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Dengue and chikungunya co-infection associated with more severe clinical disease than mono-infection

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Dengue and chikungunya co-infection associated with more severe clinical disease than mono-infection
International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, Volume: 03, Issue: 03, April 2015, Pages 117-123
Original article:
Dengue and Chikungunya co-infection associated with more severe clinical disease
than mono-infection
Bhooshan S. Gandhi1, Kaushal Kulkarni1, Manasi Godbole1, Shreya S. Dole 1, Shivani Kapur1,
Prajna Satpathy1, Akshay M. Khatri1, Priyanka S. Deshpande1 ,Fatema Azad1, Nikhil Gupte2,
Renu Bharadwaj1, Robert C. Bollinger2 and Amita Gupta2
1B.J.
Government Medical College & Sassoon General Hospitals, Pune, India
2Johns
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Corresponding author: Dr Manasi Godbole
Abstract:
Background: Dengue and chikungunya infections appear to be increasing in India. While Aediesaegypti is the
transmitting vector for both viruses and co-infection occurs in the same communities, studies on the clinical
significance of co-infection are limited.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-control analysis of consecutive hospitalized patients
presenting with febrile illness to the Sassoon General Hospital/BJ Medical College in Pune, India, who were
screened for serologic evidence of dengue and chikungunya infection. Fischer’s Exact test and Mann-Whitney test
were used to compare mortality and morbidity between patients with dual and mono-infection.
Morbidity outcomes included lowest blood pressure (in first 5 days of admission), requirement for intensive care and
mechanical ventilation, blood product transfusion requirement, as well as complete blood count.
Result: Co-infected patients had a higher overall mortality, than mono-infected patients (12% vs. 2%, p=0.04).
Requirement for mechanical ventilation & number of blood units transfused were greater for co-infected vs. monoinfected patients (2% vs. 0%, p = 0.02 and median 6 vs. 4units, p=0.03, respectively).
Conclusion: Our study suggests that dual infection with dengue and chikungunya viruses is associated with more
severe clinical disease, than mono infection. Further studies are required to determine whether our findings are
associated with simultaneous or sequential co-infections, as well as to study the underlying pathogenesis of this
association
Keywords: Dengue, chikungunya , co-infection, case control analysis, prognosis
Introduction
100 million annual cases of acute febrile illnesses
Dengue is an endemic arboviral infection which
worldwide, including more than 500,000 reported
affects the tropical and the subtropical regions around
cases of the severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)
the world, predominantly the urban and the semi
and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).Since 1996,
urban areas. * Dengue viruses (DENV) cause 50 –
dengue has been widely prevalent in India and
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International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, Volume: 03, Issue: 03, April 2015, Pages 117-123
reported from 18 States/Union territories, placing
(2)
associated with more severe disease than mono-
more than 450 million people at risk . Chikungunya
infections, we conducted a study of sequential febrile
virus (CHIKV) infection has been identified in nearly
patients presenting with clinical syndrome consistent
40 countries, and in 2008 it was listed as a US
with either disease in Pune, India.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Materials and methods
(NIAID) category C priority pathogen
(2)
.In India, it
is estimated that more than 1.5 million people were
(3)
Clinical Samples
This was a retrospective case-control chart review
. It is known to cause
which was conducted among consecutive patients
large epidemic of hemorrhagic fever along with
hospitalized with severe febrile illness to the Sassoon
dengue virus causing fever, crippling joint pains,
General Hospital/BJ Medical College in Pune, India.
lymphadenopathy, and conjunctivitis.
Thisstudywasapprovedbytheinstitutional
infected with chikungunya
the
ethicalcommittee.
(1)
urbantransmission cycle of both DENV & CHIKV .
A
In many areas of South Asia, the DENV and CHIKV
serologically screened for both DENV and CHIKV
epidemics affect the same communities, providing
between September and December 2010. There was
opportunities for Aedesaegypti to become infected
no sampling biasor any attempt to specially recruit
with both viruses. This increases the risk of human
patients
case
records
co-infection, either through a single mosquito bite or
ofthe364hospitalizedcaseswereanalyzedfor
the
via sequential infections.
clinical and the laboratory data.
Aedesaegyptiis
the
principal
vector
in
Human co-infection with DENV and CHIKV have
(4)
total
of
for
364
the
hospitalized
study.
The
patients
were
Laboratory Diagnosis
been reported in India since 1967 . Since DENV
DENV infection was defined as sera positive by IgM
and CHIKV share a seasonal transmission cycle and
Capture ELISA using a commercial assay (NIV
have a number of similarities in clinical presentation,
DENGUE IgM Capture ELISA Kit, Manufacturer:
they difficult to distinguish without specialized
National Institute of Virology, Pune), with a reported
serologic or molecular diagnoses.
sensitivity of 97.94 % and a specificity of 96.98 %
While risk of severe disease, particularly DHF and
(26)
. CHIKV infection was defined as sera positive by
DSS, have been associated with sequential infections
IgM Capture ELISA, using kits developed and
with multiple dengue serotypes and a variety of
evaluated by the US Centers for Disease Control
immunologic mechanisms, there are limited studies
(CDC), Fort Collins, USA (NIV ChikungunyaIgM
examining
sequential
Capture ELISA Kit, Manufacturer: National Institute
infection with DENV and CHIKV are associated with
of Virology, Pune ), with a reported sensitivity of 95
more
whether
severe
clinical
co-infection
(5,6,7,
disease
or
8,9,10,11)
.
The
% and specificity of 98 %
(26)
. Mono-infection was
pathogenesis of CHIKV is less well studied than
defined as a positive IgM assay for only one of these
DENV, with a variety of immunologic pathways
virus infections.
implicated to be associated with clinical severity
(12,
Co-infection was defined as a
positive IgM assay for both of these infections.
14, 19, 20, 21)
. To address the question whether DENV
and CHIKV co-infection or sequential infection was
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International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, Volume: 03, Issue: 03, April 2015, Pages 117-123
Clinical Assessment
similar (29 years and 26 years, respectively). Mono-
Documentation of the basic demographic information
infected patients with DENV were younger than
and patient mortality among the study population was
mono-infected patients with CHIKV (median 25
done. In addition, morbidity outcomes that were
years, range 9-76 vs. median 36 years, range 7-
assessed included the nadir blood pressure within the
72)The gender distribution of mono-infected patients
first 5 days of admission, the requirement for
with mono-infection and co-infection was similar,
intensive care unit admission, the requirement for
with the majority of both groups male (64% vs. 68%,
mechanical ventilation, the number of blood product
respectively). A higher percentage of mono-infected
units transfused, as well as nadir laboratory findings
patients with DENV were male compared to mono-
within the first 5 days of admission including platelet
infected patients with CHIKV (67% vs. 59%)
count, total leukocyte count and total serum protein.
Overall, 6 (1.6%) of the 364 patients died mortality
Directly measured hematocrit or estimated hematocrit
was higher among patients admitted with serologic
(i.e. hemoglobin g/dl X 3)
(27)
, were also documented.
evidence of DENV-CHIKV co-infection vs. mono
Data Analyses
infection.
Prevalence, median and range of demographic
died vs. 3 (2%) of 150 mono-infected patients (p-
characteristics, as well as mortality and morbidity
value = 0.039).
were compared between mono- and co-infected study
morbidity were more common among co-infected
subjects, using Fischer’s Exact Test. The association
patients vs. mono-infected patients. Two (8%) of
of duel infection with increased mortality and
patients with
morbidity
the
ventilation compared to none of the mono-infected
Anderson-Darling Normality and Mann-Whitney
patients (p-value=0.02). The median Units of Blood
Tests. (references?)
transfused to Co-infection patients were 6 (4-6 units)
Results
while that to mono-infection patients (150) were 4 (1-
Of the 364 consecutive hospitalized patients screened
20 units), and this was found to be statistically
for both viral infections, 25 (6.8%) were IgM positive
significant (p-value 0.0319; p < 0.05) [Table 2 ].
for both DENV and CHIKV. A total of 150 (41.2%)
Discussion:
patients demonstrated serologic evidence of infection
Aedesaegypti mosquito transmits both the Dengue
with only one of these viruses. Ninety-six (26.4%)
and the Chikungunya virus. Chances of co-infection
were mono-infected with DENV and 54 (14.8%)
are higher if the mosquito carries both the viruses and
were mono-infected with CHIKV.
The remaining
therefore the problem of co-infection is more
189 (51.9%) patients were IgM negative for both
pronounced in areas where both these viruses co-
viruses. The epidemic curves for DENV and CHIKV
circulate.
among hospitalized patients during this time period is
Clinical features are shared by both infections during
shown in Figure 1.
the acute phase like common symptoms of both the
Figure 2 shows the age distribution of hospitalized
diseases include fever, joint and bone pain, nausea,
patients with DENV and CHIKV infection. The
vomiting, headache, and fatigue. However, in our
median age of mono- and co-infected patients was
institution, all patients suspected of either Dengue or
outcomes
was
assessed
using
Three (12%) of 25 co-infected patients
A number of indicators of higher
co-infection
required mechanical
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International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, Volume: 03, Issue: 03, April 2015, Pages 117-123
Chikungunya are tested for both, hence eliminating
expected, the concerned authorities should be notified
the selection bias in our study.
in advance.
Though symptoms of these diseases are common,
From the clinical perspective, diagnosis of a co-
their outcome differs. Chikungunya is mostly non-
infection should alert the physician to be more
fatal while dengue may lead to severe complications
vigilant for complications. He should also frequently
including death. Thus co-infection may result in
monitor the laboratory parameters, especially TLC
illness with overlapping signs and symptoms, making
(Total Leukocyte Count) since it has been shown in
diagnosis and treatment difficult for physicians.
our study that patients with co-infection have higher
Hence it is pertinent to address the issue of co-
total leukocyte counts than mono-infected patients.
infections.
Conclusion:
These viral infections are most common few months
Our study suggests that dual infection with Dengue
after the monsoon i.e. the peak of both co-infections
and Chikungunya viruses is associated with more
and mono-infections was observed between first
severe clinical disease, than mono infection. Further
week of October and mid-November (according to
studies are required which will help in eliciting the
the Figure 3 of our study).
pathogenesis of this probable increased severity of
In our study we analyzed 175 patients out of which
co-infection.
150 patients were infected with either Dengue or
Limitations:
Chikungunya and 25 were co-infected. According to
The limiting
our study, deaths due to co-infection are higher than
unavailability of RT-PCR diagnostic test in our
mono-infection (12% v/s 2%, p=0.04). One of the
institution because it is not a standard of care.
study stated that individuals with co-infection appear
Although
to be more likely to suffer from complications and to
Chikungunya& Dengue for diagnosis of Dengue and
have a higher risk of death
[31].
This data is significant
factor
studies
of our
using
IgM
study could
antibodies
be
to
Chikungunya co-infection have been conducted
since there is no specific treatment for these
earlier (29).
infections but early detection and access to proper
Also our hospital being a tertiary care institute, some
medical care lowers fatality rate.
patients usually presented 5 days after onset of
Also patients having co-infection have higher
symptoms, thus limiting the use of RT-PCR.
morbidity and it is significant from our study that
Financial Disclosure:
there is greater requirement of mechanical ventilation
This study was supported by Nikhil Gupte for
and units of blood transfused in co-infected patients
printing of Data Collection forms.
as compared to mono-infection patients (2% v/s 0%,
.Author contributions:
p = 0.02 and 6 v/s 4 units, p=0.03, respectively). The
Among the masthead authors, this study was
hospital set up should therefore be well equipped for
supervised by Robert C. Bollinger, RenuBharadwaj,
providing services of mechanical ventilation since the
Nikhil Gupte and Amita Gupta. Bhooshan S. Gandhi,
requirement may go up during a co-infection
KaushalKulkarni, ManasiGodbole, ShivaniKapur ,
epidemic. As an increase in blood transfusions is
PrajnaSatpathy, Shreya S. Dole , Akshay M. Khatri ,
Priyanka S. Deshpande , Fatema Azadcarried out the
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International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, Volume: 03, Issue: 03, April 2015, Pages 117-123
data
collection,
analyses
and
prepared
the
and accuracy of the data and the analyses. The
manuscript. All the authors participated in these
corresponding author had full access to all the data
analyses and their interpretation, read and edited this
and the final responsibility to submit for publication.
manuscript, and decided to submit this manuscript for
Competing interest: There are no disclosures for the
publication. The authors attest to the completeness
individual authors.
Figure 2. Age Distribution of Hospitalized DENV and
CHIKV Patients
Figure 1. Hospitalized Patients in
Pune, India, with IgM Positive Serology for
DENV and CHIKV from 1 September to 31
December 2010.
Dengue Mono-infection
Coinfection
Chikungunya Mono-infection
14
Number of cases
12
Cases
10
8
6
Age group of patients
4
2
Dec27-31
Dec20-26
Dec6-12
Dec13-19
Nov22-28
Nov29-Dec5
Nov15-21
Nov1-7
Nov8-14
Oct25-31
Oct18-24
Oct4-10
Oct11-17
Sep20-26
Sep27-Oct3
Sep13-19
Sep1-5
Sep6-12
0
Dengue Mono-infection
DENV
Only
CHIKV
Only
CoInfection
Monoinfection
pvalue*
Total Patients
96
54
25
150
Deaths n (%)
1 (1%)
2 (4%)
3 (12%)
3 (2%)
0.04
Median Nadir
Systolic BP**
(Range)
104
(84190)
110
(80170)
110 (80120)
110 (80190)
0.54
Intensive Care
Unit Admissions
(%)
1(1%)
1
(1.9%)
1 (4%)
2 (1.3%)
0.37
Required
Mechanical
Ventilation (%)
0
0
2 (8%)
0
0.02
Required Blood
Product
Transfusion (%)
24
(25%)
4 (7%)
7 (28%)
28
(18.6%)
0.28
Median Blood
Product Units
Transfused
(Range)
4 (112)
6.5 (220)
6 (4-6)
4 (1-20)
0.032
Median
Hematocrit(%):
Median
(Range):
31.5
(2249.5)
39.6
(27-48)
39
(1549.5)
0.085
Chikungunya Mono-infection
Co-infection
Abbreviations:
DEN
Dengue
DENV
Dengue Virus
CHIK
Chikungunya
CHIKV
Chikungunya Virus
DHF
Dengue Hemorrhagic fever
DSS
Denguue Shock Syndrome
ADE
Antibody Dependent Enhancement
CMI
Cell-mediated Immunity
IFN
Interferon
TNF
Tumour Necrosis Factor
34.95
(1554)
Table 1: Morbidity& Mortality of Hospitalized Patients with
DENV and CHIKV Infection in Pune, India
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RRV
Ross River Virus
ELISA
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
HI
Haemagglutinattion Inhibition
RT-PCR
Reverse transcriptase- Polymerase Chain Reaction
DAMA
Discharge Against Medical advice
NIAID
National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases, USA
NIV
National Institute of Virology, Pune
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