs
- Consulting Offices
(CO)
- Munic. technical
services (MTS; as
clients)
- Research centres
Research themes
•
Analysis of demand
•
Social marketing
•
Appropriate communication
Educational targets (training)
•
Raise stakeholder awareness for the importance of
integrating SEN in the entire process of sanitation,
particularly FSM upgrading
•
Provide CO and NGO stakeholders with SEN know how, particularly as regards evaluation of user service
improvement requests
Tools to develop
•
Intervention manuals
•
Communication tools
•
Guidance on household surveying
- Private sector
- Munic. tech.
Services (MTS)
- Entrepreneurs
Profession 7: Control of service quality
and user fees
Stakeholder(s)
Capacity building of municipal technical services /
consulting office teams in non -technical fields (socio economy, urban planning, environmental science,
micro-finance, law)
2.
Introduce in pertinent training curricula modules
covering all aspects and professions / stakeholders
involved in FSM (engineers, technicians, economists…)
3.
Integrate the social engineering principles in all stages
of design and construction of technical installations
(particularly pit emptying, haulage and treatment)
4.
Develop a FSM approach / programme and negotiate
with donors / cooperation partners to secure the
financing capacity building
Capacity building activities to conduct
Research themes
•
Quality rating of user -delivered service
•
Financial system modelling
- (Munic. and
•
Mechanism for financing control activities
gov’t. technical •
Monitoring service coverage
services (MTS/
GTS)
Educational targets (training)
•
MTS / GTS or controllers are capable of monitoring and
- Independent,
maintaining high quality services rendered to users
specialised
controllers
Tools to develop
•
Quality monitoring indicators
•
Result retrieval and evaluating tools
•
Training modules on control mechanisms
Recommendation
1.
Capacity building activities to conduct
Research themes
•
Operating / maintenance costs
•
Exchange of experience and know -how
•
Transfer of knowledge from solid waste management system
•
How to optimise operations of treatment plants, sewerage
schemes and condominial systems (e.g. small-bore sewerage)
Educational targets (training)
•
Operators have acquired know -how in operation and
maintenance of networks and FS treatment schemes
•
MTS have acquired skills for recruiting and contracting private/
public operators
Tools to develop
•
Checklists for operating FS treatm. plants and sewer networks
•
Call for tenders / franchising contracts for operation
•
Manuals for plant operators (various levels: plant manager,
technician…)
•
Training modules for operators
•
Exchanges among operators and ToR for quality control
by MTS
Questions
1.
Who will finance?
2.
Who will coordinate at the African level?
3.
Is there a database on organisations which could
offer capacity building outlined above ?
4.
What is their role?
5.
How can an African FSM network be established
and managed?
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
25
Annex 4
Concrete measures proposed by the participants
1. Technical Aspects
Head of Wastewater Treatment
Laboratory
Head of Hygiene, Sanitation and
Environmental Protection
Research Assistant
Director of Operational Services
(municipality)
2. Planning Aspects
Engineer/Head of Operation
Environmental Engineer
Manager of an R&D Office on Water
and Soil
Deputy Engineer
Consulting Engineer in Water, Sanitation
and Environment
3. Institutional Aspects
Planning Engineers
Deputy National Director
Deputy Manager of the Urban Technical
Services
Departmental Attaché, Councillor
Ministry of Health
Head of Department
Head of Service
Technical Consultant
Sanitary Engineer
Head of Programme
Ministry of Public Health
4. Financial Aspects
Director
Technician
Consultant in Waste Management
26
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Conduct treatment tests on the sludge liquids issued from FS thickening/drying for
reuse in urban agriculture.
Develop a project on sludge humification (planted sludge drying beds) for faecal sludge
treatment.
Draw up a detailed state-of-the-art of all the sludge systems used. Make an inventory
of all the methods applied by the institutions throughout the country. Identify potential
partners. List the potential partnership fields.
Contract a private company for the operation of the Porto Novo faecal sludge
treatment plant.
Identify three intermediate disposal sites. Set up the intermediate disposal sites
(impermeability). Contribute to structural improvements.
Set up an Internet database on faecal sludge entrepreneurs in Africa: typology of the
stakeholders, experiences and good practice.
Contribute to the dissemination of the Ecosan latrine types with reuse of the
“hygienised” urine and faeces as agricultural fertilisers in villages of the Niayes area in
Rufisque province (Senegal).
During elaboration of the new land reform, include a specific section on the setting up
of areas determined for faecal sludge storage and treatment. An analysis of the water
pollution load will be conducted as support measure in the micro catchment areas.
Propose the setting up of FSM infrastructure when planning sub-programmes of the
current Millennium Water and Sanitation Programme, particularly the Local Water and
Sanitation Programmes.
Organise and formalise the private entrepreneurs in FSM.
Keep a track record of the mechanical emptiers in the urban and periurbain centres in
collaboration with the regional offices throughout the national territory.
Organise a stakeholder meeting to make an inventory of the state-of-the-art, and
formulate the terms of reference for the feasibility study.
Inform the Minister about the results of the faecal sludge management Symposium
held in Dakar and conduct information briefings for the various FSM stakeholders on
the recommendations of the Symposium.
Decide at ministerial planning level (CNAEA Management) to create an entity in charge
of FSM coordination to be included in the budget.
Reflect on and propose legal tools (decrees, resolutions …) to the General Manager to
regulate faecal sludge management.
Create and define the operating mechanisms of a collaborative and intermediary
framework between public authorities, local communities, entrepreneurs, and financial
partners.
Institutional and organisational study of FSM in the city of Novoboue.
Organise a collaboration between stakeholders working in faecal sludge management
to develop an action plan with due regard to the problems on all levels of society.
Invite the mayor of the municipal district to convene a town meeting to examine the
resolution proceedings on the faecal sludge regulations.
Organise a collaborative meeting with the emptying enterprises to determine a faecal
sludge disposal fee.
Secure sufficient finances and adequate technologies.
Structure the sector and raise it to the public utility level to become eligible for
the respective tax reductions, to reach affordability and a structural price stability,
and establish a monitoring/control network for the populations, entrepreneurs and
authorities.
Annex 4
Programme Coordinator
5. Advocacy
Consultant
Director of CREPA network
Secret. National Association of the
Municipalities
National Programme Coordinator
Researcher
Head of Support Programmes to Local
Entities
Head of Information in an NGO
promoting adequate water and
sanitation practices
6. Capacity Building
Engineer
Sanitary Engineer
Engineer
Sanitary Engineer
Head of Project SANDEC
President of the Dakar Regional Youth
Council
Coordinating Engineer PAQPUD
Provide financial support to an integrated management project on municipal waste and
faecal sludge in Ouahigouya.
Inform the entrepreneurs, beneficiaries and PAQPUD’s emptiers of the Symposium
results. Form a focus group to optimise Cambérène’s treatment plant. Facilitate the
founding of five private companies regrouping the PAQPUD. Develop a TV commercial
on the environmental impact of FSM and the plant.
Monitor implementation of the concrete steps throughout the countries as established
by the participants.
Draw up a synthesis of the Dakar declaration for all the mayors of the country.
Promote/establish one month of solidarity for water and sanitation to raise money for a
solidarity fund in the field of sanitation.
Conduct vaccination campaigns for emptiers in collaboration with the media and public
health services for effective advocacy.
Place the recommendations of the Symposium on the website of my organisation and
disseminate them to all our partners through our networks and mailings.
Write an article in an information bulletin on the conclusions of the Symposium and
challenges of FSM to be disseminated among 8,000 stakeholders in the sector (of
which 5,000 in Africa).
Organise a “feedback” session with colleague engineers to raise their awareness
about FSM during project implementation.
The experience and lessons learned from commissioning and operating the first three
FSM plants will be shared regularly with all the elements of the network.
Raise the awareness of consultants about these FSM questions. The said consultants
are currently responsible for developing a document on integrated water resource
management.
Inform about the health problems caused by poor faecal sludge management.
Submit a request for tenders to conduct feasibility studies of FSM systems.
Secure funds for a student and assist him/her during his/her thesis (Master) in the field
of faecal sludge management.
Organise a regional workshop to raise the awareness of the “grassroot” stakeholders
about an improved FSM.
Set up an African network for the promotion of on-site, small bore sanitation systems.
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
27
Annex 5
List of participants
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
28
ADEGNIKA Felix
AGBEMADON Yawodin
AHISSOU Joseph
ALABASTER Graham
BALDE Demba
BARI Hamidul
BASSIMSOUWE Edjam Etchaki
BAYILI Paul
BODIAN Ibou
BOULOUFEI Manzama Esso
CHOKKI LALEYE Félicité
COFFEY Manus
COULIBALY Baba
DACOURE Denis
DALLA TORRE Caterina DESILLE Denis
DIA CISSE Fatou
DIAGNE Abdoul Aziz
DIAKITE Boubacar
DIALLO Ousmane
DIARRA Ngolo
DIARRA SIDIBE Aminata
DIOP Ousseynou
DIOUBATE Morifindian
DIOUF Madieumbe
GASHUGI Innocent
GEBRESELASSIE Worku
GUEYE Mamadou
ISSAIAS Iole
JOHN Edmund
KEBE Boukounta
KIRUMIRA Mohamed
KOANDA Halidou
KONE Doulaye
KUMAR JHA Pawan
LIHOUSSOU Kaumi Segla
MBAYE Adama
MENSAH Anthony
MORRIS Stephen
MOUKORO Eric
MOUSSA Alassane Baba
MWANGA KIRANGO Jasper
NDAO Ndeye Awa
NDIAYE Alioune
NDONG Seck
NDOUR Niokhor
NGIMBOUS Georges Mahou
NGOY MBELE Evariste
NGUANGU Bavon Mangolo
NIANG Mouhamet
NIANG Ndiogou
NIANG Seydou
OSINDE Rose
OUEDRAGO Arba Jules
PRAMANIK Martin Ronald
SAGNA Dulcie
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
PDM, Benin CREPA SENEGAL, Senegal DJO MAIRIE PORTONOVO, Benin
UN-HABITAT, Kenya
CREPA SENEGAL, Senegal
MAWTS, Bangladesh MAIRIE DE LOME TOGO, Togo
CAGEC/BULO SUISSE, Burkina Faso
ENDA/RUP SENEGAL, Senegal
MINISTERE DE LA SANTE, Togo DIR. HYGIENE ET ASS. DE BASE, Benin
MANUS COFFEY, Ireland
ONAS, Senegal
COORDINATEUR, Burkina Faso
Eawag/Sandec, Switzerland
PS-EAU, France AGETIP SENEGAL, Senegal
MPHPAHU, Senegal
DNACPN, Mali
DIRECTION ASSAINISSEMENT, Senegal
INP MAHSA, Senegal
DIABESO SANIYA, Mali WSP-WB, Senegal
POUBELLES DE CONAKRY, Guinea
ONAS, Senegal
CITY COUNCIL OF KIGALI, Rwanda
MINISTRY OF HEALTH, Ethiopia
ONAS, Senegal UN-HABITAT, Kenya
DIRECTOR SANITATION, Tanzania
MFD SENEGAL, Senegal
KAMPALA CITY COUNCIL, Uganda
CREPA, Burkina Faso
Eawag/Sandec, Switzerland
DIRECTOR GENERAL, India
SECRETAIRE PERMANENT ANCB, Benin
DAHU, Senegal
DIR. WASTE MANAG. DEPT., Ghana
MANUS COFFEY ASSOC. LTD., Ireland
UN-HABITAT, Senegal
D.G. SONEB, Benin
WASTEWATER MANAGER, Tanzania
COUD, Dakar Fann, Senegal
ONAS, Senegal
CRJ/DAKAR/RIAD, Senegal
DGPRE SENEGAL, Senegal
COM. URBAINE YAOUNDE, Cameroon
CNAEA/PNA, Congo
CNAEA, Congo
GRAF-ENDA, Senegal
CREPA SENEGAL, Senegal
UCAD/IFAN, Senegal
INDEPENDENT CONSULTANT, Kenya
ONEA, Burkina Faso
MAWTS, Bangladesh ONAS, Senegal
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
via: [email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Annex 5
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
SAMBOU Charles Antoine
SAYWELL Darren
SECK Cheikh
SECK Ibra
SIDI CISSE Mahamadou
SIWALE Etambuyu
SOW Bassirou
SOW Papa Souleye
STEINER Michael
STRAUSS Martin
TANDIA Cheikh Tidiane
TANDIAN DABO Aminata
THIAM NGOM Awa
TOURE Cheikh
VALFREY-VISSER Bruno
WETHE Joseph
ZELLWEGER Tonino
CONSULTANT, Senegal
IWA, United Kingdom
ENDA/RUP SENEGAL, Senegal
AGETIP SENEGAL, Senegal
MAIRIE OUAGADOU, Burkina Faso
M&GH ZAMBIA, Zambia
ONAS, Senegal
CONSULTANT FORMATEUR, Senegal
Eawag/Sandec, Switzerland
Eawag/Sandec, Switzerland
CREPA-SIÈGE, Burkina Faso
ONAS, Senegal
AGETIP SENEGAL, Senegal
EDE, Senegal HYDROCONSEIL, France
GROUPE ELEYE-ETSHER, Burkina Faso
Consultant (Eawag/Sandec), Switzerland
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
29
Acknowledgements
Thank you very much!
It would not have been possible to hold this international symposium without the dedicated support
of Messrs Graham ALABASTER (UN-Habitat, Nairobi), Pete KOLSKY (The World Bank,
Washington), Piers CROSS (and WSP team in Nairobi and Dakar), and Amadou Lamine DIENG
(ONAS, Senegal) who were permanently backstopping the organising committee and providing
full support throughout the entire process.
We acknowledge the wisdom and professionalism of the symposium’s moderator,
Mr Tonio ZELLWEGER, who accepted the tremendous challenge of creating a friendly atmosphere
among 60 –70 participants during three days in a cramped room. He was a key person to the
success of this symposium. Our sincere thanks go to Mrs Fatou Kandji DIAW for her excellent
simultaneous translation appreciated by all participants. We sincerely thank Novotel Dakar, particularly
Mrs NDIONE, Mrs NDIAYE and Mr DIOP for the quality of service provided and their professional
assistance in logistics.
We are greatly indebted to Sylvie PETER, Sandec’s translator, for her linguistic revision of this report.
We also thank Halidou KOANDA and Michael STEINER for their assistance in editing the report
and CDs distributed to the participants. We are grateful to SDC for financially supporting the scientific
committee.
30
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
Editor
Sandec
Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries
Publisher: Eawag, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland,
Phone +41 (0)44 823 52 86, Fax +41 (0)44 823 53 99,
[email protected], www.sandec.ch
Editors: Doulaye Koné and Sylvie Peter, Eawag
Copyright: Published texts and figures may be reproduced freely for non-commercial purposes only (except when
reproduction or translation rights are explicitly reserved), provided that mention is made of the authors and this publication.
Publication: This publication is available as printed copy, as e-mail attachment or it can be downloaded as pdf file from
our homepage www.sandec.ch
Cover: Faecal sludge discharging at Dompoasee treatment plant, Kumasi, Ghana. (Photo: Martin Strauss 2005)
Layout and figures: Yvonne Lehnhard, Eawag
Printer: Eawag, Switzerland
Ordering: Contact [email protected]
ISBN 978-3-906484-39-6
Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
Languages: English and French
Date of issue: September 2007
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007
31
Faecal Sludge Managementwhy it matters?
In the framework of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) endorsed in 2000, the international
community formulated the objective to reducing by half the number of people without access
to improved sanitation by 2015. Nevertheless, according to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring
Programme for water supply and sanitation (www.wssinfo.org), more than 2.6 billion people worldwide
still have no access to improved sanitation.
Among the serviced population in low and middle-income countries, over 1.1 billion urban dwellers
currently use on-site sanitation installations. Hence, most cities in low and middle-income countries
are “latrine-based cities”. In areas where faecal sludge management is not integrated into urban
sanitation planning and management, faecal sludge collected from on-site sanitation installations, such
as pit latrines, septic tanks and bucket latrines, is reused untreated on farmland, discharged in lakes,
fish ponds and streams or disposed of within the household compound. One truck dumping faecal
sludge indiscriminately is equivalent to 5000 open defaecations threatening public health!
The sanitation targets of ongoing latrine provision programmes, aiming at reaching the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs), still lack service provision arrangement for the collection/emptying,
haulage, safe disposal, reuse or treatment of faecal sludge produced by on-site sanitation
infrastructures.
In most countries, faecal sludge management is currently the stepchild of urban sanitation planning.
Local entrepreneurs catering for mechanical and manual pit emptying, collection, haulage, disposal/
treatment, and reuse play a crucial role, seldom officially recognised.
This international Symposium, hosting for the first time international, national and municipal decisionmakers and emptying operators from 20 countries, was held in Dakar, Senegal from 9 to 12 May
2006 under the patronage of the Senegal National Sanitation Agency (ONAS), UN-Habitat, the World
Bank, the International Water Association (IWA), the Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP-WB), the
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), and the Department of Water & Sanitation
in Developing Countries (Sandec) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
(Eawag). Its goals comprised the identification of key issues and challenges in FSM, discussion
of effective policies and approaches, and development of concrete steps for sustainable FSM
improvement.
Fly UP