KONE et al 2007 Towards an Improved Faecal Sludge Management
Doulaye Koné, Martin Strauss and Darren Saywell September 2007 Towards an Improved Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium and Workshop on Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) Policy. Dakar, Senegal, 9 – 12 May 2006 Bank of Netherlands Water Partnership, BNWP The World Bank International Water Association Committees Scientific Committee Baba Coulibaly, ONAS, Senegal Doulaye Koné, Sandec, Switzerland Alioune Ndiaye, ONAS, Senegal Martin Strauss, Sandec, Switzerland Darren Saywell, IWA, United Kingdom Tonino Zellweger, Sandec, Switzerland Organising Committee Baba Coulibaly, ONAS, Senegal (Co-chair) Alioune Ndiaye, ONAS, Senegal (Executive Secretary) Madiembe Diouf, ONAS, Senegal Bassirou Sow, ONAS, Senegal Mame Awa Fall, ONAS, Senegal Martin Strauss, Sandec, Switzerland (Co-chair) Doulaye Koné, Sandec, Switzerland Halidou Koanda, Sandec, Switzerland Michael Steiner, Sandec, Switzerland Caterina Dalla Torre, Sandec, Switzerland Sponsors UN-Habitat The World Bank (Bank of Netherlands Water Partnership Program (BNWP)) Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP) Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) Contacts Dr Doulaye Koné Eawag/Sandec Ueberlandstrasse 133 CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland Tel.: +41 (0)44 823 52 86/+ 823 55 53 [email protected] Dr Darren SaywellI International Water Association Alliance House, 12 Caxton Street London SW1H 0QS, United Kingdom Tel.: +44 (0)20 76 54 55 00 [email protected] Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Table of Contents Committees 2 Executive Summary 4 The Dakar Declaration 6 Towards an Improved Faecal Sludge Management 1. Introduction 7 2. Rationales and objectives 7 3. Targeted audiences and participants 7 4. Dynamics of the Symposium/methodology 8 5. FSM key challenges and case studies 9 6. Measures and tools to address FSM challenges 9 7. Winning proposals 10 8. Evaluation of the Symposium 11 9. The Symposium CD 11 Annexes Annex 1: Programme of the Symposium 12 Annex 2: Opening and closing speech by the Minister and CEO of ONAS 14 Annex 3: Workshop results: mitigation measures and tools 16 Annex 4: Concrete measures proposed by the participants 26 Annex 5: List of participants 28 Acknowledgements 30 Citation: Koné D., Strauss M. and Saywell D. (2007). Towards an improved faecal sludge management. Proceeding of the first international symposium on faecal sludge management policy. Dakar, Senegal, May 2006, Dübendorf, Eawag publishing. 32 pp. Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Executive Summary Executive Summary Managing the faecal sludges collected from on-site sanitation systems is a crucial element in public health protection and key to successful water and sanitation projects – especially since one vacuum truck dumping sludge indiscriminately is equivalent to the open defaecation of 5 000 people! While urban on-site sanitation programmes have been experiencing a major thrust over the last 10–15 years, the managing of faecal sludges (FS) accumulating in these installations has largely remained the stepchild of urban sanitation. As a consequence, the “faecal film” covering many urban areas of developing countries is persisting, with the known health and environmental hazards and impairment of urban space. The 1st International Symposium-cum-Workshop on Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) Policy in developing countries was therefore held in Dakar, Senegal, from 9 to 12 May 2006. The Symposium hosted some 70 participants from 20 sub-Saharan and European countries (cf. the comprehensive list of participants in Annex 5), such as policy-makers, funding agencies and enterprises/NGOs active in the sanitation field. It was conducted under the patronage of the Senegal National Sanitation Utility (ONAS), the International Water Association (IWA) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag/Sandec), and co-financed by UN-Habitat, the World Bank (Bank of Netherlands Water Partnership Program (BNWP), and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). During the four-day symposium, the participants exchanged experiences and identified key subjects and challenges. The work conducted in groups and presentations given by the participants provided tools and concrete measures to improve faecal sludge management. Faecal matter is generally regarded as a taboo subject and something dirty to be disposed of as quickly and discreetly as possible. In the context of the symposium, the discussions on faecal matter ranged from toilet design, faecal sludge emptying, haulage and treatment to its reuse as a source of organic matter and nutrients. Salient elements of the presentations during the 1st day of “drawing the scene” comprised: - A new concept of latrine design to facilitate hygienic emptying - Health risks of “flying toilets” in slum areas - Faceless emptying entrepreneurs - Complaints raised by the owner of an emptying company about the ever increasing road toll illegally levied by the police force - High-ranking policy-makers breaking the taboo of manual emptying and discussing formalisation of this profession - Low-cost faecal sludge treatment options producing hygieni cally safe biosolids - Promising approaches for improved FSM currently developed in sub-Saharan Africa (e. g. Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal) - A relevant short film on on-site sanitation and improvements achieved by appropriate FS management produced by ONAS (broadcast also on national television) - A municipal director reporting on sustainable FS management procedures with the private sector playing a prominent role. During the 2nd and 3rd day of the symposium, six working groups deliberated upon specific aspects of faecal sludge management following the truncation of challenges into six themes. This led to the following results: Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Planning aspects The authorities are hardly aware of the problems and health risks associated with poor faecal sludge management. To date, there is a long list of missing elements and measures in most settings that have to be developed and taken into consideration; Discharge standards; physical town planning (e. g. land acquisition for treatment); inclusion of FSM in strategic planning at national and municipal level (starting with the ToR for the consultants!); definition of participatory planning approaches for urban sanitation, including FSM; identification and involvement of relevant stakeholders, including households; definition of areas and coordination of responsibilities; legal framework at national and municipal level (laws and ordinances addressing FSM); strengthening the professional capacities of municipal services (effective decentralisation!); planning financing strategies and sustained money fluxes (fee and premium structure). Technical aspects Well-trained sanitary or environmental engineers are required to develop appropriate FS treatment alternatives and select options best adapted to local conditions and needs. The main criteria for selecting an adequate option include: land requirements, treatment objective and treatment standards (type of technology, use of biosolids, discharge of liquid fraction), establishment of locally appropriate standards for the reusable biosolids and for the FS liquid fraction to be discharged, monitoring, operation and maintenance requirements, cost factors, skill requirements, as well as risk of failure and potential impact of failure. Manual pit emptying will continue to play a key role for decades to come if latrine design is not reconsidered. Hence, development of FS technologies and collection strategies to reduce the health risks for emptiers and to enhance the haulage radius for manual pit emptiers (donkey or tractor-drawn collection vehicles, transfer stations?) are imperative. The search for appropriate treatment options and treatment plants scales (centralised vs. satellite treatment works) starts already with the emptying of on-site sanitation systems, which have to be accessed and pumped out. Therefore, a change in latrine design must be contemplated (e. g. selecting and promoting pits of minor depth to reduce sludge consolidation and thickening, and equipping latrines with fixed pipes reaching the bottom of the pits to allow easy pumping and hygienic emptying (cf. presentation of Manus Coffey, in the Symposium CD). Institutional and legal aspects In many countries, efforts to decentralise responsibilities has created a vacuum in sanitation infrastructure and service provision, notably FSM. Responsibilities are not clearly defined, professional skills at municipal level are mostly missing and a legal framework, including know-how at municipal level, are often lacking. Establishing a ministry in charge of sanitation could help solve this problem, as it would reduce the splitting up of responsibilities among the different ministries and authorities. This would require the setting up of a regulatory basis for sanitation in general, and for faecal sludge management in particular, including appropriate (i.e. affordable and enforceable) standards for biosolids and liquids originating from low-cost faecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs). Executive Summary The following elements are necessary for a sound legal framework in urban sanitation/FSM: - Licensing FS collection entrepreneurs and FSTP operators (contractees) by the municipality - Establishing national legislation on FSM in general and treatment requirements/product quality - Defining the role and responsibility of each stakeholder - Tariff system - Setting up regulations on pit emptying, FS transport and discharge. A coordination body, comprising all relevant stakeholders or their representatives (the mayor or his/her representative, municipal services, FS collection entrepreneurs; households, CBOs, farmers), has to be set up and rendered functional. Its tasks comprise the development of jointly agreed FSM strategies as well as supervision and close support during FSM implementation. Financial aspects Sludge collection, disposal and treatment require investments and operating funds. Since responsibilities for faecal sludge management are often unclear, funds are not allocated. Even if a sanitation tax is levied on the sale of drinking water, these funds are rarely re-injected into sanitation improvements at local level but channelled to the central government instead. Emptying services provided by the private sector (often without any regulatory or financial involvement by the municipalities) function rather well. Nevertheless, the following two crucial questions remain unresolved: “How can the cost of mechanical emptying be lowered to make it affordable for the most disadvantaged?” and “What financial and regulatory/incentive system needs to be put in place to guarantee that FS is brought to the treatment site?” The following strategies and tools were proposed to meet these challenges: - Freeing collection entrepreneurs from taxes on imported goods such as vacuum trucks and truck spare parts - Entrepreneurs allowing households to pay for pit emptying by instalments - Introducing regular emptying services set up jointly by the collectors and municipality, with a possible incentive system for households observing maximum emptying intervals as established by the municipality or national regulations - Rendering FSM sustainable and equitable at the same time may require subsidies or cross-subsidies, for example investments in FS treatment provided by sources external to the municipality (national or donor). Following the three-day discussion, several participants of the Symposium drew up The Dakar Declaration with a view to promo ting the faecal sludge management cause at high level. The declaration, available in English and French, will be widely disseminated by the participants and their organisations (e.g. PDM, CREPA, PSEau), as well as through organisations’ websites, electronic newsletters and at upcoming international events in the field of sanitation, hygiene and urban development. Several participants suggested to continue holding FSM symposia at regular intervals and convening decision and policy-makers. Participants from Burkina Faso proposed to organise the next symposium in their country in 2007/2008. Capacity building All participants agreed that technical capacity building alone is not sufficient to ensure sustainable FSM. Strengthening the municipal technical services and consulting firms with non-technical competence (financial, legal, institutional, socio-economic, urban planning) is urgently needed. Simultaneously, mechanical and manual emptying entrepreneurs, funding agencies and local stake holders require capacity building in their fields of activity and re sponsibility. Universities and research institutes (e. g. 2iE, national universities, CREPA, Eawag / Sandec) are the main potential providers of basic skills and continued education for professionals. Target audiences or clients are the private sector (collection entrepreneurs, FSTP operators, consulting firms), officials, technical and social service staff at municipal level, technical staff, planners, and decision-makers/politicians at central level and from donor agencies. A technical visit to Cambérène’s faecal sludge treatment plant in Dakar on the forth day rounded off the Symposium. The Consulting Engineers, the Construction Company and ONAS, as Contractor and Plant Manager, were present to explain its operation and answer the numerous questions and suggestions of the participants. Advocacy The working groups proposed to pass on to policy-makers the message that sanitation efforts improve public health, reduce poverty and create employment. This message can be conveyed via the media (newspapers, TV, radio) and pressure groups (civil groups, municipal, traditional, religious leaders). It was suggested that selected high-level leaders/politicians be approached and invited to raise awareness and advocate the FSM issue in their respective countries and among their pairs or other high-level decision-makers abroad. Names put forward comprise the presidents of Senegal, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Mali, Uganda, and Tanzania; Nelson Mandela; high-ranking politicians or publicly known personalities, such as mayors of selected cities; Youssou N’Dour (a well-known musician) or Associations of First Ladies. Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 The Dakar Declaration The Dakar Declaration An international symposium, hosting for the first time national and municipal decision-makers and emptying operators from 20 countries, was held in Dakar, Senegal from 9 to 12 May 2006 under the patronage of the Senegal National Sanitation Agency (ONAS), UN-Habitat, the World Bank, the International Water Association (IWA), the Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP-WB), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), and the Swiss research centre for Water & Sanitation in Developing Countries (Eawag / Sandec). Its goals comprised the identification of key issues and challenges in FSM, discussion of effective policies and approaches and development of concrete steps for sustainable FSM improvement. Current situation and challenges: • In the year 2000, the international community aimed at redu cing by half the number of people without access to sanitation systems in order to attain by 2015 the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, over 2.6 billion people worldwide still lack access to adequate sanitation. This situation is especially critical in sub-Saharan Africa, since its coverage has merely increased from 32 to 36 % between 1990 and 2002. • Water-borne or sewered sanitation requires high investments, is difficult to maintain and manage and serves only a small fraction of the urban population in large urban centres - today and in future. In most cities, the households use self-financed onsite sanitation systems (latrines or septic tanks). • Since latrine construction alone is not sufficient to eliminate the faecal threat, the latrine/pit contents or so-called faecal sludges have to be disposed of and treated adequately to safeguard public health and the environment. One truck dumping sludge indiscriminately is equivalent to 5000 inhabitants defaecating in nature! • In most cities and towns, faecal sludge management is currently the stepchild of urban sanitation with untreated sludges being used or disposed of haphazardly and illegally, thereby causing a permanent spread of gastro-intestinal infections and leading to serious water pollution. Experts presenting their experiences in FSM Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 The Symposium therefore recommends policymakers to: • Define local and national FSM policies, including legal, institutional and socio-economic elements • Make faecal sludge management (FSM) a priority in national and municipal budgets to secure the necessary financial resources • Clearly designate a national institution in charge of defining and implementing the FSM policies and strategies • Enhance and formalise collaboration with the private sector to improve faecal sludge collection, haulage and treatment • Promote equipment adapted to slum and/or peri-urban areas, as well as improve the protection of manual and mechanical emptiers • Intensify training and applied sciences in faecal sludge management, focusing on appropriate technologies (design of on-site sanitation facilities, emptying, haulage, and treatment), planning and management, commercialisation and use of FS-derived biosolids. The Symposium Dakar, 12 May 2006 Participants sharing experiences and discussing working groups results Faecal Sludge Management Towards an Improved Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 1. Introduction More than two billion urban dwellers in developing countries use on-site sanitation facilities such as pit latrines, septic tanks and aqua privies for excreta and wastewater disposal. Areawide, sewered sanitation is not suitable in many informal urban settlements due to water scarcity, intermittent water supply services and financial-economic reasons. Small-bore or low-cost satellite sewer systems may prove feasible in some selected urban areas. It is unlikely though that sewerage will be the predominant sanitation option-of-choice in developing countries in the foreseeable future. Since on-site sanitation installations will serve the growing urban populations in developing countries for decades to come, increasing faecal sludge quantities will have to be managed. Proper faecal sludge management (FSM) is the important link missing in integrated urban sanitation upgrading efforts (source: WSSCC (2004) Global WASH Symposium (2004), Roadmap from Dakar – signpost 22). Worldwide, significant efforts have been made in recent decades to increase sanitation coverage, notably via on-site sanitation systems. In most programmes or schemes, though, the need to cater for the management of faecal matter accumulating in these installations has been left unattended. Hence, although the excreta disposal and hygiene situation may have improved in individual households, serious health risks and environmental pollution continue to threaten urban livelihood due to the uncontrolled disposal of the untreated contents of on-site sanitation systems into the urban and peri-urban environment. The poor are at highest risk since dumping sites are often situated in or near low-income areas and squatter settlements. This symposium was conducted under the patronage of the Senegal National Sanitation Agency (ONAS), the International Water Association (IWA) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag / Sandec), and co-financed by UNHabitat, the World Bank (Bank of Netherlands Water Partnership Program (BNWP) and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). Objectives of the Symposium The Symposium comprised the following objectives: • Provide tools allowing to create visibility and raise awareness amongst decision-makers and planners about the importance of integrating faecal sludge management into city-wide waste management approaches, and for public health and environmental risks of the current, unimproved practices • Formulate an action plan for advocacy, transfer of knowledge and capacity building in improved faecal sludge management • Develop recommendations on key thrusts and strategies to improve FSM systems (managerially and technically). Symposium 2. Identify key subjects and challenges 1. Platform for the exchange of experience 3. Provide effective tools 4. Formulate concrete measures Fig. 1. The four-step structure of the Symposium 2. Rationales and objectives The 1st International Symposium-cum-Workshop on Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) Policy in developing countries was held in Dakar, Senegal from 9 to 12 May 2006 to: • Raise the limited awareness of urban planners, administrators and politicians about on-site sanitation (usually coupled with off-site disposal or use) as the predominant path of excreta generated within the urban and peri-urban areas. Adequate faecal sludge (FS) management and its integration into urban development and sanitation upgrading programmes have therefore been widely lacking. Where the need is recognised (e. g. in several countries in West Africa), the tools required for faecal sludge management planning and for technically, institutionally and socio-economically sound solutions may be missing • Address the lack of knowledge on strategic and technical solutions for improved faecal sludge management • Position faecal sludge management on the policy agenda over the next critically important 12–18 months by adopting a process approach to echo the outcomes of the Symposium in other events. 3. Targeted audiences and participants The Symposium was intended for those working at strategic and policy level in different types of organisations: government, local authorities, small and medium enterprises, external support agencies, NGOs, and other civil societies. It hosted some seventy participants (cf. comprehensive list of participants in Annex 5) from national and municipal institutions and emptying entrepreneurs from 20 sub-Saharan countries and also from Europe and Asia: Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, DR Congo, England, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Guinea-Conakry, India, Ireland, Kenya, Mali, Rwanda, Senegal, Switzerland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia. Opening ceremony The opening ceremony was marked by presentations of the Head of Eawag / Sandec’s Faecal Sludge Management Programme, by a video on faecal sludge management in Senegal and by a speech Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Faecal Sludge Management of the Senegalese Minister for Prevention, Public Hygiene, Sanitation, and Urban Water Management. During his presentation, Mr Martin STRAUSS of Sandec expressed, on behalf of himself and the organisers of the Symposium, his gratitude to the Senegalese authorities for having accepted to host this event. He then greeted and thanked all the participants at the Symposium for their interest and commitment to the faecal sludge cause, especially since FS continues to be disposed of untreated and illicitly in most urban centres, thus leading to the transmission of enteric diseases, environmental degradation and impairment of the urban space. He also mentioned that since FSM has remained the stepchild of urban sanitation to date, one of the reasons for convening the Symposium was to develop measures to improve this condition. The five-minute video film presented the dramatic situation experienced by people’s lack of access to appropriate sanitation and inadequate FS management in the city of Dakar: on-plot burying of FS or indiscriminate dumping onto roads and other public areas, difficulties for vacuum trucks to access Dakar’s central FS dum ping site at Bel Air. It further addressed the health risks to emptying entrepreneurs and to the population in general as expressed by families and a public health officer. It showed the striking improvements brought about by the citywide on-site sanitation programme co-financed by the World Bank. The film ended by the presentation of one of the three new FS treatment units constructed by ONAS in the city of Dakar. Dr Issa Mbaye SAMB, Minister of Public Health, Sanitation and Urban Drainage, thanked the organisers for choosing Senegal. He then mentioned the involvement and steps taken by the highest civil authorities of the country to attain the Millennium Development Goals. He concluded by expressing his hope that the resolutions, which will be reached at the end of the Symposium, shall be put into practice. 4. Dynamics of the Symposium / methodology and proposed adequate tools. Each group submitted its results as a PowerPoint presentation to the plenary session for amendments. Step 3 Despite the broad spectrum of experience and accumulated knowledge of the audience, some questions still remained unanswered. We therefore focused on two key questions discussed by the Working Groups, and requested each participant to propose answers to each question. Step 4 Since such meetings often end without concrete decisions, a competition was launched where each participant was asked to formulate concrete steps adapted to his/her working position and limited to his/her own field of competence. The audience validated and judged over 60 proposals and the five best were awarded a prize (cf. concrete steps suggested in Annex 4). To avoid participants from falling into complex discussions or action plans beyond the scope of the symposium, and to render the work more concrete, realistic and applicable, participants were asked by the moderator to consider at any given time solutions and situations within their own power of influence. Fig. 2 presents a model of spheres of influence which helped guiding the discussions in the plenary session and workshops. The sphere of influence certainly depends on the function and position of the person or service. Our field of activity: depends entirely on us and on our decisions to introduce changes. Our working environment: here other stakeholders and decision-makers also play an important role. We can express ideas, negotiate, exert influence and thereby contribute to sustainable changes. The context: here we grasp the actual situation and way in which the context acts on our working environment. Since we have to deal with a constraint in the best possible manner, it is useless to complain about a difficult context. The Symposium was conducted in four steps (cf. programme in Annex 1 and Fig. 1): Step 1 Selected participants presented their experience with faecal sludge management (FSM). The situational descriptions and reported challenges were subdivided into the following six specific topics: • Financial aspects • Institutional aspects • Planning aspects • Technical aspects • Advocacy • Capacity building After each presentation, the FSM challenges, noted down on flipcharts, were classified by subtopics according to this truncation. Step 2 During the second step, the workshop participants, grouped according to the aforementioned topics, interest and experience of each participant, discussed and found answers to listed challenges Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 1. decide ⇒ introduce changes Examples: own enterprise, personal business Work environment ⇒ ⇒ Examples: members of a community, shareholder, feedback Context and constraints ⇒ Take note ⇒ Accept what is given Examples: laws, geographic conditions, climate Fig. 2. Influence sphere model for guiding group discussions Faecal Sludge Management 5. FSM key challenges and case studies As aforementioned, the presentations on the first day served to initiate the exchange of experience and discussions among participants or with the speakers, and to identify relevant FSM challenges to be worked out in groups. The presentations were preceded by the video produced by ONAS and shown at the opening ceremony. A total of thirteen presentations were held in plenary sessions by pre-selected participants (cf. programme in Annex 1). All PowerPoint slides of the presentations are available on the Symposium CD and downloadable from Sandec’s webpage www.sandec.ch/ Table 1. List of presentations on key FSM challenges • Situation and challenges of faecal sludge management, Mr Martin STRAUSS, Sandec, Switzerland • Faecal sludge management in the city of Kumasi – Perspectives of the municipality, Mr Tony MENSAH, KMA, Kumasi, Ghana • On-site sanitation and FSM in Senegal: Development and perspectives, Mr Alioune NDIAYE, ONAS, Senegal • Small enterprises in slum areas and faecal sludge management, Mrs Rose NYANCHONGI OSINDE, Consultant, Nairobi, Kenya • Faecal sludge management and the perspective of the small enterprise, Mrs Aminata SIDIBÉ, GIE, Sema Sanyia Bamako, Mali • New approaches to latrine emptying, Mr Manus, COFFEY, M. Coffey & Assoc., Dublin, Ireland • Innovative financing mechanisms in sanitation, Mr Arba Jules OUEDRAOGO, ONEA, Burkina Faso • Management of money flows at municipal level: The “Vacutug” example in Senegal, Mrs Iole ISSAIAS, UN-Habitat, Nairobi, Kenya and Malick GAYE, Coord. ENDA RUP, Dakar, Senegal • Challenges in FSM training and capacity building, Mr Cheikh TOURE, EDE, Dakar, Senegal • Challenges of data collection in the field of FSM, Mr Bruno VALFREY, Hydro-Conseil, France • Conclusions of the day along with the World Bank’s perspective, Mr Ousseynou E. DIOP, WSP- World Bank, Dakar, Senegal • Faecal sludge treatment options, Mr Doulaye KONÉ, Sandec, Switzerland 6. Measures and tools to address FSM challenges The specific measures and tools to address FSM, as discussed in the workshops and amended in plenum, are presented in Annex 3 and summarised in the Executive Summary. This section presents ToRs, group organisation and questions remaining unanswered in each workshop. • • Organisation of the group Moderators: Mrs Iole Issaias, Kenya, and Mr Sambou, Senegal Rapporteurs: Messrs M. Gueye and S. Niang, Senegal Issues debated The group dealt with each step of the faecal sludge management chain: design of on-site sanitation systems, latrine emptying and sludge haulage technology, interdependencies between the on-site sanitation options and pit emptying, as well as sludge treatment/reuse. The main challenges were identified at each step and solutions proposed by the group (cf. Annex 3 and Executive Summary). • Open questions - What is the best emptying system for the “sludge/liquid” mixture? - Which institutions should deal with technical and scientific monitoring? - How should research activities in faecal sludge management be financed? - What are the key selection criteria for faecal sludge treatment systems? 6.2 Workshop 2: Financial aspects • ToR Identify potential financing options of FSM and assess their effectiveness and applicability. • Organisation of the group Moderator: Mr M. Diouf, Senegal Rapporteur: Mr D. Dakouré, Burkina Faso • Issues debated The current financing mechanisms known to the group members were reviewed. The main financing sources are: households, government or local entities, as well as technical and financial partners. The group proposed financing sources at each step of the chain, viz.: equipment and running cost at household level (latrines, septic tanks and their emptying and maintenance) should be borne by the users; investments in treatment systems should be covered by the municipalities and government authorities (cf. Annex 3 and Executive Summary). • Open questions - How can the emptying fees be made affordable to lowincome households? - How can emptying enterprises be prevented from adding the additional costs caused by FS treatment to the emptying fees? 6.3 Workshop 3: Institutional aspects • ToR - Propose and describe adequate institutional setups for sustainable faecal sludge management, attributing a promi nent role to the private sector. - What are the institutional arrangements between the public and private sector, the laws on on-site services, including the standards and regulations? - How can collaborative contexts with all the stakeholders be established, including governance in the sector, role of professional organisations and status of entrepreneurs? 6.1 Workshop 1: Technical aspects • ToR Identify the key technical aspects (pit emptying, haulage and treatment) of faecal sludge management and propose tools to overcome obstacles. Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Faecal Sludge Management • • Organisation of the group Moderator: Mrs R. Osindé, Kenya Rapporteur: Mr F. Adégnika, Benin Issues debated The group focused on the current context: current decentralisation in several countries of the sub-region, existence of local dynamics and active entrepreneurship, and involvement of the populations to improve their living conditions. It subsequently defined the points allowing to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders at local and national level (cf. Annex 4 and Executive Summary). • Open questions - How can professional training and structuring of the stakeholders involved be ensured? - How can the issue of FSM and recommendations of the Symposium become priorities on the agenda of policymakers? 6.6 Workshop 6: Capacity building aspects • ToR How can competence be transferred to the private and public sector? • Organisation of the group Moderator: Mr I. Seck, Senegal Rapporteur: Mr J. Wéthé, Burkina Faso • Issues debated The group discussed the following aspects: identification of the professional fields involved in FSM, needs for capacity building of key stakeholders (private sector, technical services (municipal and governmental) and research and training institutions). The results of the group provide action plans for capacity building of key FSM stakeholders. • Open questions - Who will finance capacity building? - Who will coordinate a capacity building programme at the African level? 6.4 Workshop 4: Advocacy aspects • ToR Identify the most important decision-makers and propose adequate measures for effective advocacy. • Organisation of the group Moderator: Mr Darren Saywell, England Rapporteur: Mr Segla Lihoussou, Benin • Issues debated The group identified three levels of decision-makers on which to focus the advocacy for faecal sludge management: Level 1 (President of the Republic and Ministers), Level 2 (Technical Directors) and Level 3 (representative of territorial administration and decentralised institutions). Adequate measures were proposed for each level (cf. Annex 3 and Executive Summary). • Open questions - What African minister or president could act as an advocate among his peers? - How can the media be involved in promoting and facilitating a synergetic effect on the sub-regional organisations and cooperation partners? 6.5 Workshop 5: Planning aspects • ToR What are the roles of the stakeholders and how can collaboration between them be ensured to develop a sustainable faecal sludge management strategy? • Organisation of the group Moderator: Mr A. Baba-Moussa, Benin Rapporteur: Mr P.P. Bayili, Burkina Faso • Issues debated Based on the experience of each member, the group proceeded to establish a state-of-the-art of the problems and constraints of FSM at local and national level. The group proposed a strategic planning approach for sustainable faecal sludge management in urban areas (cf. Annex 3 and Executive Summary). • Open questions - How can government and local entities be made responsible for planning and coordinating FSM activities? - How can integrated sanitation planning be promoted? 10 Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 7. Winning proposals The concrete steps proposed by the participants are recorded in Annex 4. After their presentation, the participants selected the best ideas by marking them with two red dots. The five prizewinning proposals are described hereafter. Merit projects selected by the participants Manager of a Organise a national symposium on sanitation enterprise sanitation in general and FSM in particular under the high patronage of the President of the Republic. Engineer, Head of Conduct tests in the city of Ouahigouya Research (Burkina Faso) of combined solid waste and faecal sludge collection and reuse through composting. Chief Technical Use the influence of my office to Advisor have at least five ministers commit themselves to the cause of FMS in their programmes and work towards implementing them. Specialist in Register the manual entrepreneurs, Community integrate them into NGOs/SME Development and train them in faecal sludge management. Director Reproduce this Dakar workshop in the capital of my country together with the different ministries responsible for Water, Hygiene and Sanitation, as well as develop and implement concrete and urgent actions for FSM improvement. This two-day workshop will be financed by funds from the Hygiene Department and group all the associations of emptiers. Faecal Sludge Management 8. Evaluation of the Symposium Prior to closing the Symposium, the participants evaluated it and awarded “stars” to its outstanding features. Participants - Invite more local authorities (mayors) - Invite representatives of municipal “grassroot” organisations - Also invite legal experts to assist with the elaboration of rules and regulations 8.1 Positive points Methodology - Steering the workshop ***** - Methodology of asking and working out questions for the working group Logistics - Welcoming and logistics group ** - Documentation of comprehensive quality * - Martin Strauss for his commitment Participants - Choice of participants favouring the exchange within a group committed to the same cause - Exchange of experience among the participants - Contributions by the participants ** - Very high discussion level - Good working atmosphere Information/Observations - The Dakar Declaration ought to be presented at the Conference of African Ministers for the Environment (AMSEN) in Brazzaville on 23 May 2006 - Foresee a contribution on faecal sludge management for the AMSEN Meeting in 2007 9. The Symposium CD Each participant will receive the Symposium CD, which can also be downloaded from Sandec’s webpage (www.sandec.ch). It contains all the relevant documents and presentations of the Symposium as illustrated in Fig. 3. Spoken language - The language barrier was overcome - Good interpreting assistance Results - The participants submitted concrete proposals - Elaboration of a declaration 8.2 Suggestions for improvements Methodology - Organise a field visit during the symposium * - Visit an illicit sludge disposal site - Attend a “Vacutug” emptying tour or demo - Provide a proven project example reproducible elsewhere - Organise the competition of concrete proposals systematically by regrouping the proposals by countries and/or have them evaluated by teams of two - Conduct the presentation on sludge treatment techniques in plenum - Plan a follow-up of the proposals at the end of the symposium Fig. 3. Content of Symposium CD on FSM Logistics - Choose a meeting place large enough to accommodate all the participants and for discussions during in-between meetings - Foresee an alternative venue * - Avoid colliding dates with other events Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 11 Annex 1 Programme of the Symposium 1st day Tuesday, 9 May 2006 8.45 Arrival of participants in plenary Opening Ceremony Presided by the Minister 9.00 – 9.45 • Welcome by Sandec • Video projection on faecal sludge management • Inaugural address 9.45 – 10.15 Coffee break Mr Martin STRAUSS, Programme Officer FSM, Sandec, Switzerland National Office for Sanitation of Senegal (ONAS) Mr Issa Mbaye SAMB, Minister for Prevention, Public Hygiene, Sanitation and Urban Hydraulic of Senegal Introduction of Symposium 10.15 – 11.00 • Welcome and objectives • Address • Presentation of participants and programme Mr Amadou Lamine DIENG, CEO of ONAS, Senegal Mr Graham ALABASTER, Human Settlement Officer, UN-Habitat, Nairobi, Kenya Mr Tonino ZELLWEGER, Symposium Moderator, Sandec, Switzerland Introduction of Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 11.00 – 11.30 Overview of the challenges of faecal sludge management Mr Martin STRAUSS, Programme Officer FSM, Sandec, Switzerland Institutional and Planning Aspects of FSM 11.30 – 12.00 Faecal sludge management in Kumasi Perspective as seen by the municipality 12.00 – 12.30 On-site sanitation and FSM in Senegal: Evolution and perspectives 12.30 – 14.00 Lunch Mr Tony MENSAH, KMA Kumasi, Ghana Mr Alioune NDIAYE, ONAS, Dakar, Senegal Small Enterprises Serving FSM 14.00 – 14.30 Small enterprises in disadvantaged regions and FSM 14.30 – 15.00 Faecal sludge management from the point of view of a small enterprise 15.00 – 15.30 New approaches for emptying latrines Ms Rose Nyanchongi OSINDE, Consultant, Nairobi, Kenya Ms Aminata SIDIBÉ, NGO, Sema Sanyia Bamako, Mali Mr Manus COFFEY, Newtown Mount Kennedy, County Wicklow, Ireland 15.30 – 16.00 Coffee break Financial Aspects of FSM 16.00 – 16.30 Innovative mechanism for the financing of sanitation 16.30 – 17.00 Models of money flux at community level: “Vacutug” example in Senegal Mr Arba Jules OUEDRAOGO, ONEA, Burkina Faso Ms Iole ISSAIAS, UN-Habitat, Nairobi and Mr Malick GAYE, Coordinator ENDA RUP, Dakar, Senegal Capacity Building 17.00 – 17.30 Challenges of training and capacity building in FSM Mr Cheikh TOURE, EDE Consulting, Dakar, Senegal Summary and Strategic View of FSM 17.30 – 18.00 Conclusion at the end of the day combined with the point of view of the World Bank 19.00 – 12 Dinner at Novotel upon invitation by the Symposium Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Mr Ousseynou E. DIOP, World Bank, Dakar, Senegal Annex 1 2nd day Wednesday 10 May 2006 Presentations (cont’d.) 8.30 – 9.00 9.00 – 9.30 9.30 – 10.00 Challenges of data collection on faecal sludge management Summary of challenges completed by the participants Coffee break Mr Bruno VALFREY, Hydro-Conseil, France Mr Tonino ZELLWEGER, Moderator Sandec, Switzerland Challenges of FSM: Workshops 10.00 – 10.30 10.30 – 12.30 12.30 – 14.00 Organisation of workshops and introduction to the tasks Workshop 1: Financial aspects Workshop 2: Institutional aspects Workshop 3: Planning aspects Workshop 4: Technical aspects Workshop 5: Advocacy Workshop 6: Capacity building Lunch Mr Tonino ZELLWEGER, Moderator Sandec, Switzerland Workshop room Workshop room Workshop room Workshop room Workshop room Workshop room Workshops (contd.) 14.00 – 14.15 Introduction to the next step of the workshops in plenary 14.15 – 15.30 Preparation of workshop and discussion synthesis 15.30 – 16.00 Coffee break 16.00 – 17.30 Sharing insights of the different workshops and listing of open questions Mr Tonino ZELLWEGER, Moderator Sandec, Switzerland Technical Aspects of FSM (optional) 20.00 – 21.30 Presentation and discussion – FS treatment options 3rd day Mr Doulaye KONE, Sandec, Switzerland Thursday, 11 May 2006 Synthesis of Workshops and Open Questions 8.30 – 9.30 9.30 – 10.30 10.30 – 11.00 11.00 – 12.30 12.30 – 14.00 Presentation of completed results Open FSM questions Coffee break Discussion of open questions Lunch Competing for Best Proposals 14.00 – 14.30 14.30 – 15.30 15.30 – 16.00 16.00 – 16.30 16.30 – 17.00 17.00 – 17.30 Presenting proposals for immediate actions to improve FSM Sharing proposals and selection of best proposals Coffee break Evaluation of the Symposium Introduction to the technical visit on Friday Official closure and cocktail Mr Alioune NDIAYE, ONAS, Dakar, Senegal ONAS/Sandec 4th Friday, 12 May 2006 (optional) Technical Field Visit: Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant 8.30 – 12.00 Visit of Cambérène’s FS treatment plant in Dakar 15.00 – 17.00 Presentation and discussion - FS treatment options ONAS Mr Doulaye KONE, Sandec, Switzerland Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 13 Annex 2 Opening and closing speech by the Minister and CEO of ONAS Mots de bienvenue du Directeur Général de l’ONAS Mesdames /Messieurs, Le Sénégal, à travers l’ONAS, s’honore d’abriter cet important évènement consacré à un domaine longtemps laissé en rade dans le secteur de l’assainissement liquide urbain: la gestion des boues de vidange issues de nos villes qui deviennent démographiquement de plus en plus denses. Je voudrais remercier vivement ici Sandec avec Mr Martin STRAUSS à sa tête, de cet honneur de recevoir ici à Dakar un aréopage d’experts de domaines aussi divers du point de vue de leurs provenances que des spécialités embrassées. Aussi, sommes-nous en droit de nous réjouir d’ores et déjà de la richesse présumée des débats et de la pertinence des recommandations de notre symposium qui devra permettre, faut-il le rappeler de: - Trouver les outils permettant d’obtenir une meilleure visibilité du secteur, - Sensibiliser davantage les décideurs politiques et les planificateurs, - Renforcer les capacités dans le domaine de la gestion améliorée des boues de vidange et, - Echanger sur les stratégies clés à mettre en œuvre pour améliorer la gestion des boues de vidange en milieu urbain et périurbain. - …/…Mesdames, Messieurs, Pour les informations utiles à votre séjour dans notre capitale, le modérateur Mr TONINO vous donnera tout à l’heure toutes les précisions nécessaires concernant les réservations retour, les horaires des repas et de pause de café, les possibilités de déplacement à votre disposition, l’heure et l’endroit du dîner offert, le planning des trois (03) jours de travail etc… Pour terminer, à chacun d’entre vous, je voudrais renouveler nos souhaits de bienvenue ainsi qu’un excellent séjour au Sénégal. A nos partenaires résidents au Sénégal qui ont également bien voulu venir partager leurs expériences avec nous, nous disons: « merci encore » “DAL LEN AK DIAM” Ministère de la Prevention, de l’Hygiène Publique, de l’Assainissement et de l’Hydraulique Urbaine Office national de l’assainissement du Sénégal (ONAS) Symposium/Atelier sur la politique des boues de vidange Ceremonie de clôture - Monsieur le Directeur Général du Réseau CREPA, - Monsieur le Directeur Général de la Société Béninoise des Eaux, - Monsieur le Directeur Général de l’ONAS, - Mesdames/Messieurs les Directeurs nationaux, - Monsieur le Directeur du volet «Boues de vidange » de Sandec, - Monsieur le Directeur Régional pour l’Afrique, l’Asie du Sud et l’Asie du Sud Est de l’Association Internationale de l’Eau (IWA), - Monsieur le chargé de l’Urbanisme de UN-Habitat, - Monsieur le représentant de la Banque Mondiale, - Mesdames et Messieurs les Représentants des différentes institutions régionales, internationales, partenaires financiers et scientifiques de SANDEC et de l’ONAS. Chers Invités, Nous voilà au terme de notre Symposium/Atelier après trois jours de travail d’arrache-pied auquel vous vous êtes donnés avec brio. Vous venez ainsi de plancher sur la problématique de la gestion des boues de vidange dans nos établissements humains souvent à démographie très galopante. Pour ce faire, vous vous êtes exercés en plénières et en groupes spécialisés: - à identifier les voies et moyens pour sensibiliser davantage les décideurs politiques et les planificateurs de projets d’assainissement ou de domaines connexes à l’assainissement liquide, - à proposer un package d’outils pour assurer le renforcement des capacités des acteurs dans le domaine de la gestion améliorée des boues de vidange, et, - à échanger sur les stratégies clés à mettre en œuvre pour améliorer de façon sensible la gestion des boues de vidange en milieu urbain et périurbain. Je vous remercie. AMADOU LAMINE DIENG 14 Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 La pertinence des résultats auxquels vous avez ainsi aboutis, m’autorise, au nom du Docteur Issa Mbaye SAMB Ministre de la Prévention, de l’Hygiène Publique, de l’Assainissement de l’Hydraulique Urbaine (MPHPAHyU) de vous dire ici toutes les félicitations du Gouvernement et du Peuple Sénégalais et nos encouragements à poursuivre cette dynamique de plaidoyer légitime pour la promotion d’une bonne gestion des boues de vidange dans nos différents pays. La qualité des résultats ainsi fournis est le fruit d’un travail sans ménagement de votre part et que vous avez accepté de consentir avec un esprit critique mais dans une atmosphère parfaitement conviviale. J‘en veux pour preuve: la motivation de chacun d’entre Annex 2 vous à prendre part au « concours de proposition d’actions immédiates pour améliorer la GBV », pour lequel je félicite vivement les participants primés. Nous n’avons pas perdu de vue le caractère très professionnel de l’organisation du déroulement des travaux du Symposium qui ont grandement contribué à la réalisation des résultats affichés. En effet, Monsieur le Modérateur, vous avez pu mener d’une main de maître la conduite des séances tout en gardant en permanence le difficile équilibre entre la «démocratie dans la distribution de la parole» et «la bonne maîtrise du temps». Mieux vous avez pu mettre en place un dispositif qui a permis aux participants de produire des résultats très concrets et fructueux. Aussi, Mesdames et Messieurs, permettez-moi de saluer solennellement ce travail de grande valeur pour lequel je sollicite votre acclamation générale. Merci. Nos remerciements renouvelés vont bien sûr à l’équipe de Sandec ainsi qu’à ses partenaires de l’IWA, de UN-Habitat, de la Banque Mondiale etc….qui ont bien voulu honorer notre pays en organisant ici à Dakar cet important Symposium qui s’inscrit désormais dans les annales de l’histoire de l’assainissement liquide en Afrique. Malgré le caractère très inédit du thème, l’engagement de longue date et la perspicacité de Sandec ont permis de tenir pour la toute première fois en Afrique subsaharienne une assemblée de ce niveau sur un sujet presque tabou. Félicitations encore à Sandec et encouragements à toute l’assemblée à s’approprier les résultats du Symposium pour les traduire en actions concrètes par la suite. Pour cela, vous pouvez compter sur le Sénégal, car nous nous engageons à partager avec vous les résultats de projet pilote en cours de mise à service sur les stations des boues de vidange. Je ne saurai terminer sans remercier à votre nom, la presse, les hôtesses, les interprètes ainsi que le comité local d’organisation et le personnel de l’hôtel. - Bonne poursuite à tous pour le travail de réseautage nécessaire pour maintenir la dynamique du Symposium, - Bon retour à chacun des participants qui ont bien voulu faire le déplacement à Dakar. C’est sur ses mots que je déclare, clos, au nom du Docteur Issa Mbaye SAMB, Ministre de la Prévention, de l’Hygiène Publique, de l’Assainissement et de l’Hydraulique Urbaine (MPHPAHyU) le 1er Symposium/Atelier sur la politique des boues de vidange en Afrique subsaharienne. Je vous remercie Par Monsieur Mamadou DIA Directeur de Cabinet du MPHPAHyU Dakar, le 11 mai 2006 Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 15 Annex 3 Workshop results: mitigation measures and tools Working group on FSM planning Group members - Rapporteur Paul BAYILI BABA-MOUSSA Alassane N’DOUR Niokhor BASSIMSOUWÉ Edjam-Etchaki DABO Aminata Tandian BAYILI Paul P érré DIALLO Ousmane Moderator Alassane BABA-MOUSSA – Managing Director SONEB Methodology • Familiar with problems based on first-hand experience of group members • Identification of major constraints • Formulation of appropriate measures • Development of a strategy • Implementation of the strategy Problems and constraints: State-of-the-art …(cont’d.) • Lack of specific standards and no n- compliance with standards (design) • Predominance of (informal manual and mechanical emptying) • Low interest by ESA in FSM • Difficult access to latrines and septic tanks in certain areas • Low awareness of health risks by relevant FSM stakeholders (e.g. manual and mechanical pit emptiers) 16 Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Working method • Roundtable discussion among group members • Identification of assets / constraints, differences / similarities and formulation of recommendations / guidelines Problems and constraints: State-of-the-art • Empowerment of L.A. in sanitation management lacking in the enactments of decentralisation • FSM not considered separately from wastewater in environmental and public health legislation • Lack of vision and strategic options at national and local level ( PRS , local development plans ….) • Wide range of stakeholders: unclear responsibilities, confusion of roles • Future FS treatment sites not earmarked in urban master plans Measures and solutions • Development of a national sanitation strategy taking into account especially the FS (e.g. in Senegal) • Accounting for FSM sites in urban master plans • Development of strategic plans at f or on -site sanitation by taking into account FS management • Clear allocation of institutional roles for FSM • Propagation of existing, low- cost technologies • Organisation and capacity building of stakeholders, particularly mechanical and manual emptiers, in organisational and technical fields Annex 3 Strategic FSM planning at community level • Accounting for on -site sanitation and FSM in municipal/ community and national development plans • Development of a strategic plan for on-site sanitation including FSM using an integrated and participatory systems approach Strategic FSM planning at community level (cont’d.) • Implementation: Allocating roles and responsibilities of stakeholders, viz.: - Households - • The system approach is to comprise the following aspects: - Technology Socio-culture Economy and financial resources and mechanisms Institutions and regulations Partnerships Advocated approach: Private sector (SME, manual emptiers, NGO, CBO) Municipalities Decentralised government services Development cooperation partners Accompanying measures Financial plan Support measures Working group on technical aspects Planning from local to national level Chairs: Mrs Issaias and Mr Sambou Rapporteurs: Mr Gueye and Mr Niang Objectives: Identify key technical aspects (pit emptying, transport and treatment) of faecal sludge management and propose tools to overcome obstacles The scope of the objectives was widened by including the following themes: – Technical design of installations (inside the houses) – Reuse of products derived from sludge treatment Methodology Definition of the targets Consensus was reached not to discuss the different technologies depending on income level of the benefiting populations • Working procedure 1. The assigned task was divided into five themes: • – Design of individual installations – Emptying of pits / sludge transport – Sludge treatment / reuse of products 2. At the level of certain themes, a listing of installations or known systems was performed. Thereafter, weaknesses of each system were analysed and appropriate solutions proposed Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 17 Annex 3 1. Design of the installations 1.1. Identification of existing systems : traditional latrine (simple pit) VIPs/VIDPs pour-flush latrines latrines with liquid / solid separation – ECOSAN (dry toilets) – septic tanks – – – – 2. Emptying of the installations / Sludge transport • 2.1. Challenges and solutions CHALLENGES SOLUTIONS 1. Access / Distance Use transfer equipment in areas of difficult access (Vacutug combined with a larger suction vehicle) Allow for accessible and nearby dumping sites during planning (master plans) Use extraction equipment more adapted to the typology of the hab itat (Vacutug and improved suction system if pipe too long) 2. Sludge quality Use caustic soda to liquefy the sludges (return to the initial pit condition, risk of compromising operation of treatment plant receiving the sludges) Inject water into sludge during emptying Maintain a 6-12 months emptying frequency (before sludge solidifies) 3. Equipment limited with regard to suction depth Legal provision with regard to existing equipment 4. Extraction of remaining solids Awareness campaign among users 5. Emptying trucks are mainly second-hand vehicles Cf. “Financial Aspects” • 1.2. Challenges and solutions CHALLENGES SOLUTIONS 1. Sedimentation / solidification (in the first three systems, the sludge solidifies after 6 months) Empty every six months (if mechanical; higher emptying frequency but smaller quantities and greater ease of extraction ) double-pit latrines (require, however, more space) 2. Sludge / liquid mixture difficult to extract See above 3. Site selection / access to pits Take FSM into account when developing municipal or communal master plans and when considering appropriate options for in house sanitation facilities Developing / selecting equipment capable of accessing the latrin es 4. Construction material not resistant enough for mechanical emptying Choose adequate construction material in compliance with the type of facility and emptying equipment 5. Emptying frequency important Improve design of the installations (requires 6. Inappropriate installations Adapt the technology (requires a 3. Sludge treatment / Reuse of products 3.1. Identification of systems – – – – – – – – – Digester (biogas) Sludge humification (planted sludge drying beds) Activated sludge Stabilisation ponds Drying beds Sedimentation and thickening tanks Trenching Co-composting Agricultural conditioners 3. Sludge treatment / Reuse of products (cont’d.) 3. Sludge treatment / Reuse of products (cont’d.) • 3.2. Challenges and solutions • 3.2. Challenges and solutions CHALLENGES SOLUTIONS Digester: 1. Efficient only for raw, fresh sludges Feasible only for community -scale installations or public buildings 2. Complex operations Capacity building, skill development SOLUTIONS 5. Inappropriate for direct FS treatment. However, the effluent originating from FS settling / thickening units can be directed to an activated sludge treatment plant Drying beds 3. Large land requirement Use of appropriate plants with evapotranspiration properties (reeds, cattail) 4. Technology little known as yet Popularisation and promotion Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 CHALLENGES Activated sludge Planted sludge drying beds: 18 1. Design of the installations (cont ’d.) 6. Large land requirement Pretreatment 7. Requires a primary treatment system Use of settling / thickening units Annex 3 4. Open questions • Which is the best emptying system for the “ sludge / liquid mixture ”? • Which institutional structures should be adopted for technical and scientific monitoring of installations and their operations Working group on institutional aspects • How should research activities in faecal sludge management be financed? • What are the key selection criteria for faecal sludge treatment systems? 5. Recommendation Chair: OSINDE Rose, Kenya Rapporteur: ADEGNIKA Félix, Benin • Appropriate options of sludge treatment technology must be improved and disseminated through research and demonstration Targets of working group • Propose and describe adequate institutional frameworks for efficient FS management by including the private sector in answering the following questions: – What are the institutional arrangements between the public and private sector? – Laws, standards and regulations on on-site services – How should consultation platforms with all the stakeholders be established? – Governance in the sector – Roles of professional organisations – Status of operators, …. Context • Decentralisation process ongoing in various African countries • Insufficient competence in decentralised territorial communities • Central government offices or agencies exerting the authority granted to local communities • Presence of local dynamics and active entrepreneurship • The population involving itself to contribute to improving their living conditions Defining roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder Defining roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder (cont ’d.) At central level At central level • Define a national policy on FSM • Establish a legal and regulatory framework addressing faecal sludge management • Define national strategies which include periurban areas • Establish an institutional framework accounting for the decentralisation process, acknowledging all the stakeholders, integrating the principle of public / private partnership • Create a Ministry in charge of sanitation • Establish financial measures and tax incentives for private operators • Develop strategic plans at local level (municipalities, communities) • Plan the financing of urban faecal sludge treatment plant construction Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 19 Annex 3 Defining roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder (cont ’d.) At local level At local level • Develop concerted strategic plans: establish coherent and locally appropriate organisational schemes for integrated faecal sludge management to ensure service coverage for the entire population of the administrative district • Establish local hygiene and public health regulations and ensure their enforcement • Adopt organisational schemes that entrust the private sector with FS collection, transport and treatment, and where the public authority ensures regulation and monitoring • Create a framework for consultation and coordination among faecal sludge stakeholders who, aside from conflict management, express their opinion on contracts with enterprises, tariff systems, identification of FS treatment sites Defining roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder (cont ’d.) At local level • Reconsider the inhabitant in his / her role as a citizen (who complies with the rules and regulations and ensures that they are complied with), as a taxpayer (who pays his / her taxes and fees), as a patriot (who accepts installation of sanitation facilities in his/her environment), as a client or user of the services (who uses the services provided by the licensed service providers) • The grass-root community is responsible for raising awareness and for monitoring / surveillance activities. It also supports practical research / demonstration and installation of sludge transfer stations Working group on financial aspects of FSM Group composed of seven persons originating from six countries : - DIOUF M. - KOANDA H. - MENSAH A. - DAKOURE D. - DESILE D. - KEBE B. Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 • Develop transparent procedures and regulations for the private sector, and establish evaluation and control capacities Open questions • How can the professionalisation and stakeholder involvement and coordination be ensured? Development of a stakeholder network in FSM??? • The way forward and the “ After Symposium ”? How can the faecal sludge management issue and recommendations of the Symposium become priorities on the agenda of African policy- makers? Cf. political African agendas (Africités 4,…) Context Financing liquid sanitation in a general and FS in particular should be tackled at two levels: • Financing of capital expenditure in infrastructure (collection network, faecal sludge treatment systems) - DIOUBATE M. 20 Defining roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder (cont ’d.) Moderator: Mr M. DIOUF Rapporteur: D. DAKOURE Translation: H. KOANDA • Financing of recurring costs for maintenance, operation and replacement of equipment and facilities Core question: What is an equitable, cost-covering tariff? Annex 3 How can FSM be financed sustainably? There are four main financing sources: • Users, direct (tariffs and fees) or indirect (taxes and charges contributing to national and local budgets) • Loans from external support agencies • Public subsidies usually fed by grants or credits from external support organisations • Private investments provided by national or foreign investors within the framework of licensing or privatisation of public services Access Emptying and collection/ haulage First link: Access to the sanitation service Subsidies Private sector Users Micro finance Intermediate link: Emptying and collection/haulage Fees for other services (water, habitat, electricity) Investment costs Promotion Subsidies Option 1 100 % Option 2 Users Micro finance Fees for other services (water, habitat, electricity) 100 % x% y% Running costs (operating costs of emptiers) 100 % Level 1 100 % Option 2 Option 3 Private sector Investment costs (purchase of vehicles) Infrastructure Option 1 Unloading, treatment and reuse y% x% z% -- % Tax relief and guarantee fund for loans 100 % Level 2 100 % Level 3 x% Households capable of paying Public buildings y% Disadvantaged households How can emptying be made sustainable in small communities (< 50 000 inhab.)? Enlarge the inter-communal emptying area and / or diversify activities of collection enterprises Last link: FS unloading, treatment and reuse Subsidies Private sector Users Micro finance Fees for other services (water, habitat, electricity) What conclusions can be drawn? Investment costs (infrastructure) Option 1 100 % Option 2 x% Licensing over X years y% Running costs (operating costs of FSTP and compost / biogas pr oduction costs) Level 1 x% y% Starting phase (approx. two years) Level 2 / option 1 100 % emptiers Level 2 / option 2 x% y% emptiers - As regards financing of investments, proven mechanisms and innovating solutions, such as OBA (Output-Based Aid), are available. They link financing of investments to results obtained (World Bank)! - As regards financing of operating and maintenance costs, the system will only function sustainably if recurring costs are borne by the users farmers Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 21 Annex 3 Open questions 1. How can private service providers be prevented from passing on the tipping fees to households (which would render pit emptying unaffordable to many families)? 2. How can emptying fees be made affordable to very low-income households? Target: Identify the most important decisionmakers and propose appropriate measures to achieve efficient advocacy among them Identification of decision -makers Identification of decision-makers (cont’d.) First level Second level • Technical Directors • • • • • • • • • • President of the Republic Ministers for Sanitation / Public Hygiene / Environment Minister for Planning Minister for Finance Minister for Local Government Minister for Public Health Minister for Hydraulics and Energy Minister for Scientific Research Minister for Education Minister for Culture Adequate measures Activities leading towards a positive behavioural change • President – Open letter (declaration / symposium) – Raise awareness among peers – Advocacy among ambassadors – Integrate hygiene and sanitation issues in political programmes – Support the establishment of a Ministry for Sanitation and Disease Prevention 22 Working group on advocacy Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Third level • Territorial Administration – Governor – Prefect – Sub-prefect • Local authorities – President Regional Council – Mayors – Religious and traditional leaders Adequate measures (cont ’d.) Ministers • Ministers directly concerned – Workshops / events involving African ministers (NEPAD, AMCOW, WSSCC) – Technical note (statistics) of the Symposium – Conferences presided by the ministers – Raise awareness among peers – Awareness raising by cooperation partners (NGO, CBO etc.) • Support ministers – Integrate sanitation in government priority action plans – Raise awareness for an integrated approach among stakeholders involved – Integrate hygiene and sanitation in the training curricula Annex 3 Adequate measures (cont ’d.) Adequate measures (cont’d.) Technical Directors • Organisation of symposia, workshops, conferences etc • Technical notes, documentaries etc • Continuing education • Study trips • Exchange of experience Territorial Administration (governors, mayors) • Information note, report • Invitation to public events • Organisation of workshops, seminars • Organisation of CRD, CDD • Information days on the regulatory and legal setting Conclusions • All messages aimed at decision-makers have to: – establish a link between hygiene, sanitation and public health condition of the populations – prompt the reduction of poverty – stress the importance of creating jobs and – improving living conditions • Advocacy in the decision-makers’ activity area will use different communication channels (traditional and modern) and pressure groups (civil societies, traditional, religious and community leaders) Introduction / Methodology 1. Setting up the office: Very easy as there were three persons for three positions … !!! 2. Adopting the working group objectives 3. Identifying: – – – – professions target groups planned activities organisations likely to play a role Working group on capacity building Team comprising • Ibra SECK • Joseph WETHE • Bruno VALFREY (Chair) (Rapporteur) (Secretary General) Members: • Doulaye KON É • Cheick TOURE • Tonino ZELLWEGER Objectives (cont’d.) – Identify professionals involved in FSM – Formulate suitable measures Professions involved in FSM • System designers • Systems builders • Emptying operators • Planners • System managers • Social engineers (SEN) • Regulators Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 23 Annex 3 Target groups • • • • Private sector (consulting offices, companies) Municipal technical services Decentralised technical services of government Research and / or training institutions Activities to conduct • Degree studies (qualifying) • Continuing education • Research Structures involved – Training and / or Research Institutions • EIER-ETSHER Group, Ouagadougou / Burkina Faso • CREPA Network, Ouagadougou / Burkina Faso • Conference of universities and educational establishments in sub-Saharan Africa • ESP, Dakar / Senegal • EPAC, C otonou / Benin • EAMAU, Lome / Togo • Univ. of Kumasi / Ghana • Eawag / Sandec, Zurich / Switzerland • Etc???? – Technical Water and / or Sanitation Agencies and Services • ONAS • ONEA • Etc??? – Consulting Firms Profession 1: Selection & design of FS treatment systems & emptying techn. Profession 2: Construction & financing of FS treatment or transfer sites Stakeholder(s) Stakeholder(s) - Private sector (Consulting firms) - Munic. technical services / companies (construction managers) - Research / training institutions Research themes • Appropriate technology (tanker trucks …) • Low-cost FS treatment plant (FSTP) options • Design parameters linked to operating costs of FSTP • Feasibility testing of appropriate FSTP options through demonstration projects Educational targets (training) • Allow stakeholders to acquire know -how in complying with rules and regulations on selection and design of FS treatment systems and equipment Tools to develop • Design manual for equipment and installations (emptying, transport, treatment) • Realistic construction standards (FS treatment) and standard technical ToR (including unit prices). Remain realistic as regards discharge and reuse standards! • Practical design guidelines for FS treatment systems Activities to conduct - Private sector (execution of construction work) - Munic. tech. services and technical ministries (quality control of completed facilities) Research themes • Implementation processes • Optimisation of deadlines / public markets • Unit building prices • Innovative financing mechanisms and new contract types, based on public-private partnership (PPP) Educational targets (training) • Private sector capable of delivering within the deadlines a qualitatively good infrastructure • Technical services are capable of tendering and conducting quality control of completed facilities Tools to develop • Criteria for selecting companies as service providers • Standard building tenders • Building contract models • ToR for quality control of construction work • Training modules for MTS and private sector Profession 3: Pit emptying and sludge transport Profession 3 (cont'd.): Pit emptying and sludge transport Stakeholder(s) Stakeholder(s) Private sector: Manual emptiers 24 Activities to conduct Capacity building activities to conduct Research themes • Protection of workers (health impact) • Appropriate emptying equipment • Characterisation of manual emptiers • Pit layout • Structuring of manual / mechanical emptying / solid waste management Educational targets (training) • Manual emptiers capable of providing qualitatively better services and limiting the impact on health (protection) and the environment (sludge burying) Tools to develop • Association of manual emptiers • Specific social engineering / advocacy modules • Manual in local language / radio broadcasts etc on emptying technology and its risks • Manual for MTS / companies Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Private sector: Mechanical emptiers Capacity building activities to conduct Research themes • Protection of workers (health impact) • Appropriate emptying and haulage equipment • Business practices in sludge transport and discharge/treatment • Pit design • Threshold for return on investment • Business characteristics Educational targets (training) • Mechanical emptiers are capable of providing improved services and enhance the management of their companies Tools to develop • Representative structure of mechanical emptiers (contact person) • Manual on emptying technology and maintenance of equipment • Training in business management • Manual for municipal technical services and enterprises Annex 3 Profession 4: Planners Stakeholder(s) Capacity building activities to conduct Profession 5: Management of FS treatment systems and / or sewerage networks Stakeholder(s) Research themes • Conflict solving • Potential intervention areas of private sector • Environmental impact (identification of appropriate sites) – Municipal technical services (MTS) / Gov’t. technical services (GTS) Educational targets (training) • Succeed in setting up facilities by complying with urban planning (mediation) • Reach consensus among the various stakeholders and involve the private sector in specific key areas Tools to develop • GIS – Consulting Offices • Training modules for MTS / GTS • Methodology/approach to link FSM with urban master planning • ToR: consulting the public, measuring environmental impact, model of financial fluxes, tariff structures • Discussion and coordination platform among stakeholders Profession 6: Social Engineering (SEN Capacity building activities to conduct Stakeholder(s) - Local and international NGOs - Consulting Offices (CO) - Munic. technical services (MTS; as clients) - Research centres Research themes • Analysis of demand • Social marketing • Appropriate communication Educational targets (training) • Raise stakeholder awareness for the importance of integrating SEN in the entire process of sanitation, particularly FSM upgrading • Provide CO and NGO stakeholders with SEN know how, particularly as regards evaluation of user service improvement requests Tools to develop • Intervention manuals • Communication tools • Guidance on household surveying - Private sector - Munic. tech. Services (MTS) - Entrepreneurs Profession 7: Control of service quality and user fees Stakeholder(s) Capacity building of municipal technical services / consulting office teams in non -technical fields (socio economy, urban planning, environmental science, micro-finance, law) 2. Introduce in pertinent training curricula modules covering all aspects and professions / stakeholders involved in FSM (engineers, technicians, economists…) 3. Integrate the social engineering principles in all stages of design and construction of technical installations (particularly pit emptying, haulage and treatment) 4. Develop a FSM approach / programme and negotiate with donors / cooperation partners to secure the financing capacity building Capacity building activities to conduct Research themes • Quality rating of user -delivered service • Financial system modelling - (Munic. and • Mechanism for financing control activities gov’t. technical • Monitoring service coverage services (MTS/ GTS) Educational targets (training) • MTS / GTS or controllers are capable of monitoring and - Independent, maintaining high quality services rendered to users specialised controllers Tools to develop • Quality monitoring indicators • Result retrieval and evaluating tools • Training modules on control mechanisms Recommendation 1. Capacity building activities to conduct Research themes • Operating / maintenance costs • Exchange of experience and know -how • Transfer of knowledge from solid waste management system • How to optimise operations of treatment plants, sewerage schemes and condominial systems (e.g. small-bore sewerage) Educational targets (training) • Operators have acquired know -how in operation and maintenance of networks and FS treatment schemes • MTS have acquired skills for recruiting and contracting private/ public operators Tools to develop • Checklists for operating FS treatm. plants and sewer networks • Call for tenders / franchising contracts for operation • Manuals for plant operators (various levels: plant manager, technician…) • Training modules for operators • Exchanges among operators and ToR for quality control by MTS Questions 1. Who will finance? 2. Who will coordinate at the African level? 3. Is there a database on organisations which could offer capacity building outlined above ? 4. What is their role? 5. How can an African FSM network be established and managed? Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 25 Annex 4 Concrete measures proposed by the participants 1. Technical Aspects Head of Wastewater Treatment Laboratory Head of Hygiene, Sanitation and Environmental Protection Research Assistant Director of Operational Services (municipality) 2. Planning Aspects Engineer/Head of Operation Environmental Engineer Manager of an R&D Office on Water and Soil Deputy Engineer Consulting Engineer in Water, Sanitation and Environment 3. Institutional Aspects Planning Engineers Deputy National Director Deputy Manager of the Urban Technical Services Departmental Attaché, Councillor Ministry of Health Head of Department Head of Service Technical Consultant Sanitary Engineer Head of Programme Ministry of Public Health 4. Financial Aspects Director Technician Consultant in Waste Management 26 Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Conduct treatment tests on the sludge liquids issued from FS thickening/drying for reuse in urban agriculture. Develop a project on sludge humification (planted sludge drying beds) for faecal sludge treatment. Draw up a detailed state-of-the-art of all the sludge systems used. Make an inventory of all the methods applied by the institutions throughout the country. Identify potential partners. List the potential partnership fields. Contract a private company for the operation of the Porto Novo faecal sludge treatment plant. Identify three intermediate disposal sites. Set up the intermediate disposal sites (impermeability). Contribute to structural improvements. Set up an Internet database on faecal sludge entrepreneurs in Africa: typology of the stakeholders, experiences and good practice. Contribute to the dissemination of the Ecosan latrine types with reuse of the “hygienised” urine and faeces as agricultural fertilisers in villages of the Niayes area in Rufisque province (Senegal). During elaboration of the new land reform, include a specific section on the setting up of areas determined for faecal sludge storage and treatment. An analysis of the water pollution load will be conducted as support measure in the micro catchment areas. Propose the setting up of FSM infrastructure when planning sub-programmes of the current Millennium Water and Sanitation Programme, particularly the Local Water and Sanitation Programmes. Organise and formalise the private entrepreneurs in FSM. Keep a track record of the mechanical emptiers in the urban and periurbain centres in collaboration with the regional offices throughout the national territory. Organise a stakeholder meeting to make an inventory of the state-of-the-art, and formulate the terms of reference for the feasibility study. Inform the Minister about the results of the faecal sludge management Symposium held in Dakar and conduct information briefings for the various FSM stakeholders on the recommendations of the Symposium. Decide at ministerial planning level (CNAEA Management) to create an entity in charge of FSM coordination to be included in the budget. Reflect on and propose legal tools (decrees, resolutions …) to the General Manager to regulate faecal sludge management. Create and define the operating mechanisms of a collaborative and intermediary framework between public authorities, local communities, entrepreneurs, and financial partners. Institutional and organisational study of FSM in the city of Novoboue. Organise a collaboration between stakeholders working in faecal sludge management to develop an action plan with due regard to the problems on all levels of society. Invite the mayor of the municipal district to convene a town meeting to examine the resolution proceedings on the faecal sludge regulations. Organise a collaborative meeting with the emptying enterprises to determine a faecal sludge disposal fee. Secure sufficient finances and adequate technologies. Structure the sector and raise it to the public utility level to become eligible for the respective tax reductions, to reach affordability and a structural price stability, and establish a monitoring/control network for the populations, entrepreneurs and authorities. Annex 4 Programme Coordinator 5. Advocacy Consultant Director of CREPA network Secret. National Association of the Municipalities National Programme Coordinator Researcher Head of Support Programmes to Local Entities Head of Information in an NGO promoting adequate water and sanitation practices 6. Capacity Building Engineer Sanitary Engineer Engineer Sanitary Engineer Head of Project SANDEC President of the Dakar Regional Youth Council Coordinating Engineer PAQPUD Provide financial support to an integrated management project on municipal waste and faecal sludge in Ouahigouya. Inform the entrepreneurs, beneficiaries and PAQPUD’s emptiers of the Symposium results. Form a focus group to optimise Cambérène’s treatment plant. Facilitate the founding of five private companies regrouping the PAQPUD. Develop a TV commercial on the environmental impact of FSM and the plant. Monitor implementation of the concrete steps throughout the countries as established by the participants. Draw up a synthesis of the Dakar declaration for all the mayors of the country. Promote/establish one month of solidarity for water and sanitation to raise money for a solidarity fund in the field of sanitation. Conduct vaccination campaigns for emptiers in collaboration with the media and public health services for effective advocacy. Place the recommendations of the Symposium on the website of my organisation and disseminate them to all our partners through our networks and mailings. Write an article in an information bulletin on the conclusions of the Symposium and challenges of FSM to be disseminated among 8,000 stakeholders in the sector (of which 5,000 in Africa). Organise a “feedback” session with colleague engineers to raise their awareness about FSM during project implementation. The experience and lessons learned from commissioning and operating the first three FSM plants will be shared regularly with all the elements of the network. Raise the awareness of consultants about these FSM questions. The said consultants are currently responsible for developing a document on integrated water resource management. Inform about the health problems caused by poor faecal sludge management. Submit a request for tenders to conduct feasibility studies of FSM systems. Secure funds for a student and assist him/her during his/her thesis (Master) in the field of faecal sludge management. Organise a regional workshop to raise the awareness of the “grassroot” stakeholders about an improved FSM. Set up an African network for the promotion of on-site, small bore sanitation systems. Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 27 Annex 5 List of participants 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 28 ADEGNIKA Felix AGBEMADON Yawodin AHISSOU Joseph ALABASTER Graham BALDE Demba BARI Hamidul BASSIMSOUWE Edjam Etchaki BAYILI Paul BODIAN Ibou BOULOUFEI Manzama Esso CHOKKI LALEYE Félicité COFFEY Manus COULIBALY Baba DACOURE Denis DALLA TORRE Caterina DESILLE Denis DIA CISSE Fatou DIAGNE Abdoul Aziz DIAKITE Boubacar DIALLO Ousmane DIARRA Ngolo DIARRA SIDIBE Aminata DIOP Ousseynou DIOUBATE Morifindian DIOUF Madieumbe GASHUGI Innocent GEBRESELASSIE Worku GUEYE Mamadou ISSAIAS Iole JOHN Edmund KEBE Boukounta KIRUMIRA Mohamed KOANDA Halidou KONE Doulaye KUMAR JHA Pawan LIHOUSSOU Kaumi Segla MBAYE Adama MENSAH Anthony MORRIS Stephen MOUKORO Eric MOUSSA Alassane Baba MWANGA KIRANGO Jasper NDAO Ndeye Awa NDIAYE Alioune NDONG Seck NDOUR Niokhor NGIMBOUS Georges Mahou NGOY MBELE Evariste NGUANGU Bavon Mangolo NIANG Mouhamet NIANG Ndiogou NIANG Seydou OSINDE Rose OUEDRAGO Arba Jules PRAMANIK Martin Ronald SAGNA Dulcie Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 PDM, Benin CREPA SENEGAL, Senegal DJO MAIRIE PORTONOVO, Benin UN-HABITAT, Kenya CREPA SENEGAL, Senegal MAWTS, Bangladesh MAIRIE DE LOME TOGO, Togo CAGEC/BULO SUISSE, Burkina Faso ENDA/RUP SENEGAL, Senegal MINISTERE DE LA SANTE, Togo DIR. HYGIENE ET ASS. DE BASE, Benin MANUS COFFEY, Ireland ONAS, Senegal COORDINATEUR, Burkina Faso Eawag/Sandec, Switzerland PS-EAU, France AGETIP SENEGAL, Senegal MPHPAHU, Senegal DNACPN, Mali DIRECTION ASSAINISSEMENT, Senegal INP MAHSA, Senegal DIABESO SANIYA, Mali WSP-WB, Senegal POUBELLES DE CONAKRY, Guinea ONAS, Senegal CITY COUNCIL OF KIGALI, Rwanda MINISTRY OF HEALTH, Ethiopia ONAS, Senegal UN-HABITAT, Kenya DIRECTOR SANITATION, Tanzania MFD SENEGAL, Senegal KAMPALA CITY COUNCIL, Uganda CREPA, Burkina Faso Eawag/Sandec, Switzerland DIRECTOR GENERAL, India SECRETAIRE PERMANENT ANCB, Benin DAHU, Senegal DIR. WASTE MANAG. DEPT., Ghana MANUS COFFEY ASSOC. LTD., Ireland UN-HABITAT, Senegal D.G. SONEB, Benin WASTEWATER MANAGER, Tanzania COUD, Dakar Fann, Senegal ONAS, Senegal CRJ/DAKAR/RIAD, Senegal DGPRE SENEGAL, Senegal COM. URBAINE YAOUNDE, Cameroon CNAEA/PNA, Congo CNAEA, Congo GRAF-ENDA, Senegal CREPA SENEGAL, Senegal UCAD/IFAN, Senegal INDEPENDENT CONSULTANT, Kenya ONEA, Burkina Faso MAWTS, Bangladesh ONAS, Senegal [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] via: [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] Annex 5 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 SAMBOU Charles Antoine SAYWELL Darren SECK Cheikh SECK Ibra SIDI CISSE Mahamadou SIWALE Etambuyu SOW Bassirou SOW Papa Souleye STEINER Michael STRAUSS Martin TANDIA Cheikh Tidiane TANDIAN DABO Aminata THIAM NGOM Awa TOURE Cheikh VALFREY-VISSER Bruno WETHE Joseph ZELLWEGER Tonino CONSULTANT, Senegal IWA, United Kingdom ENDA/RUP SENEGAL, Senegal AGETIP SENEGAL, Senegal MAIRIE OUAGADOU, Burkina Faso M&GH ZAMBIA, Zambia ONAS, Senegal CONSULTANT FORMATEUR, Senegal Eawag/Sandec, Switzerland Eawag/Sandec, Switzerland CREPA-SIÈGE, Burkina Faso ONAS, Senegal AGETIP SENEGAL, Senegal EDE, Senegal HYDROCONSEIL, France GROUPE ELEYE-ETSHER, Burkina Faso Consultant (Eawag/Sandec), Switzerland [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 29 Acknowledgements Thank you very much! It would not have been possible to hold this international symposium without the dedicated support of Messrs Graham ALABASTER (UN-Habitat, Nairobi), Pete KOLSKY (The World Bank, Washington), Piers CROSS (and WSP team in Nairobi and Dakar), and Amadou Lamine DIENG (ONAS, Senegal) who were permanently backstopping the organising committee and providing full support throughout the entire process. We acknowledge the wisdom and professionalism of the symposium’s moderator, Mr Tonio ZELLWEGER, who accepted the tremendous challenge of creating a friendly atmosphere among 60 –70 participants during three days in a cramped room. He was a key person to the success of this symposium. Our sincere thanks go to Mrs Fatou Kandji DIAW for her excellent simultaneous translation appreciated by all participants. We sincerely thank Novotel Dakar, particularly Mrs NDIONE, Mrs NDIAYE and Mr DIOP for the quality of service provided and their professional assistance in logistics. We are greatly indebted to Sylvie PETER, Sandec’s translator, for her linguistic revision of this report. We also thank Halidou KOANDA and Michael STEINER for their assistance in editing the report and CDs distributed to the participants. We are grateful to SDC for financially supporting the scientific committee. 30 Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 Editor Sandec Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries Publisher: Eawag, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland, Phone +41 (0)44 823 52 86, Fax +41 (0)44 823 53 99, [email protected], www.sandec.ch Editors: Doulaye Koné and Sylvie Peter, Eawag Copyright: Published texts and figures may be reproduced freely for non-commercial purposes only (except when reproduction or translation rights are explicitly reserved), provided that mention is made of the authors and this publication. Publication: This publication is available as printed copy, as e-mail attachment or it can be downloaded as pdf file from our homepage www.sandec.ch Cover: Faecal sludge discharging at Dompoasee treatment plant, Kumasi, Ghana. (Photo: Martin Strauss 2005) Layout and figures: Yvonne Lehnhard, Eawag Printer: Eawag, Switzerland Ordering: Contact [email protected] ISBN 978-3-906484-39-6 Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology Languages: English and French Date of issue: September 2007 Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) 2007 31 Faecal Sludge Managementwhy it matters? In the framework of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) endorsed in 2000, the international community formulated the objective to reducing by half the number of people without access to improved sanitation by 2015. Nevertheless, according to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for water supply and sanitation (www.wssinfo.org), more than 2.6 billion people worldwide still have no access to improved sanitation. Among the serviced population in low and middle-income countries, over 1.1 billion urban dwellers currently use on-site sanitation installations. Hence, most cities in low and middle-income countries are “latrine-based cities”. In areas where faecal sludge management is not integrated into urban sanitation planning and management, faecal sludge collected from on-site sanitation installations, such as pit latrines, septic tanks and bucket latrines, is reused untreated on farmland, discharged in lakes, fish ponds and streams or disposed of within the household compound. One truck dumping faecal sludge indiscriminately is equivalent to 5000 open defaecations threatening public health! The sanitation targets of ongoing latrine provision programmes, aiming at reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), still lack service provision arrangement for the collection/emptying, haulage, safe disposal, reuse or treatment of faecal sludge produced by on-site sanitation infrastructures. In most countries, faecal sludge management is currently the stepchild of urban sanitation planning. Local entrepreneurs catering for mechanical and manual pit emptying, collection, haulage, disposal/ treatment, and reuse play a crucial role, seldom officially recognised. This international Symposium, hosting for the first time international, national and municipal decisionmakers and emptying operators from 20 countries, was held in Dakar, Senegal from 9 to 12 May 2006 under the patronage of the Senegal National Sanitation Agency (ONAS), UN-Habitat, the World Bank, the International Water Association (IWA), the Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP-WB), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), and the Department of Water & Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). Its goals comprised the identification of key issues and challenges in FSM, discussion of effective policies and approaches, and development of concrete steps for sustainable FSM improvement.