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GIZ 2011 Draft CSP for Varanasi Executive Summary

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GIZ 2011 Draft CSP for Varanasi Executive Summary
ALLCHEMY
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
1.1 Introduction
The Government of India (GoI) had identified 100% sanitation as a goal during the 11th Five Year
Plan. The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) officially launched a country-wide National
Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) on November 12, 2008 with an objective to call upon individual
states to draft their own strategies based on the NUSP, while taking into account of their own specific
requirements. These strategies are a part of the City Sanitation Plan. The NUSP defines the city
sanitation plan as- “A comprehensive document which details out the short, medium and long term
plans for the issues related to governance, technical, financial, capacity building, awareness and propoor interventions to ensure 100% access to safe sanitation.”
The City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi has been prepared with support from GIZ-ASEM. It has been
designed to address the special nature of the city which has undergone massive interventions, the likes
of Ganga Action Plan without much effect. It has been prepared after detailed stakeholders
consultation, governmental, nongovernmental and the various other city and area level organizations.
The CSP is directive in nature, suggesting the various possible interventions and principles to achieve
city sanitation in a comprehensive way. Various technological, management and institutional options
have been examined, which will facilitate the urban local body to adopt specific strategies and
projects best suited to their situation.
1.2 Reference to the Status Report
The Status report examines in detail the existing conditions and the sanctioned proposals and projects
with respect to urban sanitation. The sanitation status of the city has been assessed based on primary
studies, secondary information and discussions with the stakeholders.
The status report also gives an idea of the future scenario, in terms of the sanitation infrastructure
demand in light of the population and the lifestyle changes. This is then followed by the analysis of
the existing and proposed infrastructure plans, to understand the sufficiency of the same and identify
the gaps if any.
The situation analysis has been done for the sectors of Water supply (aspecst related to sanitation
only), Access to toilets, Sewage management, Sold waste management and Storm water management.
Spatial identification of the stress areas has been done to streamline the action plan.
1.3 Sectoral Analysis
Detailed sectoral analysis has been undertaken for each sanitation sector, to identify the gaps.
References from the service level benchmarking have been drawn and the identification of the typical
sanitation problems if the city has been done. This is essential to formulate a time line based action
plan
The NUSP indicators have been referred and the roadmap of the city to evolve from its existing rank
of 331among 443 cities has been developed.
The actual sectoral analysis has been added as an annexure to this document.
CEPT, Ahmedabad
2
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
1.4 Strategic approach of CSP Varanasi
The overall goal of a strategic sanitation approach is to provide services to the town or city as a
whole. The means of achieving the same are very case specific and has to be understood from similar
initiatives that the city has been exposed in the past.
The graphic below is an indication of the present status of Sanitation Infrastructure availability in
Varanasi. To become a complete sanitized city, the city has to achieve 100% targets in all the aspects
related to the sanitation infrastructure.
Figure 1- Proposed strategy for CSP Varanasi
The over optimistic approach of a one step although popular have traditionally failed to bring out a
substantial change in the overall scenario. The present status of city is more than representative of
this case wherein more than Rs.500 crores have been spent through Ganga Action Plan (GAP)
phase I and II.
CEPT, Ahmedabad
3
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
Figure 2: Several small steps are easier to achieve than one big jump
Hence the approach of taking small incremental steps is much more appropriate in context of the
Varanasi. The concept here is to decide small targets which are specific, realistic and time-based. The
figure below explains the approach adopted in the City Sanitation Plan.
1.5 Goal of CSP Varanasi
The city sanitation plan Varanasi is driven by the Vision of 100% sanitation in accordance to the
NUSP guidelines. It is envisaged that by 2020, the city shall have access to proper sanitation facilities
for all its citizens.
Totally Sanitized Varanasi by 2020
Nirmal Kashi by 2020
1.5.1 Objectives for Nirmal Kashi 2020
The various objectives to achieve the vision for 100% sanitized Varanasi are as under:
To plan for an integrated city sanitation provision
To ensure equitable and accessible sanitation to all
To design and plan packages and policies to achieve the vision of Nirmal Kashi 2020
To integrate sanitation awareness and behavioral change inducing policies and packages
To identify and promote environmentally and financially sustainable solutions for city sanitation
which can be effectively managed at the city level.
CEPT, Ahmedabad
4
Draft City Sanitaation Plan for Varaanasi
1.6 Methodo
M
ology
Figure 33 Methodoloogy for CSP Varanasi
1.7 Key
K Issue
e and recommen
ndationss
The following sectionn identifies thhe various keyy sanitation isssues of Varaanasi. These issues are backed
by the rationale
r
of thhe same and are followedd by recommeendations thaat can effectivve address thhese
issues.
CEP
PT Ahmedabad
5
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
1.7.1 Key Issue 1
Public toilets in the city are inadequate and under-maintained resulting in open defecation
being practiced rampantly in the city affecting the health and environment.
1.7.1.1
Rationale for Key Issue- 1
15% of the city does not have access to toilets and resorts to open defecation.
The primary surveys indicate that the percentage of population defecating in the open is as much
as 24% in the peripheral areas of the city. The attached table indicates the percentage of people
resorting to open defecation in the slum and non slum areas of the city
Table 1- Access to various types of toilets in non slums from HH survey
Census 2001
Cluster Name
Northern Periphery
Varuna
Assi
Western Periphery
Ghats
Core City
Access to Various Types of Toilet- Non Slums
HH
Population
% Septic
Tank
17641
22619
9587
11166
19175
69745
135210
161578
75252
85825
135667
498386
47.1%
6.5%
25.0%
6.5%
0.4%
0.5%
%
Sewerage
Connection
33.9%
91.3%
73.9%
88.6%
97.9%
99.1%
% Open
Defecation
%
Community
15.7%
0.0%
1.1%
2.4%
0.0%
0.0%
3.3%
2.2%
0.0%
2.4%
1.7%
0.5%
Open defecation has also been observed in the non slum areas and the tourist areas in the city. The
attached map indicates the hotspots of open defecation in the city (Refer annexure I, segment
2.2.2.1)
CEPT, Ahmedabad
6
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
Map 1- Open defecation hotspots in Varanasi
The number of public toilets is inadequate considering the high tourist influx and the
unavailability of public toilets in the dense commercial areas, especially in the core city. (Refer
annexure I, segment 2.2.2.3) The attached map shows the location of the public toilets in the city
and the area.
CEPT, Ahmedabad
7
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
Figure 4- Location of Existing toilets in the core city area
Map 2- Open Urination Hotspots in Varanasi
CEPT, Ahmedabad
8
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
The number of urinals is inadequate forcing people to urinate in the open. The hotspots for open
urination have been indicated in the attached map
1.7.1.2
Recommendations for Key issue- 1
The commercial and the tourist areas should be provided with public toilets. It has been estimated
that as much as 240 seats are required for the public toilets. The attached map shows the
recommended locations of the toilets (Refer annexure I, segment 2.4.1.2)
Map 3- Location of Proposed Public toilets
CEPT, Ahmedabad
9
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
A map of the public convenience at the tourist locations in the city should be developed. (Refer
annexure I, segment 2.4.2.2)
It is suggested that the design construction, operations and maintenance of the public toilets
should be tendered and the same should be taken up through a DPR approach. The design
specification and operation manuals should be developed for maintenance of a minimum desirable
quality of the amenities created.
It is recommended that the Ghats be provided with VIP public toilets with amenities of
international standards. The total number of proposed VIP toilets in the Ghats are indicated in the
attached table(Refer annexure I, segment 2.4.1.3)
Table 2- Estimated number and location of VIP public toilets
Sr. no.
Location
Proposed Public Toilets
Nos.
Type
Location
1
Assi Ghat
1
Type-1
On the approach Road
2
Harishchandra Ghat
1
Type-2
Along the Ghat
3
Kedar Ghat
1
Type-1
On the approach Road
4
Manikarnika Ghat
1
Type-1
On the approach Road
5
Scindiya Ghat
1
Type-2
Along the Ghat
6
Rajghat
1
Type-2
Along the Ghat
7
Malviya Bridge
1
Type-1
On the approach Road
8
Prahalad Ghat
1
Type-1
On the approach Road
9
Chowki Ghat
1
Type-1
On the approach Road
TOTAL
6 Nos. of Type-1 and 3 Nos. of Type-2
Gender sensitive public urinals should be provided. The number is urinals required are indicated
in the attached table and their location can be seen on the attached map.
Table 3- Estimated requirement of Public toilets in Varanasi
Sr.
No
Name of the Road
No. of Public Urinals
Approximate
road length
Type-1
Type-2
1
Raja Moti Chand Road
6 km
2
4
2
University road
2 km
1
2
3
State highway 74
8.3 km
3
4
4
Lahubir
3.05 km
1
2
5
Bari Bazar road
1.75 km
0
2
6
Madan Mohan Malviya Road
3.7 km
1
2
7
Godowlia road
0.6 km
0
3
8
19
Total
CEPT, Ahmedabad
10
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
Map 4- Location of the proposed urinals
1.7.2 Key issue 2
The urban poor lack access to toilets at affordable user charges
1.7.2.1
Rationale for key issue-2
Open defecation is being rampantly practiced by the slum dwellers in the city. This has been
indicated in the attached table
Table 4- Access to various types of toilets in Notified Slums from HH survey
Census 2001
Cluster Name
Northern Periphery
Varuna
Assi
Western Periphery
Ghats
Core City
CEPT, Ahmedabad
Access to Various Types of Toilet- Slums
HH
Population
% Septic
Tank
17641
22619
9587
11166
19175
69745
135210
161578
75252
85825
135667
498386
49.7%
5.4%
8.7%
0.0%
42.3%
23.9%
%
Sewerage
Connection
22.4%
71.4%
32.6%
42.2%
38.5%
60.2%
% Open
Defecation
%
Community
23.8%
23.2%
39.1%
31.3%
7.7%
2.7%
4.2%
0.0%
19.6%
26.5%
11.5%
13.3%
11
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
The user charges for the community toilets allow access to 5 members as against the average HH
size of 7.2.
Primary surveys indicate that the people find the user charge of Rs.30/month/5 user expensive.
There is a lack of toilets for the urban poor, forcing them to defecate in the open. The attached
table indicates the additional toilets required per Community development society(Refer annexure
I, segment 2.2.2.1)
Sr.
No.
Name of the
CDS
Total HH
HH required
community
toilets
Existing CTCs
Additional CTCs required (10
seater)
No.
No. of Seater
High Access
(1 latrine seat
for 25 people)
National
Norms
(1 latrine seat
for 50 people )
1
Bama
2241
256
1
10
6
2
2
Mangalam
1681
188
1
20
3
2
3
Cds -Adishakti
2490
25
0
0
1
0
4
Gyanbapi
2010
43
1
10
1
0
5
Alaknanda
552
63
1
10
0
0
6
Varanasi
3297
598
1
10
11
5
7
Maa Saraswati
2213
456
2
10
8
2
8
Sabla
2029
0
3
10
0
0
1
5
9
Shiwangi
2236
158
2
10
3
1
10
Maa Durga
2095
53
5
10
0
0
1
20
11
Lanka
2217
541
3
10
7
2
1
20
12
Ranilakshmibai
2596
60
3
10
1
0
13
Sarangtalab
2503
262
0
0
4
1
14
Bamangi
2486
146
0
0
2
0
15
Vishal
3970
1672
0
0
34
17
16
Gangotri
2240
58
1
10
1
0
1
5
17
Saranath
1919
486
2
10
9
4
18
Koniya
2288
959
0
0
20
9
19
Chaman
2561
14
1
20
0
0
20
Utthan
3125
1470
1
10
31
15
21
Akshay
2430
449
1
10
8
4
22
Aman
5010
2112
1
10
43
23
23
Kalyan
3286
307
1
5
6
2
24
Jagruti
2325
115
0
0
2
1
25
Narisewa
2987
10
0
0
0
0
26
Navjyoti
2733
46
1
20
1
0
1
10
27
Azad
2120
62
0
0
1
0
CEPT, Ahmedabad
12
Draft City Sanitaation Plan for Varaanasi
Sr.
No.
Name
N
of the
CDS
C
Total HH
HH required
d
community
toilets
Existiing CTCs
Addition
nal CTCs requirred (10
seater)
No.
No. of Seaterr
High Acccess
(1 latrine seat
for 25 peoople)
National
Noorms
(1 latrrine seat
for 500 people )
28
Sagar
S
1807
811
2
20
12
5
29
Kalbhairav
K
2097
165
1
10
3
2
30
Maa
M Ganga
2213
421
1
10
8
5
31
Vishwanath
V
2297
229
2
10
2
1
1
20
32
Bindhawasini
B
1811
122
0
0
2
1
33
Baba
B
Shekh
2641
33
1
20
0
0
34
Maa
M Dhup
Chandi
C
2480
474
3
10
8
2
1
20
320
1
20
6
3
2861
60
1
10
87286
13244
35
Benajir
B
36
Kashi
K
1439
0
0
109
2
244
The toilets are pooorly maintain
ned making ppeople reluctaant to use them
m at the given user chargee all
m
The atttached imagess indicate the same.
the more.
1.7.2.2
Recommen
ndations for key
k issue-2
The slums are to be provided with the CTC
C in the ratio of 1 seat for 50 users in shhort term, whhich
s
2.4.11.1)
shalll grow to 1 seeat for 25 useers in the meddium and longg term. (Referr annexure I, segment
The user charges are to be perr HH based raather than mem
mber based.
The VIP toilets and
a the comm
munity toilets can be given as package too the private entity for O&
&M.
t VIP toiletts is
Thiss shall allow cross subsidization since tthe user fees and the cost recovery in the
elasttic considerin
ng the locatioonal advantagges. (Refer annnexure I, seggment 2.4.2.1 & annexure VI,
segm
ment 7.3.1.2)
The additional faacilities shoulld be enforcedd through inccentive and puunitive measuures and a stroong
ms. (Refer annnexure VI, seg
gment 7.3.1 )
awaareness generaation program
A trripartite moniitoring system
m consisting of
o the CDS dw
wellers, privaate party and the ULB for the
prom
mised levels of
o maintenance should be developed. Tools
T
like citiizens report card
c
are usefuul in
this context. (Reffer annexure I,
I segment 2.44.2.5)
CEP
PT Ahmedabad
13
Draft City Sanitaation Plan for Varaanasi
1.7.3 Key Issue
e3
Seweraage network
k does not co
over the perripheral areeas of the citty.
1.7.3.1
Rationale for
f Key Issuee- 3
The HH surveys indicate thatt the coveragee is as low ass 28% in thee northern peripheral areass of
werage netwoork connection in the variious
the city. The attaached map inndicates the eextant of sew
parts of the city( Refer Annexure-II, segmeent 3.2.2 )
p 5- Coverag
ge of Sewage System in V
Varanasi
Map
CEP
PT Ahmedabad
14
Draft City Sanitaation Plan for Varaanasi
The grey water is
i often connected to the sstorm water drain
d
and disscharged direcctly without any
3
)
treattment into thee river. .( Reffer Annexure--II, segment 3.2.3
1.7.3.2
Recommen
ndations for Key
K issue- 3
Pollicy level inteerventions- Thhe policy meechanism should define annd make it mandatory
m
for the
houssing coloniess to have a sy
ystem of sewaage treatmentt. This has to be embedded
d into the “D
Draft
New
w Integrated Township
T
Pollicy”
Tech
hnological Alternatives
A
off Decentralizzed wastewateer managemeent should bee examined. It
I is
reco
ommended to
o empanel sppecialists/conssultants for the
t same. .( Refer Annexxure-II, segm
ment
3.4.3
3.4 )
1.7.4 Key Issue
e4
Higherr risk due to improp
per septic tanks and
d septage managemen
nt leading to
contam
mination of water
w
bodiees.
1.7.4.1
Rationale for
f Key Issuee- 4
The city does nott have a septaage managem
ment infrastruccture. The sepptage is removved with shovvels
ually and is disposed in low lying arreas (Source: HH Survey,, Interview with
w
and spades manu
O
Human inteerface in the septage mannagement, in violation of the
Sweeepers and Observations).
CPH
HEEO guideliines.
Septtic tanks are not
n cleaned reegularly.
Theyy are design
ned unscientiifically, withoout a soak pit
p and the grey water is
i often direcctly
disccharged withoout any treatm
ment. .( Refer Annexure-II, segment 3.2..3.1 )
The septic tank overflows
o
in most
m cases floows to open plots, nallas annd finally leading to the rivver
g them.
Gannges, polluting
Figure 5: Disccharge of Greyy Water in Draains
1.7.4.2
Recommen
ndations for Key
K issue- 4
Instiitutionalizing
g septic tanks construction and managem
ment. ( Refer Annexure-II, segment 3.4.2.1
)
Emppanelment of the consultannts for the sam
me.
Abo
olishing manu
ual Septage haandling.
Mecchanized Septtage managem
ment based onn user chargees and periodiic cleaning off the same has to
be innstituted. ( Reefer Annexurre-II, segmentt 3.4.2.1 )
CEP
PT Ahmedabad
15
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
1.7.5 Key Issue 5
Inadequate treatment facility of sewage both in terms of capacity and technology
1.7.5.1
Rationale for Key Issue- 5
Only 43% (101.8 MLD- capacity of the treatment plants) of the sewage generated is being treated
at the STP ( Refer Annexure-II, segment 3.2.4 )
Even after the proposed enhancements the treatment capacity will fall short of the requirements
by 5.5% in 2030 and 26% of the total sewage generated in 2040.
Low organic loading at the STPs. The table below shows the observed organic loading and
hydraulic retention time. The organic load is at the lower than the typical organic loads for
Activated Sludge Process.
Table 5: Present Volumetric Organic Loading and Hydraulic Retention Time
STP
Inlet
Flow
BOD
(MLD) (mg/l)
Bhagwanpur
Dinapur
9.8
80
52.71
79.06
Organic
Loading
BOD/m3d)
0.39
0.47
(kg
Typical
Organic
Loading (kg
BOD/m3d) 1
HRT in
Aeration
Tank
(Actual) (d)
Typical
HRT
(d)1
0.3-1.6
0.3-1.6
0.14
0.17
0.2-0.6
0.2-0.6
The treatment technology suggested for the STP under JnNURM DPR is Up-flow Anaerobic
Sludge Blanket. This technology is generally suited for high strength sewage. Hence, with the
strength of sewage (Inlet BOD: 50-80) received in Varanasi STPs this technology needs to be
re-visited.
1.7.5.2
Recommendations for Key issue- 5
The treatment technology suggested in the STP under JnNURM DPR is up-flow anaerobic sludge
blanket which is generally suited for high strength sewage. Since the sewage strength in Varanasi
is weak, the technology needs to be revisited.
The sewer lines should be connected to the inspection chamber of the households rather than the
septic tank.
Addressing the additional treatment capacity required by the year of 2030 is recommended.
1.7.6 Key Issue 6
Solid waste management system does not comply to the MSW 2000 and CPHEEO
manuals
1
Tc
hobanoglous, G., Burton, F., & Stensel, D. H. (2003). Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse.
New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
CEPT, Ahmedabad
16
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
1.7.6.1
Rationale for Key Issue- 6
There is no source segregation.
The organic waste component is to the extent of 52%. The areas like vegetable markets and
temples generate organic wastes only, which are again mixed with the city waste.
Only7% of the city has door to door collection by A2Z in association with the Varanasi Municipal
Corporation. .( Refer Annexure-III, segment 4.3.2.2 )
The selected wards are not representative of the different urban forms in the city like- Ghats,
narrow lanes and peripheral growth.
The secondary storage depots- Kudaghars are under maintained and waste often spills out.
The fleet used for the waste transportation is dilapidated and under capacity.
Waste handling is done without any protective gear.
Dumping of city wastes into the natural resources and vacant plots in the city.
No end disposal/processing plants for the solid waste. The solid waste at present is dumped
outside the municipal limits. ( Refer Annexure-III, segment 4.2.1.6 )
The attached chart shows the percentage of compliance of the solid waste management system in
Varaansi to the MSW rules.
90.00
80.00
84.14
Percentage of compliance to MSW
70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
10.00
1.80
9.64
9.64
0.00
0.00
0.00
Treatment
Disposal
0.00
Storage of
waste at
source
Segregation of Door to door
wastes
collection
Steer
Sweeping
Secondary
storage
Trasportation
Figure 6- MSW compliance in Varanasi
1.7.6.2
Recommendations for Key issue- 6
Awareness Generation Campaign Initiation in collaboration with A2Z. ( Refer Annexure-VI,
segment 6.2.4 )
Pilot intervention areas should be representative of the different urban scape in the city.
Source segregation should be initiated in the pilot wards.
Entire cycle of waste management to be enforced in the pilot areas, from segregation to end
processing.
Scaling up of the waste management practices from the pilot ward to the entire city.
The intermediate waste storage depot should be eliminated and a vehicle to vehicle transfer
system for waste collection and conveyance to be adopted.
Decentralized
organic
waste
management
practices
should
be
examined for the institutional and temple trusts. ( Refer Annexure-III, segment 4.4.3 )
CEPT, Ahmedabad
17
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
Waste handing should comply with the MSW handling rules 2000, and should be enforced
through multi party monitoring system.
Construction of the scientific landfill and the treatment plant / waste processing unit (5 year
design period) to be initiated immediately – 1 year
Institutional Reforms – M&E Systems ; Performance Appraisal Systems ; O&M ; MIS ( Refer
Annexure-III, segment 4.4.4.1 )
Waste minimization policies like eco labeling, green packaging to be instituted. ( Refer
Annexure-III, segment 4.4.4.3 )
1.7.7 Key Issue 7
Lack of specialized waste management practices in the areas like- Ghats, river, narrow
lanes and slums, in the sanctioned DPR
1.7.7.1
Rationale for Key Issue- 7
The DPR does not detail the specialized area waste collection like the Ghats, river and narrow
lanes in which the regular system of waste management can’t work.
The physical design of the Ghats and the activity patterns lead to technical challenges in the waste
collection at Ghats. ( Refer Annexure-III, segment 4.4.4.2 )
A large and un-quantified amount of waste, consisting of the Ghat sweepings and the pooja
wastes is being thrown into the river.
In the narrow lanes (2m and less) of the core city door to door waste collection is complicated. A
separate waste collection plan of these areas has been recommended. (Refer Annexure-III)
The DPR although identifies the slums as special area of concern does not specify the waste
collection and management strategies for the same.
1.7.7.2
Recommendations for Key issue- 7
A 100m strip along the Ghats to be declared as no plastic zone, this shall reduce the waste
generated. ( Refer Annexure-III, segment 4.4.2.5 )
Ghats to be cleaned between 3:00-5:00 am( Refer Annexure-III, segment 4.4.2.5 )
Formation of the Ghat police- from the local stakeholders like the boatmen, Mahants, Ghats
samities to maintain the Ghats and monitor the cleanliness of the same.
Organization and mobilization of the Boatmen association for cleaning of the river every day,
with custom designed boats. ( Refer Annexure-III, segment 4.4.4.2 )
A specially designed waste collection plan from the slums, involving the community has been
suggested. ( Refer Annexure-III, segment 4.4.2.4 )
1.7.8 Key Issue 8
Flooding of low lying areas due to poor storm water management in the city
1.7.8.1
Rationale for Key Issue- 8
There are low lying areas in the city which get water logged during the monsoons. The attached
map shows such areas in the city ( Refer Annexure-IV, segment 5.2.1.5 )
CEPT, Ahmedabad
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Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
Map 6- Low lying areas
CEPT, Ahmedabad
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Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
The waste thrown along the natural drainage nalas of Assi and Varuna lead to a reduced capacity
of storm water carrying. The waste thrown along the nalas as dumps is to the extent of 10 tonnes
per day. This waste is primarily street sweepings from across the city( Refer Annexure-III,
segment 5.2.1.2 )
Over concretization clogs the natural drainage pattern of the city.
1.7.8.2
Recommendations for Key issue- 8
The storm water drains should be covered to stop the garbage from getting inside the drains. (
Refer Annexure-V, segment 5.2.4.1)
The lakes and the kunds should be interlinked through storm water drains. This shall help in
recharging the lakes and also, distribute the surplus rain water, reducing the chances of floods. (
Refer Annexure-V, segment 5.2.4.2)
Rain water harvesting structures should be mandated for all new construction in the peripheral
areas of the city. ( Refer Annexure-V, segment 5.2.4.3 )
Urban design interventions should ensure that the concrete paving should allow rain water
passage through them. ( Refer Annexure-V, segment 5.2.4.7)
1.7.9 Key Issue 9
It is challenging to induce sanitation related behavioral change in people of Varanasi
owing to the religious and cultural habits and the setting.
1.7.9.1
Rationale for Key Issue-9
Varanasi is strongly rooted in its cultural traditions, wherein people believe that dying in the
Ghats, helps in the attainment if nirvana.
People believe in cleaning themselves before taking a dip in the holy Ganges. In absence of
sanitation infrastructure they resort to open defecation along the Ghats. This can be noted in the
map 1, wherein the major Open defecation hotspots are located along the ghats.
The flowers, diyas and offerings used in the poojas, are being thrown into the river, which
decomposes and deteriorates the quality of water.
The religious sentiments lead to any kind of demolition and construction activity difficult in the
Ghats and the areas around the temples.
1.7.9.2
Recommendations for Key issue- 9
A group of city level sanitation volunteers should be identified from the various stakeholder
segments in the city, who shall be responsible to sensitizing activities. ( Refer Annexure-VI,
segment 7.2.4.10 )
The Ghats should be adopted by the different groups of sanitation volunteers such as to initiate the
sanitation programs along the Ghats with the required awareness strategies. ( Refer Annexure-VI,
segment 7.2.4.3 )
IEC campaigns. ( Refer Annexure-VI, segment 7.2.4.10 )
Pilot proposals targeted at the most visited areas of the city that is, the Ghats, to improve the
overall sanitation and also improve the economic conditions of the area.
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Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
1.7.10
Key Issue 10
The institutional arrangement of the sanitation planning and management in the city is
fragmented
1.7.10.1 Rationale for Key Issue-10
There are multiples institutions involved at various hierarchal levels for sanitation in the city. (
Refer Annexure-VII, segment 8.2.2 )
There are vacancies in the sanctioned posts in the sanitation departments contributing to the poor
performance. ( Refer Annexure-VII, segment 8.2.1.2 )
1.7.10.2 Recommendations for Key issue- 10
A sanitation cell has been recommended which shall take care of all the sanitation and
environment related infrastructure in the city. It can be organized with different heads like water
supply and sewage, access to public toilets, solid waste management etc. ( Refer Annexure-VII,
segment 8.2.4.2 )
A city sanitation support unit may also be alternately suggested, which is like an advisory body,
which guides the various sanitation related interventions in the city. ( Refer Annexure-VII,
segment 8.2.4.3 )
Long term capacity building has also been recommended and the target group has been suggested.
( Refer Annexure-VII, segment 8.2.5 )
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Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
1.8 Action Plan
The Action Plan is basically a time dimension to the recommendations and shall be under the five pillars of the CSP. They can be vertically stratified according
to the sectors of CSP.
1.8.1 Technical
Access to public toilets
Immediate
Short Term
CEPT, Ahmedabad
Sewage Management
Solid Waste Management
Provision of 1 seat for 50 Abolishing manual Septage Identification of composting
users in the slum CDS.
handling
technologies and private
operators
Public toilets should be Provision of PPE to Sanitary
constructed
in
the workers
Pilot interventions to be
commercial areas and
scaled up to a more
Redundant Septic tanks to be
tourist areas
representative cross section of
made dysfunctional.
the city.
Urinals
should
be
Renovation/Rehabilitation
constructed
Removal of intermediate
and preventive maintenance
waste transfer stations.
of
present
sewage
infrastructure.
Provision of 1 seat for 25
The organic wastes from the
users in the slum CDS.
temples and the vegetable
markets should be composted
The planning design and
construction
of
the
Scaling up of the door to door
public and community
collecting to 40%
toilets should be done
through a DPR.
22
Quality of Water Strom
Supply
Management
water
Mapping of conflict Covering of open
points
between storm water drains.
sewer and water
supply networks.
Source Control.
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
Medium Term
The sewer lines are to be Scaling up of door to door
connected to the inspection collecting to 90%
chambers in the houses with
Identification of “wealth out
septic tanks.
of waste options”
Phased
provision
of
Infrastructure for Septage
Management.
Preventive
Development of city
maintenance
of specific
DRRWH
water
supply strategies and manual
network.
City Level ground
Distribution
of water
recharge
water testing kits at structure.
ward level.
Long Term
The requirement of STP over Waste minimization policies,
and above what is sanctioned, green packaging and eco
considering the demand has to labeling to be instituted.
be undertaken.
Decentralized
waste
Options for recycling of water management practices to be
for non potable uses should be initiated in the peripheral
examined
areas.
Interlinking of Urban
Water Bodies
Greener
Cremation
alternatives may be explored
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Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
1.8.2 Institutional and Governance
Access to public toilets
Short Term
Sewage Management
Solid Waste Management
Design and construction of Empanelment of consultants Creation of Ghat Committee.
toilets to be taken up through for scientific septic tanks
DPRs only.
design and construction.
Smooth Integration of Jal Kal
and VMC
Medium Term
Long Term
Formation of City Sanitation
Cell.
Filling of Vacant posts.
Collection efficiency and user
charge rationalization.
Development of community Policy Level intervention to Formation of river Police
score cards and tripartite provide sanitation services in
Demarcation and enforcement
monitoring systems
peripheral areas
of zero tolerance zones
Building permission in the
areas
without
centralized
sewage system, to be granted
only after ensuring scientific
sewage
management
mechanisms.
Integration
of
sanitation
management in the “Draft
integrated township policy”
CEPT, Ahmedabad
Cross Sectoral Interventions
24
Capacity Building- Trainings
and
Documentation
Practices
of
Best
Development of SOPs/ WI for
all sanitation departments.
City Level Sanitation Data
Base should be developed
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
1.8.3 Inclusive approach
Access to public toilets
Immediate
Short Term
Long Term
CEPT, Ahmedabad
Sewage Management
Solid Waste Management
Quality
Supply
of
Water
The user charges for the Decentralized sewage management Certain slum areas need to be taken Development
of
community toilets shall be in the un-served urban poor pockets up in the pilot stage.
separate water supply
HH based.
in the city.
schemes for the urban
Specialized waste management poor.
The O&M of the community Health insurance for sanitary
system involving the community as
toilets may be given to the workers
The
sanitation
suggested should be put to practice. infrastructure created
members of the community.
should be backed with
Cross
subsidization
of
water supply.
community toilets through
VIP toilets at the Ghats.
Policy Level intervention to provide Decentralized waste management
sanitation services in peripheral systems and recovery from wastes
areas
needs to be initiated.
25
Draft City Sanitation Plan for Varanasi
1.8.4 Capacity building and Awareness strategies
Cross Sectoral Interventions
Immediate
Knowledge needs assessments
Identification of target groups from knowledge dissemination
Exposure Visits to the cities with best practices
Organization of the city sanitation volunteers
Undertaking of pilot cleanliness drives
Medium Term
Declaration of zero tolerance zones
Special area adoption like the Ghats and urban poor pockets
Incentivizing the model wards
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Fly UP