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SODIS and ANTENNA TECHNOLOGIES 2011 Safe Water School Training Manual
Safe Water School
Training Manual
Safe Water School
The Safe Water School Manual was designed by SODIS and the Antenna Technologies
Foundation.
SODIS is an initiative of Eawag - the Swiss Federal Institute of
Aquatic Science and Technology. SODIS aims to provide people in
developing countries with safe drinking water.
The Antenna Technologies Foundation is committed to reduce the
extreme poverty and health problems in developing countries by
bringing innovation in science and technology to bear at the base of
the pyramid.
Please contact us if you require details or assistance in the use of this manual. For
additional information and downloadable documents, consult our websites www.sodis.ch
and www.antenna.ch.
Contact: SODIS
Antenna Technologies
Ueberlandstrasse 133
11 Rue des Pâquis
8600 Duebendorf
1201 Geneva
Switzerland
Switzerland
Tel. +41 (0)58 765 55 11
Tel. +41 (0)22 731 10 34
Fax +41 (0)58 765 50 28
Fax +41 (0)22 731 97 86
Email: [email protected]
Email: [email protected]
Author: Fabian Suter
Drawings: Joel Graf
Collaboration: Julie Bergamin, Valérie Cavin, Carole de Bazignan, Yvonne Lehnhard,
Samuel Luzi, Regula Meierhofer, Sylvie Peter, Monika Tobler, Karen
Walker
1st Edition: Hard copies: Electronic copies:
2
August 2011
Available from SODIS, email: [email protected]
Can be downloaded from www.sodis.ch/safewaterschool
© SODIS, Antenna: Any part of this handbook may be cited, copied, translated into other
languages or adapted to meet the local needs without prior
permission from SODIS or Antenna provided the source is clearly
mentioned.
This project is co-financed and has technical follow-up of the Water
Initiatives division of the Global Cooperation of the Swiss Agency for
Development and Cooperation SDC.
Safe Water School
Welcome to the Safe Water School
Almost half of the population in developing countries is currently suffering from waterborne diseases. The burden is extremely high: about two million people die annually,
mostly young children.
The Safe Water School aims to improve this situation by collaborating with schools in the
fields of water and hygiene. It combines education, application and infrastructure at school
with an active knowledge transfer to the community.
This manual, developed for primary schools in developing countries, is a working tool for
teachers, school directors and school staff to turn schools step-by-step into Safe Water
Schools. It is designed jointly by SODIS and the Antenna Technologies Foundation and is
based on extensive experience with school programmes in Bolivia and Nepal.
We recommend the following use of the manual:
• Teachers
Teachers should read all the chapters of the manual. Specific information on how to
prepare and conduct the lessons is provided at the beginning of the chapter “School
Lessons”.
• S
chool directors and school staff
For a comprehensive understanding of the Safe Water School, we recommend
school directors and school staff to read entirely the chapters “Safe Water School”,
“Infrastructure”, “Application” and “From School to Community” and also the background information in chapter “School lessons”.
On our website www.sodis.ch/safewaterschool you can find further information, related
scientific publications and an update of the progress of every single Safe Water School.
3
Safe Water School
Table of contents
4
1
Safe Water School
5
1.1
1.2
Who participates?
Objectives of the Safe Water School
6
7
2
School Lessons
8
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
Lesson 1: Water and health
Lesson 2: Water contamination Lesson 3: Water disinfection
Lesson 4: Solar water disinfection
Lesson 5: Chlorination
Lesson 6: Water quality test
Lesson 7: Water recontamination
Lesson 8: Hygiene
Lesson 9: Sanitation
12
24
32
42
50
66
72
76
81
3
Infrastructure
86
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
Water treatment station
Safe water station
Hand washing station Toilets and latrines 88
90
91
94
4
Application
96
5
From School to Community
98
6
Appendix
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
Playful and creative activities Images Mini-WATA user guides
Log-books
Online resources
References
Notes 100
100
102
108
114
116
116
117
Safe Water School
1 Safe Water School
In the Safe Water School children are educated in the fields of water, hygiene and health.
The education is combined with the development of an adequate infrastructure and daily
application of the new knowledge. The Safe Water School includes also activities to raise
the awareness of the community and to present solutions to local water-related problems.
Four closely interrelated pillars build the framework of the Safe Water School:
• Education
Key to the Safe Water School education is to acquire an understanding of the links between safe water, hygiene practices
and health. In nine participative lessons, the children learn
how to improve their personal health situation by water
treatment and hygiene practices.
• Infrastructure
Safe Water Schools provide the required infrastructure to
facilitate permanent access to safe water in compliance
with the hygiene standards of daily school life. The main
infrastructural components are stations for water treatment,
safe water storage, hand washing, and toilets or latrines.
• Application
To ensure that school children translate theory into practice, the
Safe Water School places a strong focus on regular application.
Special activities can be conducted by a Safe Water Club
comprising a teacher and a group of motivated children.
• From school to community
Schools are ideal environments to promote behaviour change
among communities. By acting as agents of change in the
community, the children also play an active role outside
the school. To close the gap between school and families,
we recommend the setting up of a Safe Water Family Club
composed of teachers and family members.
5
Safe Water School
1.1 Who participates?
Everybody at school forms part of the Safe Water School. Depending on their function, the
people involved take on different roles.
• Teachers
The teachers educate the children in matters related to water, hygiene and health.
Moreover, they can become leaders of a Safe Water Team responsible for organising
water treatment and hygiene practices in schools.
• School director
The school director facilitates implementation of the general setup and acts as a link
between the school and the community. He/she is responsible for monitoring the
activities of the Safe Water School.
• School staff
School staff members help to integrate the concept of the Safe Water School into
everyday school life. They support the teachers and act as role models for the children.
• School children
In specially designed lessons, children develop knowledge, attitudes and skills in
safe water treatment, hygiene practices and health issues. They learn how to use the
respective infrastructure and apply water treatment and hygiene practices regularly.
As Safe Water Promoters they play an important role at household and community
level. Furthermore, motivated children can become members of a Safe Water Team that
organises water treatment and hygiene practices in school.
• Families
The families of the school children also form part of the Safe Water School. Their
involvement is essential in disseminating water treatment and hygiene practices at
household and community level. Ideally, they participate actively in a parent-teacher
association like the Safe Water Family Club, which encourages the children to develop
positive hygiene behaviour and to drink safe water.
6
Safe Water School
1.2 Objectives of the Safe Water School
The Safe Water School aims to improve the current and future health situation at school
and community level.
• Improved health and learning at school
The healthy school environment of the Safe Water School improves the personal health
of children and school staff. Good environmental conditions also contribute to improve
teaching and learning by reducing school absences due to illness.
• Role model for the community
Schools are key environments for promoting behaviour change and improved health.
The school children of the Safe Water School are able to integrate drinking water
treatment and hygiene practices into their daily lives. Together with their involved
parents, they are ambassadors of the Safe Water School. To create an impact on the
wider community, the Safe Water School can undertake specific activities with the
corporate sector, political leaders, cultural groups, NGOs or the media.
• Long-term sustainability
The Safe Water School is also developed for future generations. School children can
apply life-long water treatment and hygiene practices and pass these on to the next
generation.
7
School lessons
2 School Lessons
Safe Water School training of children is based on nine lessons with a participatory, playful
and practice-oriented access to water, hygiene and health. The lessons are designed for
children between 5 and 12 years. They empower school children to improve water quality
and hygiene practices and to transfer the Safe Water School approach to their families and
the community.
The lessons complement each another thematically. It is therefore important to maintain the present structure during teaching. Ideally, the lessons are held regularly
with at least one lesson per week. Repeating a lesson or single activity at a later date
contributes to improving the skills of the children. It is particularly important to repeat at regular
intervals the good behaviour practices, such as hand washing, water disinfection or safe
water storage.
The first lesson introduces the Safe Water School by emphasising the relation between
water and health. Six lessons are dedicated to the water quality and include the topics
of water contamination, water disinfection and prevention of recontamination. Special
lessons on solar water disinfection and chlorination broaden the knowledge on water
disinfection. Lessons on hygiene and sanitation complete the training.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8
Lesson 1: Water and health
Lesson 2: Water contamination
Lesson 3: Water disinfection
Lesson 4: Solar water disinfection
Lesson 5: Chlorination
Lesson 6: Water quality test
Lesson 7: Water recontamination
Lesson 8: Hygiene
Lesson 9: Sanitation
School lessons
Methodology
The lessons pursue a life skills approach, which aims to develop children’s knowledge,
attitudes and skills. Furthermore, they are inspired by the participatory teaching and learning
methods PHAST and CHAST.
Life skills approach
Development of knowledge includes facts, for example on local diseases and understanding
of the relation of facts, such as how drinking safe water reduces the risk of diseases.
Attitudes include personal biases and preferences, such as good or bad, important or
unimportant. Attitudes predispose people to act in a predictable way. For example, the
attitude of viewing open faeces as a problem predisposes people to dispose the faeces
safely.
Skills are learned capacities to achieve predetermined results. The focus of the lessons
lies on hands-on skills, for example proper hand washing and life skills, such as assertion.1
PHAST (Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation)
PHAST is an innovative approach for adults designed to promote hygiene behaviours,
sanitation improvement and community management of water and sanitation facilities. The
underlying principle of PHAST is that no lasting behaviour change will occur without health
awareness and understanding.
PHAST focuses on specifically developed participatory techniques, which allow
community groups to discover the existing problems for themselves. They then analyse
their own behaviours in the light of this information and subsequently tackle the problems
with their own plans and solutions.2
CHAST (Children’s Hygiene and Sanitation Training)
The CHAST approach adapts PHAST for use with children. Children have less knowledge
and experience, fewer responsibilities and a different concept of time and the future. At the
same time, they are also naturally inquisitive and eager to learn.
The CHAST approach takes advantage of these natural attributes. It involves the use of
images, games, role-plays, songs, and puppet shows to pass on hygiene messages in a
fascinating and memorable way. It is therefore ideal for hygiene and sanitation training of
children.3
IRC: Life Skills-Based Hygiene Education. 2004.
PHAST: Step-by-step Guide. 1998.
3
CHAST: A Practical Facilitation Handbook. 2009.
1
2
9
School lessons
How to prepare a Safe Water School lesson
Every lesson contains one page with special information for the teachers and a separate
section with background information.
• Read the teacher information, the lesson and the background information
The teacher information provides the key information for the preparation of a school
lesson. It includes an overview on the objectives, the time and the materials of the
lesson.
Reading the lesson clarifies how the learning objectives will be reached and how the
materials will be used. Besides, it allows discovering the potential of integrating personal
knowledge, parts of the background information and further activities like songs or
plays. Key images of the exercises are integrated in the lesson. The appendix contains
a list of all images.
The background information section provides deeper insight into a topic and facilitates
teaching. It is mainly based on the Sandec Training Tool for capacity development in the
sector of water and environmental health.4
• Prepare the lesson and teaching materials
Integrate personal knowledge on the local situation, background information and
further activities like songs into the lesson. Required materials, which cannot be
organised locally, are included in a toolkit. Complete these materials with local materials
necessary to conduct the lesson.
4
10
Sandec: Training tool for capacity development in the sector of water and environmental health. 2008.
School lessons
How to conduct a Safe Water School lesson
To ensure a varied and interesting training, the lessons contain a mix of teaching forms
like group work or practices. However, the basic structure is similar in all the lessons to
facilitate understanding of the lessons and maximise the learning effect. Ideally, playful
and creative activities like songs, games or puppet shows are integrated into the lessons.
• Introduction with key messages
Introductory key messages orientate the children about the topics of the lesson.
• Basic information, problem identification and analysis
The combination of basic information, problem identification and analysis develops
knowledge and attitudes of the children.
• Solution development and practice
The solution to a problem should be developed jointly whenever possible. It is essential
for the children to know of existing solutions for the identified problems and of their
ability to solve them. Immediate application of the solutions is the first step of integration
into day-to-day school life.
• Repetition
Repetition helps to anchor the new knowledge, attitudes and skills. It is aligned with the
objectives and key messages of the lesson.
• Home-bringing message and homework
This section places the topics of every lesson on the household agenda of the families.
The involvement of parents, grandparents and also brothers and sisters is crucial for
developing the skills of the children and for the interrelationship between school and
community.
Playful and creative activities like songs
or plays maximise the learning effect
11
School lessons
2.1 Lesson 1: Water and health
Teacher’s information - Lesson 1: Water and health
The first lesson is dedicated to the topics of water and health. It starts with a walk through the
school and the community to raise awareness on the current local situation. Back in school,
three activities give a deeper insight into water, water origin and water use. An exercise on
the causes of disease in households is followed by a more general overview of disease
transmission. At the end of the lesson, an exercise on disease prevention outlines the future
lessons and shall motivate the children to endorse the principles of the Safe Water School.
Preparation
–– Identify the key areas associated with water and hygiene in school and in the community
Objectives - Knowledge –– Know the water and hygiene-related problems in school and in the community
–– Know the most prevalent local diseases
–– Know five good behaviours to prevent diseases
Objectives - Attitudes –– Consider water as a precious resource
–– View open faeces as a problem
–– Be interested in learning how to prevent diseases
Objectives - Skills
–– Be able to distinguish a “clean” from a “dirty” household
–– Be able to identify the problems related to water and hygiene in the community
Time
–– 120 minutes
Materials - School
–– 5 grams of salt
–– 0.5 litre of raw water
–– Drawing material
Materials - Toolkit
–– 2 PET bottles
–– 1 syringe
–– Images: Lesson 1
12
School lessons
Key messages of the lesson
• Water is the base of all life.
• Unsafe water and bad hygiene make you sick.
• Learn to prevent diseases and become a Safe Water Promoter.
Water & hygiene walk
Materials: Drawing material
1. Walk around in the school and show the children what the school has already undertaken
to create a hygienic environment, for example hand washing station, latrines. Show
them how to use these improvements. Also point out the current problems in school,
like open defecation or an unsafe water supply.
2. E
xtend the water walk to the community. Show and tell the children about local
water-related features (e.g. nearby river, frequent rainfall or cultural events with
reference to the water). Point out the main local water and hygiene problems, for
example contaminated water sources, open defecation or garbage dumbs. Show them
exemplary “clean” and “dirty” households.
3. Make the children draw a situation related to water or hygiene they experienced during
their walk.
4. Discuss the drawings with the children and
hang them on the wall.
Possible situation during
the water & hygiene walk
13
School lessons
Water is the base of all life
Materials: 2 PET bottles, 0.5 litre raw water, 5 grams of salt, 1 syringe
1. Illustrate how precious water is by showing the relationship between all the water on
earth and the water available for human use. The example is calculated for a 0.5-litre
bottle. Adjust the figures when using other bottle sizes.
2. Fill the first bottle with water. It symbolises all the earth’s water.
3. Pour about 3 % of the water (approximately one soup spoon), symbolising the earth’s
freshwater, into the second bottle.
4. Add salt to the first bottle to illustrate the undrinkable seawater.
5. E
xtract one drop with the syringe from the second bottle. The remaining water symbolises
the frozen freshwater, most of it found at the earth’s poles.
6. L
et the single drop fall to the floor. The drop symbolises the water available worldwide
for human use, of which about 95 % is used in agricultural and industrial activities.
7. Initiate and guide a discussion based on the following inputs:
–– Water is a scarce and precious resource.
–– Water plays a central role in all large cultures and religions.
–– People can survive only a few days without water.
–– Preserving and protecting water is everybody’s duty.
One water drop symbolises the water
available worldwide for human use
14
School lessons
The origin of water
Image: Water cycle
1. Divide the class into four groups and distribute the same image of the water cycle to
all the groups. Let the children discuss the water cycle in the group and create a story
about a water drop.
Alternative for young children: Explain the water cycle by telling the story of a raindrop:
“Once upon a time there was a raindrop floating on the sea. The sun warmed the water
and the drop evaporated. It rose as water vapour. With many other drops, it formed a
cloud ...”
2. Ask one child of each group to present his/her story in front of the class.
Water cycle
15
School lessons
Personal water use
Images: Personal water use
1. Distribute the images “Personal water use” to the children and let them look at the images.
Drinking water
Playing with water
Cleaning face
Washing clothes
2. Ask them to describe the water use on their images before hanging them on the wall.
3. Inform the children about the links between water and hygiene.
–– Water is used for many hygiene behaviours, such as hand washing or brushing teeth.
–– Water is the base of all life, but it can also cause illness and death.
16
School lessons
Disease causes in a household
Images: Dirty household, Clean household
1. Inform the children about the most prevalent local diseases. Include information about
diarrhoea.
–– Diarrhoea causes people to lose liquid from their bodies and can result in death.
–– Many diseases can be prevented efficiently by drinking safe water, washing hands properly
and disposing faeces safely.
2. Divide the class into two groups. Hand out the images “Dirty household” to one group
and the image “Clean household” to the other group. Let them discuss the images
and prepare a presentation in front of the class about the good and bad behaviour as
illustrated by the images.
Dirty household
Clean household
3. T
ell the group with the image “Dirty household” to present its image. Help the children
name all the bad behaviours shown on the image.
–– Flies in the house, chicken on water storage container, open defecation from child and
animals, open waste disposal, faecal contamination of the water source, untied animals
near the house, unhygienic food storage.
4. Tell the group with the image “Clean household” to present its image. Help the children
name all the good behaviours shown on the image
–– Protected water source, latrine, tied animals, distance between house and animals, water
storage container with lid, clean house, container for waste disposal.
5. Explain the key message of the two images.
–– The family in the “Dirty household” has a greater risk of becoming ill due to bad handling of
water and poor hygiene practice.
–– The family in the “Clean household” has a reduced risk of becoming ill as it applies easy and
efficient improvements and practices.
17
School lessons
Disease transmission routes
Images: Disease transmission routes
1. Inform the children about the dangerous organisms in faeces and their dissemination
via the faecal-oral route.
–– The diseases are mostly spread by organisms found in human excreta.
–– One gram of human faeces can contain 10 000 000 viruses, 1 000 000 bacteria, 1 000
parasite cysts, and 100 parasite eggs.
–– The diseases are normally transmitted by faecal-oral routes via fingers, flies (insects), fields
and fluids, food or directly to the mouth.
2. Divide the class into four groups and distribute the images “Disease transmission
routes” to all the groups.
Disease transmission routes (F-Diagram)
3. Let the children arrange the images of the disease transmission routes. Give them an
example of one disease transmission route, such as faeces - fingers - mouth.
–– What are the different routes on which pathogens are transmitted from the faeces to the
mouth?
4. Let the groups show and explain their diagrams to the other groups. Ask them for local
examples of disease transmission.
18
School lessons
Disease transmission barriers
Materials: Drawing materials
Images: Disease transmission routes, Disease transmission barriers
1. Ask each group to identify local practices that can break the transmission routes.
2. Distribute the images “Disease transmission barriers” to each group. Let the children
place the received images on the diagram.
Latrine
Safe water storage
Boiling
Washing hands
3. The distributed images do not cover all situations. The groups can draw additional
transmission barriers, such as covering food or cooking food.
4. Let the groups show and explain their completed diagrams to the other groups.
5. Ensure understanding of the disease transmission routes and repeat that there are
easy and efficient ways to create disease transmission barriers.
–– Water quality improvements (e.g. water disinfection)
–– Hygiene improvements (e.g. hand washing, food storage)
–– Sanitation improvements (e.g. proper use of toilet)
19
School lessons
Realise your dreams
Images: Realise your dreams
1. Explain to the children that they will learn about the improvements that lead to a healthier
life, to realise their dreams and to help their families and friends.
2. Show them therefore the image “Realise your dreams”. Ask the children about their own
dreams and inform them about the role of a Safe Water Promoter.
Realise your dreams
3. Sing a song related to the topic of the lesson. For example about water, preventing
diseases or realising dreams. Choose therefore an existing song or create a new song
with the children.
What did we learn today?
• What are the water and hygiene-related problems in the community?
• What are the causes for the most prevalent local diseases?
• What distinguishes a “clean” from a “dirty” household?
• Can organisms come from faeces into your mouth? How?
Home-bringing message
• Faeces can contain millions of dangerous small organisms.
• Open faeces are a threat to health.
• I will be a Safe Water Promoter to help prevent diseases.
20
School lessons - Background information
2.1.1 Background information - Water and health
Water is the base of all life
Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its state can be liquid
(water), solid (ice) or gaseous (steam). Water is vital for human health and a central
element in cultures and religions all over the world. Without water people can survive only
3 - 4 days.
At any one time, about half of the population in developing countries suffers from one or
more of the six main diseases associated with inadequate water supply and sanitation:
diarrhoea, ascariasis, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.
Water-related diseases are especially dangerous for children. They kill and make sick
thousands of children every day worldwide.
• 4
billion cases of diarrhoea occur annually, of which 88 % is attributable to unsafe water
as well as inadequate sanitation and hygiene.
• 1
.8 million people die every year from diarrhoeal diseases, the vast majority are
children under five.
• 4
43 million school days are lost annually because of water- and sanitation-related
diseases.
• Almost one-tenth of the global disease burden could be prevented by improving water
supply, hygiene and sanitation.5
5
WHO: Combating diseases at the household level. 2007.
21
School lessons - Background information
The faecel-oral mechanism
The faecal-oral mechanism, in which traces of faeces of an infected individual are
transmitted to the mouth of a new host, is by far the most significant transmission
mechanism. This mechanism works through a variety of routes - via fingers, flies (insects),
fields, fluids, food, or directly to the mouth. Because of the use of so many “F-words” in
English, it is often called the F-Diagram.
By interrupting these transmission routes, diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases can
be prevented efficiently. The disease transmission routes get interrupted with improved
water quality, hygiene and sanitation.
Disease transmission routes are interrupted by
improving water quality, hygiene and sanitation
22
School lessons - Background information
Diarrhoea
Diarrhoea is the most important public health problem directly related
to water and sanitation. It causes people to lose liquid from their
bodies and can result in death. Repeated episodes of diarrhoeal
diseases make children more vulnerable to other diseases and
malnutrition. It is transmitted via the faecel-oral mechanism.6
Diarrhoea can be prevented efficiently by drinking safe
water, washing hands properly and disposing faeces safely. If the
measures are practised individually, the risk of contracting diarrhoea will
be reduced as follows:
• Drink safe water: 39 %
• Wash hands properly with soap: 44 %
• Dispose faeces safely: 32 %7
Faeces
Practised together, these behavioural measures will reduce the risk of contracting
diarrhoea even further.
The stool of people with diarrhoea contains more water than normal and may also contain
blood. Three or more watery stools in 24 hours are evidence of diarrhoea. People with
diarrhoea should consume a lot of liquid (e.g. safe water, tea, breast milk) and food (e.g.
soup, cooked cereals). Medical assistance is necessary if the diarrhoea is serious.
The Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) is a simple, cheap and effective treatment against
dehydration caused by diarrhoea. ORT should begin at home with the use of available
“home fluids” or a home-made “sugar and salt” solution given early during the diarrhoea
episode to prevent dehydration. Once a child becomes dehydrated, however, ORT should
be provided in the form of a balanced and complete standard mixture of glucose and salts.
A basic oral rehydration therapy solution is composed of:
• 30 ml of sugar
• 2.5 ml of salt; dissolved into
• 1 litre of disinfected water8
Fewtrell et al.: Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhea in less developed
countries. 2005.
8
WHO: Oral rehydration salts. 2006.
7
23
School lessons
2.2 Lesson 2: Water contamination
Teacher’s information - Lesson 2: Water contamination
The lesson starts by explaining the term safe water and goes on with an activity
related to the local water sources. Key part of the lesson is a broad exercise about water
contamination at the source, during transport and through inaccurate storage. A practical
activity with water and faeces illustrates the invisible nature of dangerous microorganisms.
Objectives - Knowledge
–– Know the difference between safe and unsafe water
–– Know the potential water contamination stages
Objectives - Attitude
–– Willing to learn how to prevent water contamination
–– Reject the use of unsafe water
Objectives - Skills
–– Capable of evaluating the quality of different water sources
Time
–– 50 minutes
Materials - School
–– 1 transparent glass
–– 0.2 litre of safe water
–– 1 twig
–– Drawing material
Materials - Toolkit
–– Images: Lesson 2
24
School lessons
Key messages of the lesson
• W
ater contamination can occur at the source, during transport or through
inaccurate storage.
• Improvement of the water quality is one barrier for disease transmission.
• Turbid water is normally unsafe, but also clear water can be contaminated.
Safe water
Materials: Drawing material
Image: A look into water
1. Explain the differences between safe and unsafe water.
–– Water contains very small organisms like bacteria and viruses that are invisible to the
human eye. Some of the small organisms pose a severe threat to human health as they
cause different diseases with the following symptoms: vomiting, stomach pain or diarrhoea.
–– Turbid water is normally unsafe, but also clear water can be contaminated.
–– Safe water is free from disease-causing organisms and harmful chemical substances.
2. Let the children draw their vision of the small organisms contaminating the water.
Show them the image “A look into water” as an example.
A look into water
25
School lessons
Water quality at the source
Images: Water sources
1. Ask the children what kind of water source they use.
–– From which water source does the water you use at home and in school come from?
–– Do you know other water sources?
2. Hang up the images “Water sources”. Discuss the quality of the different water sources
and explain how to protect them.
26
––
Rainwater harvested from sheet or tile roofs is relatively pure.
––
The risk of surface water contamination is very high.
––
Groundwater is usually much purer than surface water but may also be contaminated.
River
Pond
Protected well
Rain
School lessons
Water contamination
Images: Water contamination
1. Divide the children into three groups and distribute to each group a series of the
images “Water contamination”. Let the groups discuss the images and arrange them in
the correct order.
Unsafe water storage
Drinking contaminated water
Diarrhoea
Illness
2. A
sk one child of each group to hang up the series of images and to present the story of
water contamination.
3. Inform the children that water can get contaminated at the source, during transport or
through inaccurate handling and storage. Start a discussion about the different stories.
–– Are the stories similar?
–– At which stage did the people commit mistakes?
–– What could they improve?
4. Repeat the message about disease transmission of the first lesson.
–– Water contamination with faeces is especially dangerous.
–– Drinking safe water reduces the risk of becoming ill.
27
School lessons
Do not drink contaminated water
Materials: 1 transparent glass, 0.2 litre of safe water, 1 twig
1. Fill the glass with safe water and ask if anyone is willing to drink it. Let him/her take
some sips.
2. W
alk through the school or the community and find some open faeces. Take a piece of
grass or twig, touch the faeces and dip it into the water.
3. A
sk if anyone is willing to drink the water now. Normally nobody wants to drink it. Ask
why they refuse to drink it. Emphasise the fact that water can also be contaminated if it
is clear. If some children want to drink the water, do not let them. Repeat the message
about the dangerous faeces.
Water and faeces
What did we learn today?
•
•
•
•
•
Why is some water not safe for drinking?
What are the potential water contamination stages?
Do you think the water you drink at home is safe?
What are the local water sources and what is their quality?
Would you drink water contaminated with faeces?
Home-bringing message
• Contaminated water is a threat to our health.
• Water can be contaminated at the source, during transport or through inaccurate storage.
Homework
• Ask your parents: Do we have access to safe water at home? Do we apply a water treatment
method? Which one?
• Bring to the next lesson the water treatment tools used at home, such as bottles, chlorine
solution, filters.
28
School lessons - Background information
2.2.1 Background information - Water contamination
Safe Water
Safe water is free from disease-causing organisms and does not contain harmful chemicals. Drinking water acceptable in appearance, taste and odour is important, however, it
is not a criteria for safe water.9
Microbial water quality can vary rapidly and over a wide range. The greatest microbial
risks are associated with human or animal faeces. Faeces can be a source of pathogenic
bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths.
• B
acteria: Though the vast majority of bacteria is harmless or even beneficial to humans, a few can cause diseases, like diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid.
• V
iruses: They can only grow and reproduce within a living host cell. They can cause
for example diarrhoea or hepatitis A and E.
• Protozoa: Protozoa are larger than bacteria or viruses. They need a living host to
survive. Amoebic dysentery is the most common illness caused by protozoa.
• Helminths: Helminths are parasitic worms. They live in hosts before being passed on
to people through the skin. Many types of worms can live for several years in human
bodies. Roundworms, hookworms or guinea worms are helminths that cause illnesses.
Drinking water may contain numerous, mostly harmless chemicals. However, high
concentrations of a few naturally occurring (e.g. fluoride, arsenic, uranium, and selenium)
and man-made (e.g. fertilisers, pesticides) chemicals are of immediate health concern.
• N
aturally occurring chemicals: Arsenic is an important drinking water contaminant,
as it is one of the few substances known to cause cancer in humans through consumption of drinking water. Ingestion of excess fluoride can cause fluorosis that affects the
teeth and bones.
• Man-made chemicals: Causes of man-made chemical contamination are agricultural
and industrial activities, as well as waste disposal, urban runoff and fuel leakage from
human settlements.
9
WHO: Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 2011.
29
School lessons - Background information
Water contamination at the source
Water can already be contaminated at the source. Especially in surface waters the risk of
water contamination is very high. Groundwater is usually much purer than surface water
but may be contaminated by natural chemicals or by anthropogenic activities. Rainwater
harvested from sheet or tile roofs is relatively pure, particularly if the first water after a dry
period is discarded or allowed to run off to waste.
Improved drinking water sources are defined in terms of the type of technology and
level of service most likely to provide safe water than unimproved technologies. Improved
water sources include household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected
dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collection. Unimproved water sources are
unprotected wells or springs.
Actions to protect water sources:
• regularly cleaning of the area around the water source
• moving latrines away from and downstream of water sources (30 m)
• building fences to prevent animals from getting into open water sources
• lining wells to prevent surface water from contaminating the groundwater
• building proper drainage for wastewater around taps and wells10
Woman taking unsafe water from a river
10
30
CAWST: An introduction to household water treatment and safe storage. 2009.
School lessons - Background information
Water contamination during transport
Contamination occurs for example due to substandard water distribution systems, intermittent water pressure, illegal connections to the distribution system or during transport in
buckets or other containers.
Unsafe water transport in an open vessel
Water contamination through inaccurate storage
The risk of recontamination through handling at household level should be minimised by
using containers with narrow openings and dispensing devices, such as taps or spigots.
Improved containers protect stored household water from microbial contaminants via
contact with hands, dippers and other objects contaminated by faeces.
More detailed information on the appropriate vessels and correct handling of the stored
water is listed in the chapter “Safe water station” (see page 90).
Unsafe water storage containers
31
School lessons
2.3 Lesson 3: Water disinfection
Teacher’s information - Lesson 3: Water disinfection
In this lesson, the children learn about several different water treatment methods. A discussion
about the water situation at home and in school builds the link to the local context. During the
practical part, the school children will come into contact with different water disinfection tools.
Homework for this lesson
–– Bring water treatment tools used at home, such as bottles, chlorine solution, filters.
–– Ask your parents: Do we have access to safe water at home? Do we apply a water
treatment method? Which one?
Objectives - Knowledge
–– Know four water disinfection methods
Objectives - Attitude
–– Consider household water treatment as important for health
Objectives - Skills
–– Capable of pretreating turbid water
Time
–– 50 minutes
Materials - School
–– Locally available water disinfection products
–– 1 litre of turbid raw water
–– 1 cloth and vessel or other materials for water pretreatment
Materials - Toolkit
–– Images: Lesson 3
32
School lessons
Key messages of the lesson
• S
olar water disinfection, chlorination, boiling, and filtration are water disinfection
methods used at home or in school.
• All the methods have advantages and drawbacks.
Water disinfection at home
Materials: Water disinfection products
1. Invite the children to show the water disinfection products they brought from home and
start a group discussion about water disinfection.
–– Do you disinfect the drinking water at home? How? How often?
–– Do your friends or neighbours disinfect the water? How? How often?
–– Are you connected to a centralised water supply?
2. Inform the children about the water disinfection aims of the Safe Water School in school,
at home and in the community.
3. Inform them about the concept of water disinfection.
–– Water disinfection destroys the pathogenic microorganisms in the water.
–– Water disinfection makes the water safe and prevents diseases like diarrhoea.
Vessel for boiling
Chlorine in flask
PET bottle
33
School lessons
Overview of water disinfection methods
Images: Water disinfection
1. Explain the SODIS method and show related tools.
–– The SODIS method is very easy to apply. All it requires is sunlight and PET bottles.
–– A transparent PET bottle is cleaned with soap. The bottle is filled with water and placed
in full sunlight for at least six hours. The UV-A rays in sunlight kill germs such as viruses,
bacteria and parasites. The water is then disinfected and can be consumed.
2. Explain chlorination and its key steps and show related tools.
–– Chlorine is a disinfectant that kills germs such as viruses, bacteria and parasites in water.
–– Chlorine exists in tablet and liquid form or as granular powder.
–– Care should always be taken when working with chemicals.
3. Explain boiling and show related tools
–– Boiling purifies the water by heat treatment.
–– Rule of thumb: water should be brouhgt to rolling boil for one minute.
4. Explain filtration with focus on the locally available filters and show related tools.
–– Water impurities are removed with a filter by means of a fine physical barrier, a chemical or
a biological process.
5. D
ivide the children into three groups and distribute to each group a series of images
“Water disinfection”. Let the groups discuss and arrange the images in the correct order. Support the school children with finding the correct order. One child of each group
hangs the series on the wall and tells the story of water disinfection.
SODIS method
Chlorination
6. S
how all the water disinfection tools and explain the key advantages and drawbacks of
the locally available water disinfection methods.
34
School lessons
Good behaviour practice - pretreatment of turbid water
Materials: 1 cloth and vessel or other materials for water pretreatment
1. Demonstrate one or more locally practised water pretreatment method to reduce water
turbidity.
–– Filtration, sedimentation or flocculation are pretreatment methods.
–– If the water is turbid, pretreatment is necessary for efficient functioning of chlorination,
filtration or the SODIS method.
Woman filtering water
What did we learn today?
• Which water disinfection methods do you know?
• Is water turbidity important for water treatment?
Home-bringing message
• Solar water disinfection, chlorination, boiling, and filtration are different methods for water
treatment at household level.
• Turbid water needs pretreatment for efficient functioning of chlorination, filtration or the SODIS
method.
Homework
• Every child should bring bottles to the next lesson to treat water with the SODIS method.
35
School lessons - Background information
2.3.1 Background information - Water disinfection
Household Water Treatment and Safe storage (HWTS)
This chapter presents the common Household Water Treatment and Safe storage (HWTS)
technologies: solar water disinfection, chlorination, boiling and filtration. According to a
systematic review from the World Health Organisation (WHO), household water treatment
and safe storage is associated with a 39 % reduction in diarrhoeal disease morbidity.11
• Solar water disinfection
Solar water disinfection is an effective method using solar radiation
to disinfect water in PET bottles. It will be described in more detail in the chapter “Solar water disinfection” (see page 42).
• Chlorination
Chemical disinfection with chlorine destroys and inactivates
pathogens efficiently. It will be described in more detail in the chapter
“Chlorination” (see page 50).
• Boiling
Boiling water is a simple, very effective but often expensive
method to sterilise water.
• Filtration
Different filtration systems, such as slow sand, ceramic or membrane
filters are used for water treatment. Their removal efficiencies of
different chemical or microbial contamination depend on the filter
material.
HWTS underlines the importance given to safe storage in water treatment. More detailed
information on the appropriate vessels and correct handling of the stored water is listed in
the chapter “Water recontamination” (see page 72).
Bad and good storage containers
Fewtrell et al.: Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhea in less developed
countries. 2005.
11
36
School lessons - Background information
Choice of HWTS technology
The choice of the most appropriate HWTS technology depends on local criteria, such as
water quality at the source or cultural preferences. A combination of the different systems
may be necessary to entirely remove microbial and chemical contamination. Criteria to
consider when choosing a HWTS technology are:
•
•
•
•
ffectiveness, e.g. provision of good water quality and quantity
E
Appropriateness, e.g. locally available, operation and maintenance, lifespan
Acceptability, e.g. aesthetical aspect, social status
Cost, e.g. initial purchase, operation and maintenance, education12
Water turbidity
If the water is highly turbid, pretreatment is a prerequisite to render solar water
disinfection, chlorination and filtration effective.
• Cloth filtration
A common and easy method to reduce water turbidity is to filter it through a locally
available cloth (e.g. cotton). Filtration capacity of cloth varies greatly. The cloth filters
the water adequately if the dirt does not pass through the cloth. However, the cloth
should not be too thick otherwise water filtering will take a very long time.
• Sand filtration
Pouring water from a transport container into a container filled with sand and gravel is
a simple and rapid pretreatment method. Drawback of this method are the materials
required (containers and spigot).
• Coagulation and Flocculation
These processes agglomerate suspended solids together into larger bodies so that
physical filtration processes may remove them more easily. Aluminum sulfates (alum)
are an example of efficient flocculants.
• Storage and settlement
Storing the water for particulates to settle to the bottom of a container is the cheapest
and simplest but not very effective water pretreatment option.
12
CAWST: An introduction to household water treatment and safe storage. 2009.
37
School lessons - Background information
Boiling
Water boiling or heat treatment is the most traditional
water treatment method. It is effective against the
full range of microbial pathogens and can be
employed irrespective of water turbidity or
dissolved constituents in the water.
However, the cost and time used in procuring
fuel, the potential indoor air pollution with
Boiling water
smoke
and associated respiratory infections,
the increased risk of burning, and questions related to the environmental sustainability
of boiling have led to the development and dissemination of other alternatives.
At sea level, boiling point is reached at 100 °C. While WHO and others recommend bringing
water to a rolling boil for one minute, it is mainly intended as a visual indication that a
high temperature has been achieved; even heating to 60 ºC for a few minutes will kill or
deactivate most pathogens. Ideally, the water is cooled, stored in the same vessel and
covered with a lid to minimise the risk of recontamination.
Advantages
• Common technology
• Complete disinfection if applied with sufficient temperature and time
• Can be combined with cooking and tea boiling
Drawbacks
• Boiled water tastes flat
• Expensive (fuel, fire wood, gas etc.)
• Time consuming (physical presence needed during heating process, long cooling time)
• Chemical contaminants are not removed
38
School lessons - Background information
Filtration
A number of processes occur during filtration, including mechanical straining, absorption
of suspended matter and chemicals as well as biochemical processes. Depending on the
size, type and depth of the filter media, as well as on the flow rate and physical properties of the raw water, filters can remove suspended solids, pathogens, certain chemicals,
tastes, and odours.
Ceramic filter
Water is filtered through a candle or pot made of porous
material, usually unglazed ceramic. The ceramic filters’
effectiveness depends on the size of the pores in the clay.
To use the ceramic filters, people fill the top receptacle or
the ceramic filter with water that flows through the ceramic
filter into a water storage receptacle.
The treated and stored water is accessed via a spigot on the
water storage receptacle.
Elements of a ceramic filter
Advantages
• Proven reduction of bacteria and protozoa
• Proven reduction of diarrhoeal disease incidence in users
• Neither chemicals nor fossil fuels required
• Simple installation and operation
• Turbidity removed
• No change in water taste or odour
Drawbacks
• Candles and pots are fragile
• Low effectiveness against viruses
• Small fissures and cracks may lead to reduced removal of pathogens
• No residual disinfection effect (risk of recontamination)
• Regular cleaning of the filter and receptacle is necessary
• Not applicable with extremely turbid water
39
School lessons - Background information
BioSand filter
The BioSand filter is a technological adaptation of the century old
slow sand filtration process and suited for home use. In slow sand
filtration, the water flows slowly (flow velocity of 100 - 200 l/m2/h)
downwards through a bed of fine sand.
The most widely used version is a concrete container approximately 90 cm high and 30 cm wide filled with sand.
The water level is maintained at 5 - 6 cm above the sand layer
by adjusting the height of the outlet pipe. This maintains the water
level always above the sand and leads to the formation of a biologically active layer called “Schmutzdecke”.
BioSand filter
A perforated plate on top of the sand prevents disruption of the bioactive layer when water
is added to the system.
After pouring water into the BioSand filter, it is purified by the following four processes:
• mechanical trapping (sediments, cysts and worms get trapped between the sand grains)
• adsorption or attachment (viruses are adsorbed or become attached to the sand grains)
• predation (microorganisms consume pathogens found in the water)
• natural death (pathogens die because of food scarcity, short life span)13
Advantages
• Proven removal of protozoa and about 90 % bacteria
• One-time installation with few maintenance requirements
• Long life, durable and robust
• Easy to use
• Removes turbidity, some iron, manganese and arsenic
• Water quality improves with time
• Opportunity for local business
Drawbacks
• Low rate of virus inactivation
• Lack of residual protection and removal of less than 100 % bacteria
• Difficult to transport and high initial costs
• Continuous use of the filter required
• Difficult to use in highly turbid water
13
40
Lantagne et al.: Household water treatment and safe storage options in developing countries. 2005.
School lessons - Background information
Membrane filter
Gravity Driven Membrane (GDM) filtration removes all types of pathogens by ultrafiltration.
Most ultrafiltration membranes have pores, which are smaller than the size of bacteria and
viruses. Water filtered through these membranes is microbiologically safe. GDM filtration
works with flux stabilisation. Pressure necessary to press water through the membranes
is generated by gravity created by differences in water levels between two storage tanks.
As a feed, natural water (river, spring, well or rainwater) can be used without pre- or posttreatment.
Neither pumps nor chemical cleaning or backflushing are necessary. Thus, no maintenance is required for long-term operation. A 40 – 60 cm water column is sufficient to
operate the system using 0.5 m2 of membrane to produce at least 50 litres of safe drinking
water per day.
Advantages
• Easy to operate
• No electricity required
• No need to backwash or clean the filter
• No recurring costs (e.g. chemicals)
• Effective against bacteria and viruses
• Applicable on highly turbid water
Drawbacks
• Equipment not always available
• R
elatively expensive
• Still under development
41
School lessons
2.4 Lesson 4: Solar water disinfection
Teacher’s information - Lesson 4: Solar water disinfection
This lesson contains two parts. On the first day, the children become familiar with
the SODIS method and learn to apply it. On the second day, they can drink their own
SODIS water.
Homework for this lesson
–– Every child should bring bottles to treat water with the SODIS method.
Objectives - Knowledge
–– Know the four steps of the SODIS method
Objectives - Attitude
–– Consider SODIS as a useful method for water treatment
Objectives - Skills
–– Capable of selecting a suitable bottle to apply the SODIS method
–– Capable of recognising when water is too turbid for the SODIS method
–– Capable of pretreating turbid water
–– Capable of applying the SODIS method independently
Time
–– 60 minutes (Day 1)
–– 10 minutes (Day 2)
Materials - School
–– 0.5 litres of safe water
–– 6 litres of water from a commonly used drinking water source
–– 1 cup
–– 1 soap
Materials - Toolkit
–– 12 empty PET bottles
–– Images: Lesson 4
Infrastructure
–– SODIS station
42
School lessons
Key messages of the lesson
• The SODIS method is an efficient and easy method to disinfect water.
• T
he SODIS method only requires sunlight and PET bottles.
SODIS bottles
Materials: Bottles brought from home
Images: SODIS method
1. Show the images “SODIS method” and introduce SODIS to the children.
–– The SODIS method is very easy to apply as it requires only sunlight and PET bottles.
–– Step 1: Wash the bottle well with soap the first time you use it.
–– Step 2: Fill the bottle with water and close the lid well.
–– Step 3: Expose the bottles to the sun from morning to evening for at least six hours.
–– Step 4: The water is now ready for consumption
Cleaning PET bottles
Filling bottles with water
Exposing bottles to the sun
Drinking safe water
2. Ask the children to show the bottles they brought from home. Explain why some bottles
are suited for the SODIS method and others not.
–– Good bottles: PET (symbol:
), transparent, unscratched, not bigger than three litres
–– Bad bottles: coloured, scratched, damaged, bigger than three litres
43
School lessons
The SODIS method - step-by-step
Materials: 1 PET bottle, 0.5 litres of safe water, 1 cup
1. Explain Step 1: Wash the bottle well with soap the first time you use it.
–– Use appropriate bottles as described in exercise “Bottles for SODIS”.
–– Clean bottle and lid with soap.
2. Explain Step 2: Fill the bottle with water and close the lid tightly.
–– Turbidity test with newspaper or fingers. Turbid water needs to be pretreated.
–– Due to expanding warm water, do not fill the bottle to the top.
3. Explain Step 3: Expose the bottles to the sun for at least six hours.
–– Lay the bottles horizontally on a clean surface in the sun where they will not be shaded. If
possible on a reflective surface, like a sheet of corrugated iron.
–– UV-A rays of the sun kill germs such as viruses, bacteria and parasites.
–– Rule of thumb for cloudy weather: if less than half of the sky is clouded over, six hours will
be sufficient to disinfect the water completely. If more than half of the sky is covered with
clouds, the bottles must be placed in the sun for two consecutive days.
–– The method does not work satisfactorily during days with continuous rainfall.
4. Explain Step 4: The water is ready for consumption.
–– The water can be stored for several days if the bottle is kept unopened after treatment and
stored in a cool, dark place.
–– To prevent recontamination, drink the water directly from the bottle or pour it into a clean
cup or glass immediately before drinking.
5. Explain the advantages and drawbacks of the
SODIS method in the local context.
Man placing bottles on a SODIS table
44
School lessons
Good behaviour practice - the SODIS method
Materials: 12 PET bottles, 6 litres of raw water
Infrastructure: SODIS station
1. Walk through the school area together with the children and look for a good place to
practise the SODIS method.
2. Build the SODIS station together with the school
children (see page 88). The Safe Water Team can
also conduct this task.
3. Apply the SODIS method step-by-step by
following the guidelines in the background
information section.
4. O
ne day (two days if cloudy) later: drink
the safe SODIS water together with the
school children.
SODIS station
5. S
tore one bottle of SODIS water safely for the
lesson “Water quality test” (see page 66).
What did we learn today?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is the SODIS method good for?
What are the four steps of the SODIS method?
Which bottles are suitable for the SODIS method?
What do you think will happen if the water bottle is too big?
Can we apply the SODIS method if the water is turbid?
Why is it important to expose the bottles for at least six hours?
Does the SODIS method work identically in sunny or cloudy weather?
Home-bringing message
• Explain or demonstrate the SODIS method.
• Where could we place the SODIS bottles at home?
• Where can I find bottles to apply the SODIS method?
Homework
• Every child should bring chlorine products to the next lesson.
45
School lessons - Background information
2.4.1 Background information - Solar water disinfection
The SODIS method is very easy to apply; all it requires is sunlight and PET bottles. A
transparent colourless PET bottle is cleaned with soap. The bottle is then filled with water
and placed in full sunlight for at least six hours. The UV-A rays of the sun kill germs such
as viruses, bacteria and parasites. After this exposure period, the water is disinfected and
can be consumed. More than five million people treat their drinking water with the SODIS
method.
Step 1: Wash the bottle well with soap
The bottles used for the SODIS method must be transparent and colourless. PET bottles
are ideal because they are light, do not break easily and are readily available in many
regions. They are usually labelled with the symbol . Scientific studies have confirmed
repeatedly that when the SODIS method is applied correctly, the use of PET bottles causes
no danger to health. Glass bottles or special SODIS bags can also be used.
Besides the ageing process of the bottle material, scratches on its surface will also reduce
penetration of UV-A light. Heavily scratched bottles (after about six months of daily use)
should be replaced. As UV radiation is reduced with increasing water depth, the bottles
must not hold more than three litres.
Good bottles:
transparent
unscratched
not bigger than three litres
46
Bad bottles:
heavily scratched
damaged
Bad bottles:
coloured
School lessons - Background information
Step 2: Fill the bottle with water and close the lid well
Water that has been polluted with chemicals (poisons, fertilisers, industrial waste) must
not be used. The SODIS method only kills germs. The chemical composition of the water
remains unchanged.
The SODIS method requires relatively clear water of less than 30 NTU (= Nephelometric
Turbidity Units). If the water is very turbid, the effectiveness of the method is reduced.
There are two simple tests to find out, if the water is too turbid for the SODIS method.
• Water turbidity test with newspaper
Place the filled bottle upright on top of a newspaper headline. Look down through the
bottle opening. If the letters of the headline are readable, the water can be used for the
SODIS method. If the letters are not readable, the water must be pretreated.
• Water turbidity test with fingers
Place the filled bottle upright and put your hand behind the bottle. Look through the
bottle and count the fingers. If you can count all the fingers behind the bottle, the water
can be used for the SODIS method. If you cannot count all the fingers, the water must
be pretreated.
Water turbidity test with newspaper
Water turbidity test with fingers
47
School lessons - Background information
Step 3: Expose the bottles to the sun for at least six hours
Since warm water expands, do not fill the bottle to the top. Lay the bottles horizontally on
a clean and unshaded surface in the sun for the entire treatment time.
If possible, lay the bottles on a reflective surface, like a sheet of corrugated iron. The
reflection and higher temperature will speed up the disinfection process. However, this is
not essential for its application. The bottles can be placed on any surface, such as wood,
concrete or clay brick.
SODIS table with corrugated iron
The method does not work satisfactorily during days with continuous rainfall. Also cloudiness affects the strength of solar radiation and thus also the effectiveness of the SODIS
method.
Rule of thumb: If less than half of the sky is clouded over, six hours will be sufficient to
completely disinfect the water. If more than half of the sky is covered with clouds, the bottle
must be placed in the sun for two consecutive days.
48
School lessons - Background information
Step 4: The water is now ready for consumption
The water can be stored for several days if it the bottle is kept unopened after treatment
and stored in a cool, dark place.
The treated water should be kept in the bottle and drunk directly from the bottle, or poured
into a clean cup or glass immediately before it is consumed.
Advantages and drawbacks of the SODIS method
Advantages
• Simple application
• Recontamination is unlikely as water is served directly from bottles in which it is treated
• Proven reduction of bacteria and viruses
• Proven health impact
• No change in water taste
• Use of local resources
• Reduction of energy consumption
• Low cost
Drawbacks
• Requires relatively clear water
• Dependence on climatic conditions
• Long-term treatment (some hours to two days)
• Treatment of limited water volume
• Requires a large supply of intact, clean and adequately sized bottles
• No change in chemical water quality
49
School lessons
2.5 Lesson 5: Chlorination
Teacher’s information - Lesson 5: Chlorination
In everyday school life, production of chlorine and water treatment with chlorine are carried out
by the members of the Safe Water Club. However, it is important that all children get familiar
with this most commonly used disinfection method. They learn therefore in this lesson about
water chlorination and practise the use of liquid chlorine to treat water.
Preparation
–– Produce 0.5-litre of liquid chlorine solution.
Homework for this lesson
–– Every child should bring chlorine products to the lesson.
Objectives - Knowledge
–– Understand chlorination, its advantages and drawbacks
–– Know different types of chlorine
–– Know the different steps of chlorination with liquid chlorine
Objectives - Attitude
–– Consider chlorine as a useful method for water treatment
Objectives - Skills
–– Capable of chlorinating 20 litres of water
–– Capable of recognising when water is too turbid for chlorination
–– Capable of finding chlorinated water in school for drinking purposes
Time
–– 60 minutes
Materials - School
–– 60 litres of water from a source used for drinking
–– 0.5 litre of liquid chlorine solution produced in school
–– Chlorine in different forms (locally available types)
–– Drawing material
Materials - Toolkit
–– 3 jerrycans (20 litres)
–– 1 syringe
–– WataBlue kit for residual chlorine measurement
–– User guide “Use of active chlorine concentrate”
–– Images: Lesson 5
50
School lessons
Key messages of the lesson
• C
hlorine is the most commonly used chemical disinfectant worldwide.
• G
etting the correct dosage of chlorine ensures a good water taste.
Water disinfection with chlorine
Materials: Chlorine in different forms
Images: Chlorination
1. Show the images “Chlorination” and introduce chlorination.
–– Chlorination consists in adding chlorine to water to purify it.
–– Chlorine is left for 30 minutes in the water to allow reactions with the germs.
–– Chlorine is the most commonly used disinfectant worldwide.
–– It is an effective method as it kills 99 % of germs such as viruses, bacteria and parasites.
Disinfecting water with chlorine
Drinking safe water
2. Invite the children to present the chlorine products they brought from home.
–– Who uses chlorine products at home?
–– How often do you use chlorine at home?
3. Explain the use of the different chlorine products.
–– Chlorine can be found in different forms, such as tablets, powder granules or liquid solution.
–– Liquid chlorine can be produced with a simple device using only salt and water.
–– Since its use depends on the product, it is important to read the instruction of each product
before using chlorine.
51
School lessons
Chlorination - step-by-step
Materials: 0.5 litre of liquid chlorine, 1 jerrycan (20 litre), 1 syringe, User guide “Use of active
chlorine concentrate”
1. Demonstrate how to use liquid chlorine to treat water according to
the steps in the user guide “Use of active chlorine concentrate”.
2. S
how the children the container with 0.5 litre of liquid chlorine and
explain the importance of labelling.
–– Liquid chlorine is properly labelled with the concentration, the date of
production and the date of expiry.
3. Take a 5ml-sample of chlorine with a syringe.
–– The amount of chlorine depends on type and concentration of chlorine.
Labelled chlorine
solution
–– 5 ml of chlorine concentrate produced with the Mini-Wata will be enough
to treat 20 litres of water.
4. Add the chlorine to the clear water in the 20-litres jerrycan
–– Before treating with chlorine, the water must be clear.
–– Test turbid water with a 60 cm high bottle. If water is turbid, filter it. 5. Shake the container vigorously and rinse the syringe with water.
6. Explain that water is ready for consumption in 30 minutes.
–– The chlorine destroys all microbes in 30 minutes.
–– Chlorine hinders recontamination. Properly stored, the water remains safe.
7. Present the advantages and drawbacks of chlorination in the local context.
Family drinking chlorinated water
52
School lessons
Good behaviour practice - chlorination
Material: 0.5 litre of liquid chlorine, 2 jerrycans (20 litres), User guides “Use of active chlorine
concentrate” and “WataBlue reagent kit”, drawing material
1. Ask the children to smell the liquid chlorine and explain the precautions to be taken.
–– The smell of chlorine is very strong.
–– Do not drink from this bottle. It is not toxic but it will taste very bad.
–– Do not spill it on your clothes as it acts like a bleach.
2. Look together with the children for an easily accessed place to install the jerrycans in
the school.
3. Get the schoolchildren to practise with two jerrycans of water according to the steps in
the user guide “Use of active chlorine concentrate”.
4. Wait 30 minutes and test the presence of free residual chlorine
with WataBlue according to the steps in the user guide “WataBlue reagent kit”.
5. D
iscuss the results and ask the children to smell and drink the
treated water.
–– Can you smell the chlorine?
–– Is the water safe now?
WataBlue test
6. Ask them to write three times “Chlorinated water” on a piece of paper and stick it to
the jerrycans.
7. Store chlorinated water safely for the water quality test in the next lesson (see page 66).
What did we learn today?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
hat do you think happens to the germs when chlorine is added to the water?
W
Why does chlorine hinder recontamination?
What are the five steps of the chlorination method?
What do we do if the water we are using for chlorination is turbid?
Why is it important to wait for 30 minutes before drinking the chlorinated water?
How much liquid chlorine do you put in a 20-litre jerrycan?
Where can you find chlorinated water in school?
Home-bringing message
• E
xplain or demonstrate the chlorine method.
• Optional: Show the chlorination painting.
53
School lessons
2.5.1Chlorine production - Lesson for Safe Water Club
Teacher’s information - Lesson for Safe Water Club
This lesson is dedicated to the Safe Water Club which is responsible for producing
liquid chlorine solution, treating water for the school, keeping log-books and maintaining the
equipment. For each step of the of the chlorine production, practical exercises are essential.
One person is practising at the front and the other participants give their comments. All the steps
to produce chlorine should be repeated several times so that the Safe Water Club can become
acquainted with the chlorine production.
Preparation
–– Read the lesson with background information on chlorination
–– Read the four Mini-WATA user guides
–– Prepare 0.5 litre of liquid chlorine at 6 g/l and three water samples with different amount of
chlorine (no chlorine, right amount of chlorine, too much chlorine)
Objectives - Knowledge
–– Understand chlorination, its advantages and drawbacks
–– Know the five steps of chlorine production with the Mini-WATA
Objectives - Attitude
–– Confident with the production and use of chlorine with the Mini-WATA
–– Consider the Mini-WATA kit and solar panel as valuable equipment
Objectives - Skills
–– Capable of producing chlorine with Mini-WATA and keeping logs of chlorine production
–– Capable of maintaining the equipment for chlorine production
–– Capable of treating water in school with chlorine
Time
–– 6 hours
Materials - School
–– 0.5 litre of liquid chlorine at 6 g/l produced in advance
–– 3 water samples with different amounts of chlorine
–– 3 jerrycans (20 litres)
–– 60 litres of water from a source used for drinking
–– Log-book to record chlorine production
–– Paper and pen
Materials - Toolkit
–– 1 Mini-WATA kit
–– 1 solar panel
–– Mini-WATA user guides
54
School lessons
Mini-WATA
Materials: 1 Mini-WATA kit, 1 solar panel
1. Explain the Mini-WATA.
–– The Mini-WATA is a small device that produces liquid chlorine.
–– It requires only clear water, salt and an external power source.
–– The Mini-WATA fits snugly into a 0.5-litre plastic bottle.
–– It produces 0.5 litre of chlorine concentrate in five hours, enough to treat up to 2 000 litres of water.
Mini-WATA
2. P
resent the Mini-WATA kit materials in class and explain the two
options for power supply.
–– The Mini-WATA is supplied with clips
that can be coupled to a solar panel
of min. 10 watt.
–– If there is access to electricity, the
Mini-WATA is supplied with a transformer that can be simply plugged into
the network.
Mini-WATA kit, water, salt and solar panel
3. M
ake children touch and manipulate the device and explain the advantages of
the Mini-WATA.
–– Simple – you only need water and salt
–– Robust – it does not break easily
–– Low cost – salt and water do not cost much
–– Independent from external suppliers
–– Production at source avoids transport and storage isues
Overview - Chlorine production and water treatment
Materials: User guides “Mini-WATA (solar and electric power supply)“, “WataTest reagent kit”,
“Use of active chlorine concentrate” and “WataBlue reagent kit”
1. Explain that five steps are needed to treat water using a chlorine solution produced by
the Mini-WATA. Show the four user guides and insist on the importance of following
them during every step. No need to learn by heart!
–– Step 1: Produce chlorine
–– Step 2: Test the chlorine concentration with WataTest
–– Step 3: Treat water by adding chlorine
–– Step 4: Test free residual chlorine with WataBlue
–– Step 5: Water is safe to drink!
55
School lessons
Step 1: Produce chlorine
Materials: User guide “Mini-WATA”
1. Choose with the children a production place which is cool, ventilated and shielded from
sunlight.
2. Explain the function of saturated brine for the the production of liquid chlorine. Demonstrate the preparation of saturated brine according to the user guide “Mini-WATA” and
label the saturated brine.
–– Saturated brine is a water with the maximum possible amount of salt.
–– It helps to dose the correct amount of salt to produce chlorine.
–– It can be stored forever and reused but make sure that there is always salt remaining at the
bottom of the container.
3. Ask one of the children to practise preparation of saturated brine and ask the others to
comment.
4. Demonstrate the production of chlorine according to the user guide “Mini-WATA”.
–– Chlorine concentrate can be produced either with a solar panel or with the grid.
–– The Mini-Wata produces 0.5 litre of chlorine concentrate in five hours.
–– As soon as the Mini-WATA is connected to the power supply, bubbles will emerge from the
container. This means the process is working!
5. Hand out a log-book (see page 114) to record chlorine production and ask the children to
designate someone to fill it in.
6. Ask one of the children to practise the chlorine production and ask the others to comment.
7. While the Mini-WATA is running, talk with the children about the maintenance of the MiniWATA, the shelflife and safety of chlorine.
–– Maintain the Mini-WATA by rinsing with clear water after each use and not letting it run for ten
hours in a row.
–– Use active chlorine within 24 hours of its production.
–– Chlorine is safe if the following points are considered: Do not inhale the concentration. Work
in a well ventilated area. Never use a metallic container during the procedure. Do not drink the
concentrated solution. Do not spill it on your clothes as it has bleaching power.
8. In order not to wait five hours until the chlorine production is completed, proceed with the
next step and leave the production running. Come back to it when the five hours are over.
56
School lessons
Step 2: Test the chlorine concentration with the WataTest
Materials: User guide “WataTest”, 0.5 litre of liquid chlorine, paper, pen
1. Explain and demonstrate how to test the chlorine concentration with the WataTest
according to the user guide “WataTest”. Use the 0.5 litre of chlorine produced in
advance.
–– The Mini-WATA produces a solution with 6 g/l of chlorine.
–– It is important to test the solution to make sure the concentration is right.
–– The WataTest measures the chlorine concentration.
2. Explain the results of the WataTest.
–– The number of drops divided by two gives you the chlorine concentration.
–– 12 drops show a chlorine concentration of 6 g/l.
3. Ask one of the children to practise the procedure and ask the others to comment.
4. Explain and demonstrate the proper storage of the chlorine in an opaque plastic
container.
5. Explain the importance of labelling the container with the concentration of chlorine
obtained, the production and expiry date. Ask one child to prepare a label and stick it
on the container with chlorine concentration.
6. Choose with the children a storing place which is cool and shielded from sunlight and
store the container properly.
Labelled chlorine solution
57
School lessons
Step 3: Treat water by adding chlorine
Materials: User guide “Use of active chlorine concentrate”
1. Explain and demonstrate the treatment of water by adding chlorine according to the
user guide “Use of active chlorine concentrate”. Repeat the activity “Chlorination –
step-by-step” from lesson “Chlorination” (see page 52).
2. Ask one of the children to treat the water of a 20-litre jerrycan by adding chlorine and
ask the others to comment.
Step 4: Test free residual chlorine with WataBlue
Materials: User guide “WataBlue”, 3 water samples with different amounts of chlorine
1. Explain the concept of free residual chlorine.
–– Free residual chlorine stops the water from becoming recontaminated.
–– It indicates that enough chlorine was used to treat the water.
–– The amount of free residual chlorine depends on the water contamination.
–– Very contaminated water needs more chlorine.
2. Present the three water samples to be tested. Ask the
children to describe how they smell.
–– Sample 1: Not enough chlorine
–– Sample 2: Too much chlorine
–– Sample 3: Right amount of chlorine
3. Explain the test of free residual chlorine with WataBlue
according to the user guide “WataBlue”. Demonstrate the
WataBlue-Test with the three examples. Use new pipettes
for each sample to avoid contamination.
WataBlue test
–– A white sample indicates that there is not enough chlorine in the water.
–– A light blue sample indicates the right amount of chlorine to hinder recontamination.
–– A dark blue sample indicates that too much chlorine was added and water will have a bad
taste.
4. Ask the children to identify the sample with the right amount of chlorine.
5. Ask one of the children to practise the procedure and ask the others to comment.
58
School lessons
Step 5: Water is safe to drink
Materials: Cups
1. Taste the water with the children.
–– Congratulations you have safely produced a concentrated chlorine solution and treated
your water with it.
2. After five hours, go back to the production site. Ask one child to check the chlorine
concentration with the WataTest. Label it and store it properly. Rinse the Mini-WATA
with clear water and store all the materials in a secure place.
Drinking safe water from a clean glass
Chlorinated water in school
1. Discuss the amount of drinking water needed in school based on two litres per person
and day. Calculate the amount of chlorine needed.
2. Organise the production of chlorine. Designate a person of the Safe Water Club
responsible for maintenance, equipment and keeping logs of chlorine.
What did we learn today?
•
•
•
•
•
How does the Mini-WATA work?
What are the five steps for chlorine production and water treatment?
What precautions have to be taken to make chlorine production safe?
Why is the WataTest important?
How to you know that water is safe to drink?
Home-bringing message
• A
dvantage of local chlorine production: The quality of chlorine produced is ensured. It is independent from external supply and can be produce on demand.
59
School lessons - Background information
2.5.2 Background information - Chlorination
Chlorine is the most commonly used disinfectant worldwide. It is an
effective method capable of killing 99% of germs such as viruses,
bacteria and parasites. Chlorine can be found in different
forms such as tablets, powder granules and liquid concentrated
solutions. It can also be produced locally.
Chlorination is a method of water purification to make it safe for
human consumption. It is left for 30 minutes in water to allow
reaction with the germs. Before treating with chlorine, the water must be
clear. After treatment with chlorine, the presence of residual chlorine in
drinking water indicates that the water is protected from recontamination
during storage.
Chlorine production is safe if you stick to the following rules:
• Do not inhale the concentrate over a long period
• Work in a well ventilated area
• Never use a metallic container during the procedure
• Do not drink the concentrated solution (it is not toxic but it will taste very bad)
• Do not spill it on your clothes as it is a bleach
Advantages
• Most widely used disinfection method worldwide
• Powerful and effective
• Reliable, kills 99 % of all pathogens
• Proven health impact
• Easy to use
• Residual chlorine prevents recontamination
• Low cost
• Rapid method: only 30 minutes are needed
• Treats large water volumes
Drawbacks
• Requires relatively clear water
• Alters taste and odour of water
• Not effective against chemical contamination
• Lower protection from some organisms (cryptosporidium)
• Concentrated chlorine solutions require careful handling
• Dosage is considered as a main challenge
• Not always available locally
60
School lessons - Background information
Mini WATA
The Mini-WATA is a small device that produces liquid chlorine at
6 g/l. It requires only clear water, salt, an external power source
and works according a process called electrolysis. The MiniWATA fits snugly into a small plastic water bottle of 0.5 litre. It
produces 0.5 litre of chlorine concentrate in five hours, enough
to treat up to 2 000 litres of water.
The Mini-WATA can be coupled with a photovoltaic panel of
minimum 10 watt. It is furnished with clips for a solar panel.
If you have access to electricity, the Mini-WATA is supplied
with a transformer that can be simply plugged into the network
(110 V or 220 V).
Mini-WATA and a 0.5-litre
water bottle
In chapter “Water treatment station” there is information about the required materials (see
page 88). It is a valuable equipment. Appoint a responsible person to look after the materials and their careful storage in a secure place.
Advantages
• Simple and robust
• Easy to use: requires only clear water, kitchen salt and any source of electric current
• Low cost: cost of chlorine produced is cheaper than the one found on the market
• Independent from external suppliers
• Production at source avoids transport and storage issues
• Quality control check with WataTest and WataBlue
Overview - Chlorine production and water treatment
Five steps are needed to treat water using a chlorine solution produced by the Mini-WATA.
The steps refer to a specific user guide listed in the appendix (see page 108).
•
•
•
•
•
Step 1: Produce chlorine - User guide “Mini-WATA”
Step 2: Test the chlorine concentration with Wata-Test - User guide “Wata-Test”
Step 3: Treat water by adding chlorine - User guide “Use of active chlorine concentrate”
Step 4: Test free residual chlorine with WataBlue - User guide “WataBlue”
Step 5: Water is safe to drink!
61
School lessons - Background information
Step 1: Produce chlorine
Follow the procedure described in the user guide “Solar and Electric Mini-WATA”.
• Maintenance
Rinse the Mini-WATA with clear water after each use. Do not use soap. Dip it in a
solution of water and vinegar or lemon for one night when there is too much white
deposit on it. Do not let it run for more than ten hours in a row. Clean the solar panel with
a cloth and water to remove dust.
Clean Mini-WATA in a solution of
water and lemon or vinegar
Clean solar panel with water
and a cloth
• Shelflife of chlorine
Use active chlorine within 24 hours of its production. The concentration of active
chlorine decreases with time. High temperature affect the stability of chlorine. You
should measure its concentration with Wata-Test before proceeding to treat water.
• Rain
During rainy periods, the solar panel will not have enough energy to make the MiniWATA work. Stop production, store all the materials in a proper place and start again
when it is sunny. The process of chlorine production can be restarted. If you produce
for two hours one day, the next day three hours will be sufficient to obtain the total of
five hours needed. 62
School lessons - Background information
Step 2: Test the chlorine concentration with Wata-Test
Follow the procedure described in the user guide “Wata-Test”.
• Importance of WataTest
Mini-WATA reliably produces 0.5 litre of chlorine at 6 g/l after five hours. However, the
concentration may vary due to initial water quality, dosage and quality of salt, electrical
supply quality, reaction time, and environment. It is thus important to check the chlorine
concentration after each production. WataTest is a non toxic reagent used to check the
chlorine concentration produced.
• Adapting
If the strength is below 5 g/l, connect the Mini-WATA to the solar panel or the grid and
continue the process. If it is 5.5 g/l or higer than 6 g/l adapt the dilution according to the
table:
Chlorine concentration in g/l
Amount of chlorine to be added (20 litres)
5.5
5.50 ml
6
5.00 ml
6.5
4.60 ml
7
4.28 ml
• Chlorine storage and labelling
After each production, store chlorine in an opaque plastic container and label it with
the concentration of chlorine obtained and date of production and expiry. Place the
container in a cool place away from sunlight.
63
School lessons - Background information
Step 3: Treat water by adding chlorine
Follow the procedure described in the user guide “Use of active chlorine concentrate”.
• Water treatment with chlorine
The quantity of chlorine concentrate necessary for water treatment depends on the
initial water quality. For water of average quality, 0.25 ml of chlorine produced with MiniWATA is needed for every litre of water to be treated.
• Adapting
Adapt the amount of chlorine to be added to water according to the locally available
vessels.
• Turbidity
For effective disinfection, water must be clear with low turbidity, less
than 5 NTU.
If you do not have testing equipment, draw a small black cross on a
white piece of paper and put a large bottle (60 cm tall) full of water on
top of it. To get 60 cm tall bottle, take two PET bottles and cut the
first one horizontally slightly below the level of the tap. Take the
second bottle, cut the bottom of the bottle in order to fit it into the
first one. Fill it with water. You have a 60 cm tall bottle!
If you can see the cross, the water is clear enough. If you cannot
see the cross, filter the water before adding chlorine.
Cloth filtration for
turbid water
64
Turbidity test with
two bottles
School lessons - Background information
Step 4: Test free residual chlorine with WataBlue
Follow the procedure described in the user guide “WataBlue”.
• Chlorine demand
The amount of chlorine needed to eliminate the germs in the water is called the chlorine
demand. Chlorine demand depends on the source and quality of the water: the dirtier
the water, the more chlorine is needed.
• Free residual chlorine
The amount of chlorine left over after 30 minutes is called free residual chlorine.
The correct amount of residual chlorine shows that the water is treated and can
be drunk. Water is protected from recontamination. Measure it after every treatment
with chlorine. The ideal concentration of free residual chlorine in water is between
0.5 ppm to 1 ppm (parts per million).
• Testing for free residual chlorine using WataBlue
WataBlue, a non toxic reagent, is one of several methods to measure free residual
chlorine in water treated with chlorine.
• Storage of water
The treated water should be stored in a clean and closed container.
Step 5: Water is safe to drink!
The water is now ready for consumption. Chlorine prevents from recontamination. Properly
stored the water stays safe.
65
School lessons
2.6 Lesson 6: Water quality test
Teacher’s information - Lesson 6: Water quality test
The lesson starts by informing why and how a water quality test should be conducted.
Subsequently, three water quality tests are carried out in this lesson, one with raw water, one
with SODIS water and one with chlorinated water. The results of the water quality tests can be
interpreted on the next day.
Objectives - Knowledge
–– Know what the used water quality test measures
–– Understand why E. coli is used as indicator
Objectives - Attitude
–– Consider a water quality test as a useful tool
Time
–– 30 minutes (Day 1)
–– 30 minutes (Day 2)
Materials - School
–– 1 ml of SODIS water
–– 1 ml of chlorinated water
–– 1 ml of contaminated raw water from a source used for drinking
–– 1 waterproof pen
–– 1 vessel with hot (> 70 0C) water
–– 1 vessel for discharge
–– Drawing material
Materials - Toolkit
–– 3 water quality tests
–– 3 syringes
–– Images: Lesson 6
66
School lessons
Key messages of the lesson
• A
water quality test can detect small organisms invisible to the human eye.
• The presence of E. coli bacteria indicates recent faecal contamination.
Water quality test
Image: A look into water
Materials: 3 water quality tests, 3 syringes, 1 ml raw water, 1 ml SODIS water, 1 ml chlorinated water, 1 waterproofed pen
1. Explain why you carry out a water quality test. Show the school children again the
image “A look into water”.
–– The water contains very small organisms like bacteria and viruses that are invisible to the
human eye.
–– Some of the microorganisms pose a severe threat to human health as they cause different
diseases with the following symptoms: vomiting, stomach pain or diarrhoea.
–– Because they are so small and invisible, we will conduct a water quality test to determine if
the water contains dangerous small organisms.
2. Explain how the test works and why it measures E. coli as indicator.
–– E. coli is almost exclusively of faecal origin.
–– E. coli is easy to measure.
3. Carry out the first three steps of the water quality test with the children.
–– Preparation of the test
–– Inoculation of the E. coli plates
–– Incubation of the E. coli plates
Inoculation of an E. coli plate
67
School lessons
Results of the water quality test
Materials: 3 water quality tests, drawing material
1. Take the plates stored for 24 hours and carry out the
last steps of the water quality test.
2. Count the E. coli with the children.
–– Count the number of blue spots (E. coli) and
record the E. coli concentration for 100 ml of water
by multiplying the count of 1-ml sample by 100.
–– The red spots are coliform colonies. They do not have
to be counted in this test because they do not indicate
faecal contamination and are harmless.
3. Interpret the test results together with the children and
motivate the children to disinfect their water in school and at home.
E. coli and
coliform colonies
–– Safe water does not show a single blue spot (E. coli colony).
–– Is there faecal contamination in the raw water?
–– Is there faecal contamination in the chlorinated water?
–– Is there faecal contamination in the SODIS water?
4. Dispose the used test.
What did we learn today?
• What is the purpose of a water quality test?
• Is water disinfection with the SODIS method efficient?
• Is water disinfection with chlorine efficient?
Home-bringing message
• Tell your family about the quality of the raw water, chlorinated water and SODIS water.
• Explain to your family how you measured the water quality.
68
School lessons - Background information
2.6.1 Background information - Water quality test
There are several types of water quality tests, which measure different indicators of water
contamination, such as microorganisms, heavy metals or pesticides.
The water quality test “Compact Dry EC” measures bacteria present in the environment
and in the faeces of human and warm-blooded animals, such as cows or dogs. The test
detects two groups of bacteria:
• T
otal coliform bacteria
They are generally harmless and found in the natural environment (e.g. vegetation,
soil). If only total coliforms are detected in drinking water, a faecal contamination is
unlikely.
• E
scherichia coli (E. coli)
E. coli bacteria are present in great quantities in the intestines of humans. Most E. coli
are harmless, but some strains can cause illness. The presence of E. coli in the water
sample indicates recent faecal contamination.
Water quality tests require a well-equipped laboratory and trained staff. However, since
such conditions are often unavailable, an adapted test method is described hereafter. It
works with the following materials:
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 water sample
1 E. coli plate
1 syringe
1 vessel with hot water (> 70 0C)
1 vessel for discharge
1 labeling material, such as a waterproof pen, paper or stickers
69
School lessons - Background information
Water quality test - step-by-step
• Step 1: Preparation
Prepare the required materials. It essential for the test to be carried out under the highest
possible hygienic conditions. This includes personal hygiene (washing hands with soap),
environmental hygiene (clean room) and materials that are disinfected with hot water
(> 70 0C).
• Step 2: Inoculation of the E. coli plate
–– Use a 1-ml sterile syringe and fill it with the water to be analysed.
–– Remove the lid of the E. coli plate and place it face up on a clean surface. Do not
touch the inside of the lid. Distribute the 1-ml water sample over the E. coli plate.
–– Close the lid.
–– Label the lid with the water type used (raw water, chlorinated water, SODIS water)
and the date.
Example of a label
• Step 3: Incubation of the E. coli plates
–– Place the E. coli plates in a dry and dark place at a temperature of 25 – 35 0C for
24 hours.
–– Clean the other equipment and store it in a dry and clean place.
• Step 4: E. coli counts
–– Blue spots are E. coli colonies. Red spots are total coliform colonies.
–– Count the number of blue spots and record the E. coli concentration for 100 ml of
water by multiplying the count of the 1-ml sample by 100.
70
School lessons - Background information
• Step 5: Interpretation of the test results
It is important to focus on interpreting the E. coli colonies (blue spots) as they indicate
faecal contamination. Safe water should not have a single blue spot.
Test result
Interpretation
Water safety
No spots
Neither a faecal nor an environmental
contamination is detected.
The test indicates
safe water.
Only red
spots
No faecal contamination is detected. The detected
environmental contamination is harmless.
The test indicates
safe water.
Only blue
spots
A recent faecal contamination is detected.
Drinking this water can cause illness.
The test indicates
unsafe water.
Red and
blue spots
A recent faecal and environmental contamination
is detected. Drinking this water can cause illness.
The test indicates
unsafe water.
• Step 6: Action
–– If the test with raw water indicates unsafe water, disinfect the water.
–– If the test with raw water indicates safe water, carry out another test at a later date
or with another water source.
–– If the SODIS-treated water or chlorinated water indicates unsafe water, repeat the
test. Make sure that the water has been disinfected properly and the water quality
test conducted correctly.
• Step 7: Disposal of the used test
The test should be safely disposed of to avoid contamination. Burn the test or disinfect
it with hot water (> 70 0C) or with chlorine. Do not let the children play with the test.
71
School lessons
2.7 Lesson 7: Water recontamination
Teacher’s information - Lesson 7: Water recontamination
This lesson teaches the children how to store water safely and handle it hygienically. Store safe
water during one night and drink it together on the next day.
Objectives - Knowledge
–– Know three possible water recontamination stages
Objectives - Attitude
–– Regard safe storing and hygienic handling of water as an integral part of water treatment
Objectives - Skills
–– Capable of storing water safely and handling it hygienically
Time
–– 40 minutes (Day 1)
–– 10 minutes (Day 2)
Materials - School
–– Cups or glasses Materials - Toolkit
–– Images: Lesson 7
Infrastructure
–– Safe water station
Safe water station with closet
72
School lessons
Key messages of the lesson
• S
afe water does not remain automatically safe.
• R
econtamination of water can be prevented by simple measures.
• Key elements are safe storage and hygiene water handling practices.
Sources of water recontamination
Images: Prevent recontamination, Wrong water storage
1. Repeat the key message of the lesson “Water contamination” (see page 25).
––
Water contamination can occur at the source, during transport or inaccurate storage.
2. Show the images “Prevent recontamination“. Let the children arrange and present the
sequence on good safe water handling practices.
Safe water storage
Cleaning hands
3. Help them arrange the sequence correctly and explain the different actions to prevent
recontamination of safe water.
–– Transport the water safely to the storage place.
–– Store the water safely.
–– Wash hands, cups and dippers with soap before using the water.
4. Show the images “Wrong water storage” and explain the wrong behaviours.
Dirty bottles and cups
Animals drinking water
73
School lessons
Good behaviour practice - safe water storage
Infrastructure: Safe water station
1. Jointly set up the safe water station (see page 90). This can also be carried out by the
Safe Water Team.
Safe water station with storage containers and bottles
2. Explain the advantages of a safe water station. Safely store the water there until the
next day and drink it together with the children. Place emphasis on a hygienic handling
practice while storing and drinking the safe water.
What did we learn?
•
•
•
•
•
Why is safe storage so important?
Name three potential stages of water recontamination.
Does treated water always have to be stored safely and handled hygienically?
How do you store water safely?
How do you handle water hygienically?
Home-bringing message
• Where do we store the water at home?
• How can we improve the situation?
74
School lessons - Background information
2.7.1 Background information - Water recontamination
To prevent safe water from recontaminating, it should be stored in appropriate vessels and
handled hygienically.
Storage in appropriate vessels
Since ancient times, people store water in containers made of different materials (e.g.
wood, copper, animal hide). Today, also fabricated vessels made of aluminium or plastic
are available almost worldwide.
SODIS water is ideally stored directly in the PET bottle used for its treatment. For other
disinfection methods, several locally available and usually low-cost vessels are used
(buckets, pots, jerry cans, barrels, used beverage containers, flexible bags, and flagons).
However, only some of these containers, particularly jerry cans, some plastic beverage
containers and some flexible vessels are suitable for safe water storage. The five key
factors influencing the impact of storage vessels are listed in the chapter “Safe water
station” (see page 90).
Safe water handling practices
Several hygiene practices should be considered to keep the water safe:
• U
se a specific container to collect and store untreated water
• Use a different container to store treated water
• Never use the same container for treated and untreated water
• Frequently clean the storage container with chlorine solution/soap/detergent
• Pour treated water from the container instead of scooping it out
• Drink treated water as soon as possible
• Store treated water off the ground in a shady place in the home, away from small
children and animals14
14
CAWST: An introduction to household water treatment and safe storage. 2009.
75
School lessons
2.8 Lesson 8: Hygiene
Teacher’s information - Lesson 8: Hygiene
The lesson starts with an overview of hygienic behaviours and then focuses on hand
washing as the single most important hygienic measure. Proper hand washing is explained by the
3 x 3 method, which combines the three key steps and the three critical times of hand washing.
Objectives - Knowledge
–– Know four personal and environmental hygiene practices
–– Know three critical times of hand washing
–– Know three key steps of hand washing
Objectives - Attitude
–– Willing to wash hands in school and at home
–– Respect the own body and the environment
Objectives - Skills
–– Able to use the hand washing station properly
–– Able to wash hands properly at critical times
Time
–– 50 minutes
Materials - School
–– Soap/ash/detergent
Materials - Toolkit
–– Images: Lesson 8
Infrastructure
–– Hand washing station
Hand washing station with
containers and vessels
76
School lessons
Key messages of the lesson
• Hygiene includes personal and environmental hygiene practices.
• H
and washing is the single most important hygiene practice.
• P
roper hand washing includes three key steps at three critical times.
What is hygiene?
1. Ask the school children if they understand what hygiene is and which hygiene practices
they know and already apply.
–– Hygiene includes personal and environmental hygiene practices.
–– Personal hygiene practices are: Washing hands, washing children’s hands and face,
washing hair, brushing teeth, bathing regularly.
–– Environmental hygiene practices are: cleaning surrounding, food storage in covered
containers, water source protection.
Hand washing is the most important hygiene measure
77
School lessons
Hand washing with soap
Images: Bottom-Hand-Mouth, Clean hands
1. Explain that the lesson focuses on hand washing because it is the single most important hygiene measure. An easy way to learn proper hand washing is the 3 x 3 method
related to three critical times and three key steps of hand washing.
2. Ask the children when they should wash their hands.
–– After defecating and after changing or cleaning babies
–– Before cooking or preparing food
–– Before eating or before feeding children
3. Arrange the three images “Bottom-Hand-Mouth” and let the children place the hand
washing images.
Bottom
Mouth
4. S
how the images “Clean hands”. Explain and discuss the three steps of hand washing.
Emphasise the importance of using soap.
–– Wash both hands with water and soap, ash or detergent
–– Rub the front and back of your hands and in between your fingers at least three times
–– Dry hands
Dirty hands
78
Washing hands with soap
School lessons
Good behaviour practice - hand washing
Infrastructure: Hand washing station
1. Jointly establish the hand washing station (see page 91). This can also be carried out
by the Safe Water Team.
2. Practise jointly the three key steps of proper hand washing. The school children are
watched by others who can comment on the correct steps.
Girl washes her hands with soap
What did we learn today?
•
•
•
•
•
Name four personal and environmental hygiene practices.
What are the three critical times of hand washing?
What are the three key steps of hand washing?
Why is it important to use soap for hand washing?
Demonstrate how to use the hand washing station.
Home-bringing message
• Which hygiene practices do we apply at home?
• Where do we wash our hands? Do we have soap?
• Can we build a hand washing station?
79
School lessons - Background information
2.8.1 Background information - Hygiene
Health benefits from water and sanitation programmes will not be fully realised unless
hygiene behaviour is promoted and achieved. There are personal and environmental
hygiene practices.
• Personal hygiene practices
Good personal hygiene practices include hand washing, washing hair, brushing teeth,
bathing and washing the whole body regularly.
• Environmental hygiene practices
Hygiene includes also environmental practices like cleaning surrounding, food storage
in covered containers, washing and cooking food, water source protection.
Hand washing with soap
Hand washing with soap is the single most important hygiene measure to prevent the
spreading of pathogens. Using soap in hand washing is essential, because it breaks
down the grease and dirt that carry most germs. Washing hands with water alone is
significantly less effective than washing hands with soap. Proper hand washing takes at
least 20 seconds.
An easy way to learn proper hand washing is the 3 x 3 method.15
The three times when we should wash our hands are:
• Before cooking or preparing food
• Before eating or before feeding children
• After defecating and after changing or cleaning babies
The three steps to wash our hands are:
• Wash both hands with water and soap/ash/detergent
• Rub the front and back of your hands and in between
your fingers at least three times
• Dry hands
Washing hands with soap
15
80
CAWST: An introduction to household water treatment and safe storage. 2009.
School lessons
2.9 Lesson 9: Sanitation
Teacher’s information - Lesson 9: Sanitation
After the lessons on improvement of water and hygiene, this lesson completes the training
on how to interrupt disease transmissions routes. It focuses on use of the available sanitation
infrastructure in school. At the end of the lesson, the children become Safe Water Promoters.
Objectives - Knowledge
–– Know where and how the faeces generated in schools get displaced
–– Know the four steps of proper toilet use
Objectives - Attitude
–– Be willing to wash bottom and hands after using toilet
Objectives - Skills
–– Capable of using a toilet/latrine hygienically
Time
–– 60 minutes
Materials - School
–– Soap/ash/detergent
Infrastructure
–– Toilet or latrine
Gender friendly toilet
81
School lessons
Key messages of the lesson
• S
anitation is strongly linked to hygiene practices.
• The safe use of a toilet comprises four steps: safe disposal of faeces, hygienic
anal cleansing, toilet cleaning, and washing hands with soap.
Sanitation
1. Inform the children about sanitation.
–– Good sanitation means safe disposal of human urine and faeces.
–– The main problems are inadequate sanitation systems and unhygienic use of the existing
sanitation system.
2. Ask the children where they defecate at home and in school. Emphasise the
importance of a safe disposal.
–– One gram of human faeces can contain 10 000 000 viruses, 1 000 000 bacteria, 1 000 parasite cysts, and 100 parasite eggs.
–– Unsafe disposal of faeces poses a significant threat to human health.
Faeces generated in school
1. Show the children the importance of safe disposal of faeces by calculating the amount
of faeces produced in school in one month.
–– 1 defecation of 100 g x faeces per day x
number of people in school x 30 days.
2. Visualise the amount of faeces, for example by
comparing it with truck or wheelbarrow loads.
–– How many truck or wheelbarrow loads would be
needed to transport all these faeces?
3. E
xplain what happens with open faeces and how
they get back to the mouth of children.
82
Wheelbarrow with faeces
School lessons
Use of toilets or latrines
1. Explain the sanitation system in school and the community and explain the important
steps of a hygiene use.
–– Safe disposal of faeces
–– Hygiene anal cleansing
–– Toilet/Latrine cleaning
––
Washing hands with soap
Good behaviour practice - proper use of toilet or latrine
Infrastructure: Toilet or latrine
1. If there is a toilet/latrine in the school area, go to the
toilet/latrine with the school children and demonstrate
how to use it properly.
If there is no toilet or latrine in school, you can build a
single pit latrine together. This can also be carried out
by the Safe Water Team.
2. Show the correct position during toilet use.
3. Show how to squat so that all faeces drop
down the hole.
4. Show how to clean the body after using the
toilet and how to clean the toilet.
Single pit latrine
5. At the end, wash hands together.
What did we learn today?
•
•
•
•
•
Where and how are the faeces generated in school displaced?
Why is open defecation dangerous?
What are the four steps of proper toilet use?
How does a dirty latrine affect your health?
Demonstrate how to use a toilet/latrine hygienically.
Home-bringing message
• I am a Safe Water Promoter now!
83
School lessons
Safe Water Promoter ceremony
• W
alk again through the school area and the community. Show the
children the improvements made and the remaining problems.
Emphasise the importance of their new knowledge, attitude and
skills.
• Inform the children that they are Safe Water Promoters
now and that they play an important role in the community.
• A Safe Water Promoter is characterised by his/her knowledge,
attitude and skills.
A Safe Water Promoter:
–– understands the links between water, hygiene and health
–– can handle the Safe Water School infrastructure properly
–– can disinfect water and store it safely
–– can live hygienically
Child with a Safe Water
Promoter certificate
–– is willing to apply his/her skills in school and at home
–– is willing to help his/her family, friends and the community
Create a play or puppet show
• Create a play or a puppet show with the children. For example about children who want
to convince their friend to become Safe Water Promoters as well. Guidelines to create
a play or puppet show are listed in the appendix (see page 100).
Children performing a play
84
School lessons - Background information
2.9.1 Background information - Sanitation
Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal
of human urine and faeces. It includes also maintenance of hygienic conditions through
services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.
Proper use of toilet or latrine
Proper use of a toilet or latrine comprises four steps:
• Safe disposal of faeces
Make sure that all faeces are disposed of in the pit.
• Hygienic anal cleansing
If there is no water available in the toilet, children can carry a bucket of water to the
toilet. If paper or other materials are thrown into the pit they could rapidly fill the pits or
lead to regular clogging of the pipes. If they are collected separately, they have to be
disposed/burned carefully.
• Toilet cleaning
Leave the toilet in a clean condition. Clean it with water or a broom if necessary. If
chlorine is available, the slab of the toilets regularly can be disinfected with chlorine
solution.
• Wash hands with soap
The moment after defecating is a critical time for hand washing.
–– Wash both hands with water and soap/ash/detergent
–– Rub the front and back of your hands and in between your fingers at least three times
–– Dry hands
Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies
The main information about sanitation technologies is integrated in the “Compendium of
Sanitation Systems and Technologies”. Though it primarily addresses engineers and planners dealing with infrastructure delivery, the technology sheets also allow non-experts to
understand the main advantages and limitations of different technologies.
This publication can be downloaded in English, French and Spanish:
www.eawag.ch/forschung/sandec/publikationen
85
Infrastructure
3 Infrastructure
By combining education and infrastructure the school is able to create a hygienic environment with access to safe water. Solid installations with appropriate materials and the right
locations in the school area allow the children to apply their skills and facilitates integration
of new behaviours into everyday school life.
A Safe Water School contains four main infrastructural elements:
Water treatment station
The water treatment station is a place where the school
water is treated. This manual includes descriptions for
building and operating water treatment stations for the
SODIS method and chlorination.
Safe water station
The safe water station is a clean and elevated place to store
water. It is made up of a table or board and ideally also comprises a closet to store cups and glasses.
Hand washing station
Hand washing stations are fixed places where the children
can wash their hands. The manual includes guidelines for the
construction of two hand washing stations.
Toilet/Latrine
The installation of a toilet or latrine reduces open defecation.
A guideline for construction of a single pit latrine is provided
in the manual.
86
Infrastructure
Principles for the choice of an adequate infrastructure
• Facilities should be children-friendly
–– Right size and age-appropriate
–– Easy to use
–– Easy to clean
–– Adapted to school size
–– Safe, not scary or smelly
–– Weatherproof
• Facilities should be gender-friendly
–– Separate sanitation facilities for boys and girls, male and female teachers
–– For older students, girls’ menstrual hygiene needs must be met
• Facilities should be environment-friendly
–– Latrine site should not contaminate the water source
–– Wastewater drained or recycled
–– Safe solid waste collection and disposal
• Facilities should be parent- and school budget-friendly
–– Choose low-cost affordable models
–– Parents should be key stakeholders and involved in decisions related to finances, facility
models, operation and maintenance
• Facilities should be operation- and maintenance-friendly
–– A good operation and maintenance plan needs to be in place
–– Students should be involved as much as possible in operation and maintenance
–– Financing plans for operation and maintenance should be put in place before starting any
building or purchasing16
Gender friendly toilet with hand washing station
16
USAID: Wash-friendly schools. Basic guide. 2010.
87
Infrastructure
3.1 Water treatment station
The water treatment station is a fixed place where the school water is treated. Its
characteristics vary according to the chosen treatment method. This section includes water
treatment stations for the SODIS method and chlorination.
SODIS station
The SODIS station is made of a solid place to treat water with the SODIS method. It
facilitates SODIS application and improves the efficiency of the method. The SODIS
station consists of a locally manufactured table and has ideally a sheet of corrugated iron
for additional water heating.
Place
The selected place should provide sufficient solar radiation and be easily accessed by
children. If the table cannot be built, the SODIS station can also be positioned on a low
roof or on a wall.
Table
The illustration shows a table built with wood and corrugated
iron. Stability and additional water heating from the iron are
its key assets. Bamboo or sticks can be used as an alternative construction material.
The size can be adapted according to the requirements. An inclined surface can direct the bottles
perfectly towards the sun and increase the impact
of UV-A radiation. The table should be high enough
to prevent animals from urinating over it, but still
reachable for children.
SODIS table with bottles
Bottles
We recommend the use of PET bottles when applying the SODIS method,
as these are light and do not break. They are also readily available in many
regions. However, glass bottles or special SODIS bags can also be used.
The bottles must be transparent and colourless. PET bottles with only a
light bluish tinge are also suited for the SODIS method. Heavily scratched
bottles must be replaced. The bottles must not hold more than three litres,
as UV radiation is reduced with increasing water depth.
88
Transparent
and colourless
PET bottle
Infrastructure
Mini-WATA station
The Mini-WATA is a small and simple device to produce chlorine at 6 g/l. It requires clear
water, salt and a power supply (solar panel or grid).
Place
A shady and well-ventilated area are ideal conditions for using the Mini-WATA.
Mini-Wata kit
The Mini-WATA kit includes the Mini-WATA
device and all the necessary materials to
produce chlorine and control its quality.
It contains:
• 1 Mini-WATA device
Mini-WATA kit, water,
• 1 solar panel (10 watt minimum)
salt and solar panel
• 1 pair of crocodile clips (for solar panel)
or 1 power supply 5 V / 1 A (for electricity)
• 1 WataTest kit (for concentrated chlorine measurement)
• 1 WataBlue kit (for residual chlorine measurement)
• 2 syringes: 50 ml (for production of chlorine), 5 ml (for water treatment)
• 0.5-litre plastic container (for chlorine production and storage of chlorine)
• 2.5-litres container (for storage of all materials)
The 0.5-litre plastic container is intended for chlorine production and storage. A 0.5-litre
PET bottle can also be used for chlorine production. Additionaly produced chlorine not
used straight away for water treatment, should be stored in a dark place. Thus, an opaque
plastic bottle is best suited to protect chlorine from sunlight. If no opaque bottles are
available, use a PET bottle and cover it by a cloth or some similar material.
The Mini-WATA kit is a valuable equipment. Store it in a secure place such as for example
in a locked cupboard.
For the production of chlorine and the water treatment there are
some further materials needed:
• 0.5-litre PET bottle
• Clear water and salt
• 20-litre jerrycan
20-litre jerrycan
89
Infrastructure
3.2 Safe water station
A safe water station consists of a table or board, which serves as a base for vessels or bottles to store the water, as well as cups or glasses for drinking. Ideally, it also comprises a
closet to store cups and glasses.
Place
The safe water station should be located in a fixed, clean and elevated place.
Storage vessels
SODIS water is ideally stored directly in the PET
bottle used for its treatment. Other disinfection
methods use several locally available and usually low-cost vessels (buckets, pots, jerry cans,
barrels, used beverage containers, flexible bags,
and flagons).
However, only some of these, in particular jerry
cans, some plastic beverage containers and some
flexible vessels are suitable for safe water storage.
Suitability of storage vessels is influenced by five
key factors:
Safe water station
with closet
• E
ase of transport and use
The vessels are of 10 - 25 litre capacity for households, rectangular or cylindrical in shape
with one or more handles and flat bottom for ease of transport and storage.
• D
urability
The vessels are ideally made of light, oxidation-resistant plastic.
• C
over
They are equipped with a 6 - 9 cm screw top to facilitate cleaning, small enough to
discourage or prevent the introduction of hands or dipping utensils.
• Safe withdrawal of water
The vessels are ideally fitted with a durable, protected and easily closed lid, spigot, spout
or other narrow orifice for dispensing water.
• Instructions
The vessels are ideally provided with pictorial and/or written instructions for use affixed
permanently to the container, including an affixed certificate of approval or authenticity.17
17
90
Sobsey: Managing Water in the Home. 2002.
Infrastructure
3.3 Hand washing station
Hand washing stations are fixed places where the children can wash their hands. They
should always be equipped with soap and soakaways for draining the wastewater. Two
guidelines for the construction of a hand washing station are included, both models are
simple to build and maintain.
Place
Hand washing stations should be placed near the toilet and at an appropriate height for
children.
Hand washing station with containers and vessels
Hand washing station with bottles
Hand washing station Tippy Tap
91
Infrastructure
Build a Hand washing station with bottles
• Materials
–– Piles of wood, metal or bamboo
–– Nails
–– Bottles (0.5 - 3 litres)
–– Strong rope
• Step 1: Set up the framework
Use wood, metal or bamboo to build the framework of the hand washing station. There
are many ways to set up this framework, which mainly consists of a stable horizontal
pile on solid pillars. Make sure that the wastewater is collected in containers or that
soakaways prevent muddy pools.
• Step 2: Prepare the bottles
Cut empty PET bottles with screw caps into two pieces about 5 cm
above the bottom. Pierce each side of the bottle parts with a hot nail
or knife. Pull the rope through the holes.
The smaller part hangs normally inside the larger one and functions as
a tap or soap dish. While filling the larger part of the bottle with water,
the smaller part hangs on the rope alongside.
• Step 3: Hang the prepared bottles on the framework
Hang the bottles on the piles. Make sure that the bottles hang at an
appropriate height for children.
The hand washing station is now ready for use. The children can turn the screw cap
until water emerges to wash their hands according to the three key steps of hand washing. To prevent recontamination of the water, it is important that the children touch the
screw caps with caution.
Optional: To avoid direct contact of the screw cap with
dirty hands, the cap is equipped with an additional
structure for water exit. Pierce the cap on one side
with a hot nail and prepare a clean stick or match to
seal the hole.
92
Infrastructure
Build a Hand washing station with a water container
Specially fabricated containers with a tap and spigot are widely used options for hand
washing stations. The containers can be placed on a table together with soap. Another
container for wastewater collection or a soakaway to prevent muddy pools should be
placed on the ground. Hand washing stations with containers can also be produced with a
five-litre container hanging on a horizontal stick.18
• Materials
–– Tools to dig
–– 4 sticks of wood, metal or bamboo
–– 1 nail
–– 1 candle
–– 1 soap
–– 1 water container (volume about five litres)
–– 2 strong ropes
• Step 1: Set up the framework
Use wood, metal or bamboo to build the framework of the hand washing station. Dig
two holes, about 70 cm apart and 50 cm deep. Place a stick in every hole, make sure
that they are levelled and fill the holes with soil and stone to stabilise the framework.
Place then a stable horizontal pile on solid pillars. Place a container for wastewater
collection or build a soakaway (e.g. gravel basin) to prevent muddy pools.
• Step 2: Prepare the container
Take an empty and clean plastic container. Heat a nail with a candle
and make two holes in the container. One in the lid, the other about
10 cm below the lid. The holes should have a diameter of about 3 mm.
Attach the rope on one end to the remaining stick. On the other end,
pass the rope through the hole in the lid and tie a knot to stop its
passage through the hole. Make a hole in the soap, pass a piece of
rope through the soap and tie a knot.
• Step 3: Hang the prepared container and soap on the framework
Make sure that the container hangs at an appropriate height for the children. If the
container cannot be hung directly on the framework, use another rope or part of a
plastic bag.
The hand washing station is now ready for use. The children can tip the stick lying on
the ground until water emerges to wash their hands according to the three key handwashing steps.
18
University of Twente: How to make a Tippy Tap. 2008.
93
Infrastructure
3.4 Toilets and latrines
For schools without a sanitation infrastructure, we have integrated a guideline to build a
Single Pit Latrine. Consult the “Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies” for
more information on sanitation technologies.19
Build a single pit latrine
The single pit latrine is one of the most widely used sanitation technologies. It can be built
with locally available materials, does not require a constant source of water and can be
used immediately after construction.
The simplicity of the single pit latrine implicates some limitations: flies and odours are
normally noticeable, leachate can contaminate groundwater and the pits are susceptible
to break down during floods. We therefore recommend constructing single pit latrines at
a distance of 30 m from the next water source and also at an appropriate distance from
buildings.
A full single pit latrine can be covered and the superstructure moved to a new pit or it can
be pumped out and reused. If the pit is to be reused or built in soft, loose soil, it should be
lined with adequate, locally available materials, like bricks, rot-resistant timber, concrete,
oil drums, bamboo or stones.
• Step 1: Dig a hole
The pit is ideally deeper than 3 m and of 1 – 1.5 m in diameter. The risk of collapsing
increases if the diameter exceeds 1.5 m.
• Step 2: Line the pit
If the pit is to be reused or built in soft, loose soil, the upper half of the pit should be
lined.
Pits lined with stones, concrete rings and bamboo
19
94
Tilley E. et al.: Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2008.
Infrastructure
• S
tep 3: Build a slab
The slab, commonly made of concrete, cement, wood or
bamboo, covers the pit of the latrine. The slab can be
the same size as the outer lining if it is stable. If not,
the slab has to be slightly larger and cover the ground
at least 20 cm.
Slab with cover
The slab with a hole is used for disposing of the faeces or
urine. The hole should not be too large to avoid small children from falling into the pit.
A keyhole 10 cm wide and 40 cm long with a 20-cm diameter circular hole at one end
is a good size.
• S
tep 4: Build a toilet house
There are many ways of building a toilet house with simple low cost materials. Its main
objective is to offer privacy to the users. Since school sanitation facilities should be
gender specific, we recommend separate toilets or latrines for boys and girls.
Single pit latrine
95
Application
4 Application
It is an important principle of the Safe Water School that all members get involved in
application as much as possible. The bases for this broad involvement are the practiceoriented education and installation of appropriate infrastructure. However, specific activities
can be delegated to a Safe Water Club and a Safe Water Manager as they can be carried
out more efficiently.
Save Water Club
A Safe Water Club is a school health club consisting of one teacher and a group of about
ten children (numbers depending on class and school size). The members of the club
are responsible for operation and maintenance of the infrastructure and act as agents of
change among their peers, their families and the wider community. Participation is on a
voluntary basis and the club should compose of a representative group of the school (age,
gender, socio-economic background, religious or ethnic groups). The club’s activities include:
• Operation and the maintenance of the Safe Water School infrastructure
–– Water treatment station: Treat the water to supply the school with safe water and keep the
station clean.
–– Hand washing station: Fill the bottles or the tank with safe water every morning and if
needed once more during the day. Check if there is soap at hand.
–– Safe water station: Assure every morning that there is enough safe water stored and keep
the safe water station clean.
–– Toilet or latrine: Check everyday if the toilet/latrine is clean and organise cleaning.
• Support children in the use of the infrastructure and encourage them to adopt good
behaviour in school and at home.
• Organise activities (e.g. games, exhibitions, competitions) on the topics of water,
hygiene and health.
96
Application
Save Water Manager
The Safe Water Manager is the responsible person in school for everything related to
the Safe Water School. This position can be filled by the school director or a motivated
teacher.
The activities of the Safe Water Manager are:
• Organise the setting of targets for the Safe Water School
• Monitor the Safe Water School
• Supervise the activities of the Safe Water Club
• Advise teachers in conducting the Safe Water School lessons
• Maintain and supervise the use of the infrastructure
• Encourage interactions between parents – teachers, school – community
• Evaluate the Safe Water School
97
From School to Community
5 From School to Community
Schools are key environments in bringing behavioural changes in the community. The
Safe Water School therefore includes several actions to raise awareness in the community and to present solutions for local water-related problems. An efficient and sustainable
interaction benefits the community and the school equally:
• P
reventing diseases is only efficient if children drink safe water and live hygienic in
school and at home.
• C
hildren are in general highly motivated to improve conditions and practices at home
and in their communities and can thus be excellent catalysts for positive change.
• S
chool events (e.g. family days) and children’s assignments (e.g. simple surveys in their
homes, neighbourhoods and community) are excellent opportunities to raise awareness and initiate community projects
• Schools need the assistance of parents and local administrations and organisations to
establish and sustain good facilities.20
Save Water Promoter
After completing the nine school lessons of the Safe Water School, the children have
acquired the skills to act as agents of change in the community.
As Safe Water Promoter they ...
• understand the links between water, hygiene and health
• can handle the Safe Water School infrastructure properly
• can disinfect water and store it safely
• can live hygienically
• are willed to apply their skills in school and at home
• are willed to help their families, friends and the community
Safe Water Promoter
20
98
IRC: Towards Effective Programming for WASH in Schools. 2007.
From School to Community
Safe Water Family Club
The Safe Water Family Club aims to close the gap between school and the families in order
to increase the impact of the Safe Water School in community and to obtain the support of
the families in school. It is an adaption of the widely existing parents-teachers clubs as it
integrates more family members.
The concept of the Safe Water Family Club takes into account the importance of involving
not only the parents, but also other family members. Depending on the familiar situation,
promoting direct contact with the grandparents, older brothers and sisters or other close
relatives of the children, can be very useful.
The activities of the Safe Water Family Club include:
•
•
•
•
•
upport the maintenance of school facilities
S
Support provision of consumables, such as PET bottles or soap
Locally promote improvements in school water supply, sanitation and hygiene
Raise funds and help to plan improvements with school directors and teachers
Organise activities on the topics of water, hygiene and health
Workshop for community members
99
Appendix
6 Appendix
6.1 Playful and creative activities
Knowledge, attitude and skills are ideally reinforced with playful and creative activities like
songs, games, plays or puppet shows.
• S
inging is an important form of communication which can create an emotional access
to a topic. It is not only possible to integrate an existing song, but also to develop a song
together with the children.
• G
ames are fun, but also a playful way of learning. Ideally, the lessons contain different
local games. The “Thunderstorm” game has been integrated as an example.
• S
tage characters and puppets promote magic, adventures, ideas, knowledge, emotions and feelings. They help to anchor the new knowledge in a free, imaginative way.
The “Thunderstorm” game
The “Thunderstorm” game is about running and singing. It can be played with chairs in the
classroom or with stones in the schoolyard. The teacher prepares the game with several
questions on the topic of a lesson. To keep pace with the game, it is recommended to ask
questions that require a short answer. For example: Tell me the name of a water treatment
method? How many hours of sunlight does the SODIS method need?
• The children position their chairs or stones in a circle.
• T
he teacher removes a chair/stone and says “Start”. The children start to sing a song
and move in a circle to one side.
• The teacher says “Thunderstorm” to stop the running. All the children should try to sit
on a chair or place a foot on a stone. The child without chair/stone is allowed to stay in
the game if he answers the question correctly. If a child does not know the answer, he/
she has to leave the circle and continue to lead the game.
• The child says when the next round starts and stops and asks also the question. He/she
can ask anything about the lesson or receive a card with a question from the teacher.
Children who are out of the circle stay in the classroom singing the songs together with
the other children still in the game.
• The child who remains last in the circle wins the game and a price (e.g. wish for a song).
100
Appendix
Guidelines for plays and puppet shows
There are six main steps to prepare a play or puppet show:
• S
tep 1: Introduce the project
The teacher explains the project idea, announces when and where they will present the
play/puppet show, organises groups and proposes different topics, like water contamination, water disinfection, hand washing.
• S
tep 2: Topic research
While choosing the topic, the group should
already think about the possibilities of
integrating daily life at home and in school into
the puppet show: What happens at home, in
school, with friends? What are the dangers
and problems? What will happen if the topicrelated problems cannot be solved?
• S
tep 3: Write the script
To create a story we answer these questions:
–– What characters should be in the story?
–– How are the characters?
–– What will these characters do?
• Step 4: Equip the characters
–– Play: Search stage props like clothes suited to the different characters.
–– Puppet show: Almost every material can be used to build a puppet, for example boxes,
cans, bottles, leaves, clothes. Suggestion: Look at your hands and make a drawing of them.
Then exchange your drawings with a friend and convert the drawings into characters, with
eyes, mouth, hair, glasses. Cut out the drawings, glue it to a stick ... and we have a puppet!
We can also build a stage, so that the spectators only see the puppets.
• Step 5: Give life to the characters
It is good to leave space and time to improvise during the practices.
–– Puppet show: To give life to our puppets, we conduct several exercises. In groups of three
or four move the puppets in different ways: walk, move slowly, fly, crawl, crouch, embrace,
fall forward, backward, sit, talk to the public, talk to the puppets.
–– Play: Play-acting can focus more on choreography and gesture.
• S
tep 6: Performance
The play/puppet show can be performed in front of the school class, the families or
community.
101
Appendix
6.2 Images
Lesson 1 - Water cycle
The water cycle describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the earth’s surface.
Water cycle
Lesson 1 - Personal water use
Six examples of personal water use.
Washing face
Washing clothes
Drinking water
Playing with water
Cleaning body
Washing hands
Lesson 1 - Dirty and clean household
Dirty household: flies in the house, chicken on storage container, open defecation from child and animals, open
waste disposal, faecal contamination of the water source, untied animals near the house, unhygienic food storage.
Clean household: protected water source, latrine, tied animals, distance between house and animals, water
storage container with lid, clean house, container for waste disposal.
Dirty household
102
Clean household
Appendix
Lesson 1 - Disease transmission routes
The diagram illustrates the faecal-oral transmission mechanism through a variety of routes – via fingers, flies
(insects), fields and fluids, food or directly to the mouth. It is often called the F-Diagram since it uses so many
“F-words” in English.
F-Diagram
Faeces
Fingers
Flies
Fields
Fluids
Food
Mouth
Lesson 1 - Disease transmission barriers
Examples of disease transmission barriers.
Latrine
Boiling
Toilet
SODIS method
Washing hands
Safe water storage
Chlorination
Lesson 1 - Realise your dreams
Different symbols of possible dreams: Football player, doctor and teacher.
Realise your dreams
103
Appendix
Lesson 2 - A look into water
Symbolic illustration of the microorganisms in water and their illness-causing potentials.
A look into water
Lesson 2 - Water sources
Water sources with high risk of contamination (river, pond) and reduced risk of contamination (protected spring,
rainwater, protected well).
River
Protected spring
Pond
Rain
Protected well
Lesson 2 - Water contamination
Series 1: River
104
River with waste
River with faeces
Drinking water from river
Diarrhoea
River with animals
Lying in bed due to illness
Washing clothes in river
Appendix
Series 2: Spring
Collecting water
Unsafe water storage
Drinking unsafe water
Diarrhoea
Collecting water
Drinking unsafe water
Lying in bed due to illness
Filling bottles with water
Placing bottles to the sun
Drinking safe water
Unsafe water at home
Disinfecting water with
chlorine
Drinking safe water
Illness
Series 3: Well
Well with waste
Funeral
Lesson 3 - Water disinfection
Series 1: SODIS method
Cleaning PET bottles
Series 2: Chlorination
Collecting water
105
Appendix
Series 3: Boiling
Filling water
Boiling water
Cooling down water
Drinking safe water
Placing bottles to the sun
Drinking safe water
Disinfecting water with
chlorine
Drinking safe water
Lesson 4 - SODIS method
Four steps of the sodis method.
Cleaning PET bottles
Filling bottles with water
Lesson 5 - Chlorination
Disinfecting water with chlorine.
Collecting water
Unsafe water at home
Lesson 6 - Water quality test
Symbolic illustration of the microorganisms in water and their illness-causing potentials.
A look into water
106
Appendix
Lesson 7 - Water recontamination
Examples of preventing water recontamination
Safe water storage
Cleaning hands
Using clean cups
Cleaning cups
Open bottle and dirty cups
Animals drinking water
Child playing with water
Examples of wrong water storage
Open water containers
Dirty cups and botlles
Lesson 8 - Bottom - Hand - Mouth, Clean hands
Bottom
Hand
Mouth
Washing hands
Dirty hands
Cleaning hands with soap
Rubbing front and back
Cleaning hands
Drying hands
107
Appendix
6.3 Mini-WATA user guides
1. a) User guide “Mini-WATA - Use with solar power supply”
b) User guide “Mini-WATA - Use with electric power supply”
2. User guide “WataTest reagent kit”
3. User guide “Use of active chlorine concentrate”
4. User guide “WataBlue reagent kit”
For more information, please consult: www.antenna.ch/en/research/safe-water.
108
2 syringes : 50 mL , 5 mL
(concentrated chlorine measurement)
1 WataTest kit
(residual chlorine measurement)
1 WataBlue kit
2
The volume of the brine must represent 1/13 of the
total volume for electrolysis.
3
0,5L
1
4
5
0,5L= 5h.
min.
10W
5 hours of sunshine to produce 0.5 L of concentrated
chlorine (6 g/litre or 6000 ppm)
to the “+” terminal of the panel). Bubbles should
immediately be seen forming in the bottle. Wait
Connect the clips (5) of the Solar Mini-WATA to
your energy source (red cable of the Mini-Wata
Mini-WATA
6-18 V
Take it out of the
concentrate
(6), rinse it with
clear water and
store it.
6
7
Store the chlorine
concentrate in a labelled opaque container
(8).
8
WATA® is a registered product from Antenna Technologies - rev.22.06.2011
the quality of concentrated
chlorine solution (7).
WataTest reagent to check
The concentration of the
solution will depend on the
amount of sunshine, use the
!
more salt and proceed from step 2.
container.
If no excess salt is visible, add
Make sure that there is salt
remaining at the bottom of the
container. Close and label the
4
Keep in a dark place, away from light. Shake/mix for 30 minutes
to dissolve as much salt as
possible.
3
Use of clear water
Add a large amount of salt
(about 400g of salt per litre
of water).
2
PREPARATION OF SATURATED BRINE
4. Never use metallic containers in the procedure.
1. The device must only be used by a responsible person. Carefully read the user guide before using.
2. The chlorine concentrate is not dangerous. Rinse well with water in case of accidental contact with the solution. Do not inhale.
3. The concentrate should be stored in clearly labelled, clean, opaque, tightly-closed, glass/plastic containers, Keep away from children.
Fill a (non-metallic) container
of any size with clear water.
!
Top up the bottle with water (3) until full
and immerse totally the Mini-WATA
in the salt solution (4).
40 mL
Using the large (50 mL) syringe, put 40 mL of
saturated brine (1) into a 0.5L bottle (2).
1
Saturated brine
40 mL
PRODUCTION OF CHLORINE CONCENTRATE
source of between 6V and 18V (solar panel, 10W minimum)
is designed to fit into the neck of a standard 0.5 litre plastic
bottle. It should be plugged into a direct current supply
The Mini-WATA device uses electrolysis to produce a
concentrated solution of active chlorine from salt water. It
1 Mini-WATA
Height : 12 cm
Weight : 116g
[email protected]
www.antenna.ch
1 pair of crocodile clips Mini-WATA KIT CONTENT
User guide
Production of active chlorine
Use with solar power supply
Mini-WATA
Appendix
109
110
(concentrated chlorine measurement)
1 WataTest kit
(residual chlorine measurement)
1 WataBlue kit
1 power supply 5V / 1A 2 syringes : 50 mL, 5 mL [email protected]
www.antenna.ch
2
total volume for electrolysis.
The volume of the brine must represent 1/13 of the
3
0,5L
1
4
Mini-WATA
0,5L= 5h.
(6 g/litre or 6000 ppm)
Plug in the Mini-WATA power supply (5)
(110 or 220 V). Bubbles should immediately
be seen forming in the bottle. Wait 5 hours
to produce 0.5 L of concentrated chlorine
5
110 ou 220 V
!
gent (7).
Proceed to the quality
control check of the
concetrated chlorine
with WataTest rea-
7
Store the chlorine
concentrate in a labelled opaque container
(8).
8
WATA® is a registered product from Antenna Techonologies - rev.22.06.2011
Unplug the device
(6).
Take it out of water, rinse
it with clear water and
store it.
6
salt and proceed from step 2.
Close it and label the container.
If no excess salt is visible, add more
Make sure that there is salt remaining at
the bottom of the container.
4
Keep in a dark place, away from light. possible.
of water).
Use of clear water
Shake/mix for 30 minutes
to dissolve as much salt as
3
Add a large amount of salt
(about 400g of salt per litre
2
PREPARATION OF SATURATED BRINE
1. The device must only be used by a responsible person. Carefully read the user guide before using.
2. The chlorine concentrate is not dangerous. Rinse well with water in case of accidental contact with the solution. Do not inhale.
3. The concentrate should be stored in clearly labelled, clean, opaque, tightly-closed, glass/plastic containers, keep away from children.
4. Never use metallic containers in the procedure.
Fill a (non-metallic) container
of any size with clear water.
!
Top up the bottle with water (3) until full and
immerse totally the Mini-WATA in the salt
solution (4).
40 mL
Using the large (50 mL) syringe, put 40ml of
saturated brine (1) into a 0.5L bottle (2).
1
Saturated brine
40 mL
PRODUCTION OF CHLORINE CONCENTRATE
supply accepts 110V or 220 V alternative current.
the neck of a standard 0.5 litre plastic bottle. Its power electrolysis process. It is designed in order to fit into The Mini-WATA device produces concentrated solution of active chlorine from salt water, through an 1 Mini-WATA
Height: 12 cm
Weight: 114g
Mini-WATA KIT CONTENT
User guide
Production of active chlorine
Mini-WATA
Appendix
Appendix
WataTest reagent kit*
Quality control check for concentrated chlorine
solution produced by WATA
ANTENNA
Research for progress
[email protected]
www.antenna.ch
User guide
WataTest KIT CONTENT
1 flask of WataTest reagent
1 syringe (1 mL) to be used only for taking a WataTest reagent sample
1 plastic pipette (3 mL) to be used only for taking a chlorine concentrate sample
ALWAYS USE A CLEAN AND DRY SYRINGE TO TAKE THE WataTest SAMPLE
PROCEDURE
2 mL
1
WataTest Reagent
2
Mix well the concentrated chlorine solution you
want to measure.
2
Using the plastic pipette, take exactly 2 ml of
chlorine solution and place it in a cup or small
recipient.
3
Shake well the WataTest flask.
4
Fill the syringe with WataTest reagent and be
prepared to count the drops you use. Close the
flask immediately.
5
Add one drop of WataTest to the recipient and mix
gently. If after a few seconds, the contents
remain transparent, add another d r o p of
WataTest reagent.
6
Continue to add drops of reagent until the
sample remains a dark colour after mixing.
WataTest Reagent
QUALITY CONTROL CHECK FOR CONCENTRATED
CHLORINE SOLUTION PRODUCED BY WATA
Contrôle de qualité d'une solution concentrée de
chlore produite par le WATA
QUALITY CONTROL CHECK FOR CONCENTRATED
CHLORINE SOLUTION PRODUCED BY WATA
Contrôle de qualité d'une solution concentrée de
chlore produite par le WATA
www.antenna.ch
www.antenna.ch
3
1
4
5
6
RESULT
Chlorine content (in g/L) = the number of WataTest drops divided by two.
Example: 12 drops = 6 g/L active chlorine
Any strength above 6g/L is fine. If the test shows a strength below 6g/ L, then change the
instructions for diluting the chlorine. Check the details in your user guide for active chlorine.
STORAGE
Keep WataTest away from light and at room temperature (25°). To avoid liquid’s oxydation
close tightly the flask after each use. Beware of expiry date.
* this reagent is non-hazardous.
WATA® is a registered product from Antenna Technologies - rev. 30.09.2010
111
112
Research for progress
ANTENNA
1L
4’000 L
Dilution 1 : 4000
Clear water to treat
5 ML
2
20L
CLEAR
WATER
4
Shake vigorously (3).
Rinse the syringe thoroughly.
Wait 30 minutes (4) for the chlorine
to act on any microbes.
3
30 min.
The WataBlue reagent allows the measurement of the quantity of residual active chlorine in the water.
With a small syringe (1), add 5 mL of
chlorine concentrate to 20 litres of water (2).
1
PROCEDURE
• Important: only chlorinate clear water. If the water is cloudy or dirty, filter it
before treatment.
• Residual chlorine level for drinking water should be between 0.5 and 1 ppm.
• The treated water should be stored in a clean, opaque and closed container.
• Drinking water chlorination should always be performed under the supervision of a
qualified person.
6 g/L
Active chlorine concentrate
produced with
WATA:
1
Allow to react for at
least 12 hours
then rinse with
drinking water
Allow to react for 5
minutes then rinse
with drinking water
Allow to react for 5
minutes then rinse
with drinking water
Allow to react for 5
minutes then rinse
with drinking water
PREPARATION
WATA® is a registered product from Antenna Technologies - rev. 01.04.2011
Surgery and sterilization: Chlorine disinfection is not sufficient for surgical
instruments. These have to be sterilized in an autoclave or a hot air oven.
Using a clean compress, apply the concentrated chlorine directly on the
wound like a disinfectant.
Disinfection of wounds: The active chlorine concentrate produced by WATA
compares with Dakin solution.
For this use, the chlorine concentration must be of 6g/L.
WataTest reagent measures the concentration of chlorine.
1
3
1
• Floors
• Bathrooms
• Latrines
• Laboratory equipment
• Pipettes & tubes
• Boxes of human
samples
5
1
100
1
• Washing food
• Dishes & crockery
• Kitchen utensils
• Work surfaces
VOLUME
OF
WATER
VOLUME OF
CHLORINE
CONCENTRATE
APPLICATIONS
The active chlorine concentrate produced with the WATA devices is used in the same way as
bleach, using the following dilutions:
The quantity of active chlorine concentrate necessary for water treatment depends on the
initial water quality.
For water of average quality, 1 litre of concentrate produced using WATA is sufficient for
the treatment of about 4 m3 of water.
[email protected]
www.antenna.ch
DISINFECTION AND CLEANING
The concentration of active chlorine
decreases with time, it should be used
within 24 hours after its production.
DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION
User guide
produced with WATA
Drinking water chlorination & Disinfection and cleaning
Use of active chlorine concentrate
Appendix
Appendix
WataBlue reagent kit*
Drinking water residual chlorine measurement check
ANTENNA
Research for progress
[email protected]
www.antenna.ch
User guide
WataBlue KIT CONTENT
1 bottle of WataBlue liquid reagent
1 plastic pipette (3 ml) - only to be used in the testing of water samples
1 test-tube - only to be used for this test
QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURE
8
h
-
aB
W
at
M RE
E
1 A SID
D S
00
9.2
.0
06
w
Te
U U
s RO R A
1 t d P EM L C
go e
/
H
u do 5 EN L
w.a tte sag mL T OR
nte / 5 me d WACH IN
nn L u ch TE EC E
a.c eau lo R K
re
w
5 mL
O
K
20L
CLEAR
WATER
1
2
3
Add 1 drop of WataBlue reagent (3).
Seal the tube and shake well.
The blue colour shows the level of residual
chlorine in the drinking water.
30 minutes after chlorination, take
5ml from the container (1) and
transfer it to the test-tube (2).
If the sample remains colourless, double the dose of chlorine in the water, wait 30
minutes and proceed from stage 1 (<0.5 ppm).
If the sample colour is light blue, you have safe drinking water (0.5-1 ppm).
If the sample colour is dark blue, reduce the chlorine dose by half, wait 30 minutes
and proceed from stage 1 (>1 ppm).
Rince the test tube between 2 tests
STORAGE
Keep WataBlue away from light and at room temperature (25°). To avoid liquid’s oxydation close tightly the flask after each use. Beware of expiry date. Please note that with time,
the reagent can turn red/brown. This will not affect the quality of the test.
* this reagent is non-hazardous.
WATA®
is a registered product from Antenna Technologies - rev. 30.09.2010
113
Appendix
6.4 Log-books
Log-book for Mini-WATA
Date
114
Responsible
Name
Starting Ending Quantity
time
time
produced
Chlorine
Concentration
Problem
encountered
Appendix
Log-book for the SODIS method
Date
Responsible
(Name)
Starting
time
Ending
time
Number
of bottles
Quantity
produced
Problem
encountered
115
Appendix
6.5 Online resources
The online resources of the Safe Water School are all available on the website
www.sodis.ch/safewaterschool. There are videos posted and links to recommended websites and scientific publications.
6.6 References
• C
aritas Switzerland/Caritas Luxembourg: Children’s Hygiene and Sanitation Training. A Practical Facilitation Handbook for Pupils from Grade 1 to 3. Switzerland, 2009.
• CAWST: An introduction to household water treatment and safe storage. Calgary, 2009.
• C
AWST: Biosand filter manual. Design, construction, installation, operation and maintenances.
Calgary, 2010.
• F
ewtrell L. et al.: Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aberystwyth, 2005.
• International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies: Household water treatment
and safe storage in emergencies. A field manual for Red Cross/Red Crescent personnel and
volunteers. Geneva, 2008.
• IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre: Life Skills-Based Hygiene Education: A guidance
document on concepts, development and experiences with life skills-based hygiene education in
school sanitation and hygiene education programmes. Delft, 2004.
• IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre: Towards Effective Programming for WASH in
Schools: A manual on scaling up programmes for water, sanitation and hygiene in schools. Delft,
2007.
• L
antagne D. et al.: Household water treatment and safe storage options in developing Countries:
A Review of Current Implementation Practices. Wahington D.C., 2005.
• S
andec: Training Tool for capacity development in the sector of water and environmental health.
Duebendorf, 2008.
• Sobsey M. et al.: Managing Water in the Home: Accelerated Health Gains from Improved Water
Supply. Geneva, 2002.
• Tilley E. et al.: Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, 2008.
• University of Twente: How to make a Tippy Tap. Twente, 2008.
• U
SAID: Wash-friendly schools. Basic guide for school directors, teachers, students and administrators. Washington D.C., 2010.
• WHO: Combating diseases at the household level. Geneva, 2007.
• WHO: Domestic Water Quantity, Service Level and Health. Geneva, 2003.
• WHO: Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 4th ed.. Geneva, 2011.
• WHO: Oral rehydration salts. Production of the new ORS. Geneva, 2006.
116
Appendix
6.7 Notes
117
Appendix
118
Appendix
119
This manual, developed for primary schools in developing countries is a
working tool for teachers, school directors and school staff to turn schools
step-by-step into Safe Water Schools.
In the Safe Water School children are educated in the fields of water,
hygiene and health. The education is combined with the development of an
adequate infrastructure and daily application of the new knowledge. The
Safe Water School includes also activities to raise the awareness of the
community and to present solutions to local water-related problems.
Fly UP